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Training / Education
2015-06-15
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries. The focus is then directed to gasoline and diesel fuel injections, injector designs, and performance requirements for optimum engine operation with lowest possible emission of harmful pollutants.
Event
2015-06-04
Training / Education
2015-06-03
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels. The first day of the course begins with a brief review of the evolution of motor fuel through 100 years of performance and specification.
Training / Education
2015-03-02
In your profession, an educated understanding of internal combustion engines is required, not optional. This two-day technology survey seminar covers the most relevant topics - ranging from the chemistry of combustion to the kinematics of internal components of the modern internal combustion engine - for maximum comprehension. Attendees will gain a practical, hands-on approach to the basics of the most common designs of internal combustion engines, as they apply to the gaseous cycles, thermodynamics and heat transfer to the major components, and the design theories that embody these concepts.
Event
2014-12-11
With the integration of many subsystems, modeling, simulation and systems engineering take on a more important role in the design/development of new vehicle technology
Event
2014-12-11
Fuel cell vehicles are now being commercialized in various markets throughout the world. This session will look at various control strategies to maximize the benefits of this emerging technology.
Event
2014-12-10
As acknowledged by most of the autmotive stakeholders, future propulsion systems will be hybrid. This panel will explore option for 48V architectures, and develop the benefits and challenges. It will compare/contrast low voltage 48V solutions withhigh voltage solutions 200V to 1000V.
Training / Education
2014-12-03
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%. This web seminar will explore turbocharging for gasoline and diesel (heavy and light duty) engines, including the fundamentals of turbocharging, design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Event
2014-11-25
Event
2014-11-18
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. In particular this includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions.
Event
2014-11-18
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes consideration of combustion, and performance metrics such as power and efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Nadeem Yamin, Abhishake Goyal
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo Bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Event
2014-11-06
With the increased demands for fuel efficiency and fuel economy, the internal combustion engine (ICE) continues to be examined for design improvements to improve these measures. It is projected that OEMs and suppliers will continue to optimize the ICE at least through 2020. Focusing on the near- and long-term role of the ICE in advanced vehicles and highlighting this accelerating development and calibration; high efficiency combustion and controls; advances in turbo machinery, valve technology or ignition systems; and emission control challenges. Overall, the program may examine several technological advances required to maximize efficiency, including: • Advanced, low-temperature combustion techniques • Improved understanding and modeling of heat loss mechanisms • Electrification and intelligent control of accessory loads • Possible redesign of mechanical systems (e.g., variable stroke for fully expanded cycles) • High-efficiency turbo-machinery to extract exhaust energy and provide boost Emissions, Monitoring, Measurement, Control and Energy Savings Strategies for the Future.
Event
2014-11-06
Event
2014-11-06
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