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2016-10-27
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2016-10-25
Event
This session focuses on work pertaining to the production and fundamental properties of new fuels and methods for assessing their performance. This will include work related to the issues of fuel stability, storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel stability, lubricity, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of inclusion of more than 7% biodiesel; the substitution of diesel fuel and gasoline with components other than biodiesel and ethanol respectively.
2016-10-24
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition, there are modeling studies and evaluation of components mainly in PEM fuel cell systems, hydrogen storage and hydrogen fueling.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2190
Qi Shi, Tie Li, Xiaoqing Zhang, Bin Wang, Ming Zheng
Taking advantage of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as selection of the two wavelength lights, the role of bandpass filters, and available measuring range, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has potentials in application in diesel engines, the characteristics of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2289
Ho Teng
In order to improve the low speed torques, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines often employ scavenging with a help of variable valve timing (VVT) controlled by the cam phasers. Scavenging improves the compressor performance at low flow rates and boosts the low-speed-end torques of the engine. This paper reports an experimental investigation on the engine combustion characteristics in the scavenging zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly-boosted 1.5L TGDI engine. It was found in this investigation that the scavenging zone was associated with the highest blowby rates on the engine map. The blowby recirculation was with heavy oil loading, causing considerable hydrocarbon fouling on the intake ports and on the stem as well as the back of the intake valves after the engine was operated in this zone for certain period of time. The low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) events associated with super knocks observed in the engine tests fell mainly in the scavenging zone.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2362
Mitsunori Ishii
A look at the differences in the composition of natural gas fuels on the market