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2017-11-28
Event
2017-11-14 ...
  • November 14-16, 2017 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2017-10-30 ...
  • October 30-31, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
In your profession, an educated understanding of internal combustion engines is required, not optional. This two-day technology survey seminar covers the most relevant topics - ranging from the chemistry of combustion to the kinematics of internal components of the modern internal combustion engine - for maximum comprehension. Attendees will gain a practical, hands-on approach to the basics of the most common designs of internal combustion engines, as they apply to the gaseous cycles, thermodynamics and heat transfer to the major components, and the design theories that embody these concepts.
2017-10-24
Event
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2197
Vignesh Pandian Muthuramalingam, Anders Karlsson
Owing to increased interest in blended fuels for automotive applications, a great deal of understanding is sought for the behavior of multicomponent fuel sprays. This sets a new requirement on spray model since the volatility of the fuel components in a blend can vary substantially. It calls for careful solution to implement the differential evaporation process concerning thermodynamic equilibrium while maintaining a robust solution. This work presents the Volvo Stochastic Blob and Bubble (VSB2) spray model for multicomponent fuels. A direct numerical method is used to calculate the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. The multicomponent fuel model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code and the case simulated is a constant volume combustion vessel. The CFD code is used to calculate liquid penetration length for surrogate diesel (n-dodecane)-gasoline (iso-octane) blend and the result is compared with experimental data.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vectors used in the transport sector but these fuels associated to CI engines are nowadays often criticized. Nevertheless, engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants. CI engines, with gasoline-like fuels, are a promising way for NOx and particulates emission abatement while keeping lower CO2 emission. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigations of pollutants are mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied the behavior of low RON gasoline soot generated with a CI engine. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of such fuel/engine technology on the HC emissions and on the DOC behavior. HC speciation is performed upstream and downstream DOC. Warm-up and efficiency are also tested for different operating conditions. Then, exothermal capacities are considered to ensure high level of temperature for DPF regeneration.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2268
Zhanming Chen, Long Wang, Tiancong Zhang, Qimeng Duan, Bo Yang
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled engines have been widely equipped on heavy duty vehicles both for fuel-economic and environmental protection concerns, however, they always suffer from deteriorated combustion performance and flame stability due to relatively low burning velocity of methane for lean mixture. In this paper, experimental study was conducted on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition, lean-burn LNG engine with methanol port injection. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure traces, heat release rate (HRR), mass fraction burned (MFB), ignition delay, centroid of heat release, position of CA50 and CA90, as well as cyclic variation of peak pressure were analysed under light load (BMEP=0.3876MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 5.2%, 10.2%, 17.2%). The experimental results show that combustion phase advanced with increment of MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2382
Tul Suthiprasert, Sirichai Jirawongnuson, Ekathai Wirojsakunchai, Tanet Aroonsrisopon, Krisada Wannatong, Atsawin Salee
One of the most important challenges on implementing Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) engine into the vast market is CH4 emission in its exhaust. This is due to the fact that CH4 is hard to oxidize at lower temperature environment of DDF exhaust comparing to that of conventional or bi-fuel engines. In addition, another parameter such as exhaust flow rate, specie concentration, especially CO, C3H8, and water have tremendous impact on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst performance on reducing CH4. Combining of all these factors together, a study of CH4 reduction is a major research problems that researchers around the world are keen to gain more fundamental understandings. In this work, a new CH4 kinetic model, which is based on Langmuir Hinshelwood mechanism, including CO, C3H8, and water is implemented into 1-D and 3-D Catalytic Converter models. The CH4 kinetic model is calibrated with the experiment by using synthetic exhaust gas generator.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2409
Erbao Zhang, Yinchun Gong, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Chuanqian Jiang, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Hydrogen fuel will be a potential energy source for internal combustion engines in the future. A promising approach for improving the efficiency and achieving zero-emission is to employ the noble gas argon. The work of this paper aimed at investigating the cyclic variation of argon power cycle engine with fuel of hydrogen. The engine has been modified based on a 0.4 L, one signal cylinder diesel engine into spark ignition engine with a port fuel injection system. The influencing factors on the cyclic variation in the argon power cycle engine with fuel of hydrogen, such as type of working gas, ignition timing, compression ratio (5.6, 6.9, and 7.35), and CO2 fraction in the mixture of argon and oxygen, were test in this study. The results show that compared to air, higher indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and better engine operation stability could be achieved under an atmosphere of argon and oxygen.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2354
Dave Horstman, John Sparrow
Due to recent legislation on CO2 emissions, Heavy Duty OEM’s and their suppliers have had an increased interest in improving vehicle fuel economy. Many aspects are being investigated including vehicle aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance, waste heat recovery, engine fuel efficiency, and many others. Crankcase lubricants offer a cost-effective mechanism to reduce engine friction and increase engine fuel efficiency. The potential gains realized by optimized fuel-efficient lubricants are relatively small, on the order of 1-3%. Therefore, in order to develop these lubricants, formulators must have a robust, repeatable, and realistic test method for differentiation. To address this need, Intertek has been involved with developing fuel economy tests for many years, starting with what became the Sequence VI test for passenger car lubricants in the early 1990’s. Most recently, Intertek has helped develop different FE programs to support the MD and HD diesel industry.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2326
Ang Li, Zhiwei Deng, Lei Zhu, Zhen Huang
In the present study a novel surrogate model for biodiesel including methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl crotonate (MC) was proposed and validated. In the binary mixture of surrogate fuel, MD was chosen to represent saturated methyl esters, which exhibited great low-temperature reactivity with typical negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior and MC represented unsaturated components in real biodiesel, which was mainly responsible for soot formation and evolution. The proportion of MD and MC was determined by matching the characteristics such as derived cetane number (DCN), molecular weight (MW), atom number, H/C ratio and unsaturated degree. All of the criterions were calculated by the least square principles and the calculated surrogate of biodiesel was comprised of 92% MD and 8% MC in mole fraction. Furthermore, detailed kinetic model of the surrogate fuel was constructed and developed with modifications, which was composed of 2918 species and 9164 reactions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2190
Alessandro D'Adamo, Marco Del Pecchia, Sebastiano Breda, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Jens Prager
CFD simulations of reacting flows are fundamental investigation tools used to predict combustion behaviour and pollutants formation in modern spark-ignition internal combustion engines. Most of the flamelet-based combustion models adopted in current simulations use the fuel/air/residual laminar flame speed as a background to predict the turbulent flame speed. This in turn is a fundamental requirement to model the effective burn rate. The consolidated approach in engine combustion simulations relies on the adoption of empirical correlations for laminar flame speed, which are derived from fitting activity of combustion experiments. However, these last are conducted at largely different pressure and temperature ranges from those encountered in engines: for this reason, correlation extrapolation at engine conditions is inevitably accepted and relevant differences between proposed correlations emerge even for the same fuel and conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2236
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Fabien Vidal-Naquet, Thomas Leroy
In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel SI engine leveraging a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gases concentration due to valve overlap and changes in the compression pressure and temperature due to variations of the effective compression ratio. In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. The fuel RON requirement at 2000 rpm and 6 bar BMEP ranges between 80 to 90 as a function of VVT, and between 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar BMEP.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2186
Lukas Urban, Michael Grill, Sebastian Hann, Michael Bargende
The development of IC engines is a complex process where 0D/1D-simulation tools became more important in the past few years. Different designs can be investigated in very early stages of the development process without the expensive buildup of prototypes and it is possible to get reliable results with passable effort. The quality of the overall simulation results depends on the quality of the sub-models. Simulation of the combustion process in natural-gas SI engines relies on predictive models for burn rates and knock. Existing knock models for gasoline fuels are based on a time-integrated ignition delay, using a fitted Arrhenius equation. Within a research project an enhanced knock-model approach for methane based fuels was developed. Chemical kinetics models were used to calculate the auto-ignition times for various temperatures, pressures and air-fuel-ratios (AFR).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2350
Chalermwut Wongtaewan, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Komkrit Sivara, Ken Hashimoto, Yoichiro Nakamura
In Thailand, most heavy-duty trucks were equipped with diesel engine, while a small portion was equipped with compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. However, in the past few years the number of CNG fuel trucks in Thailand has increased significantly due to the cheaper cost of CNG. In general, the emphasis of heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance is on piston cleanliness and soot handling properties, while thermal and anti-oxidation properties are most critical for CNG engine oil performance. For truck fleet owners who operate both types of trucks, using the inappropriate oil that is not fit-for-purpose can adversely affect engine performance and reduce engine service lifespan under prolonged usage. A novel CNG/diesel engine oil has developed by PTT to meet both JASO DH-2 performance for heavy-duty diesel engine oils and OEM requirements for CNG engine oils.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2247
Wenbin Zhang, Haichun ding, Shijin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song ZHAN, Yunping Pu
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2333
Marcos Gutierrez, Andres Castillo, Juan Iniguez, Gorky Reyes
The aim for cleaner and more efficient energy from the internal combustion engines makes necessary to ensure the conditions for the exploitation of alternative fuels. The vibrations on engines are primarily understood as effects of mechanical failures, but the engine vibration is subject of the fuel combustion effects too. This effects will depend on the fuel type and its capacity to be burned. The vibrations of a diesel engine were measured and analyzed with a frequency spectrum calculated with Fast Fourier Transforms. The engine was operated with a fuel blend from 10 % recycled lubricating oil with 90% diesel as well as only diesel. It was found the engine operation with this fuel blend has a lower vibration level in comparison with the use of pure diesel. The goal of this research is to determine the properties of the fuel blend, which provides more stability to the engine by means of vibrations reduction.
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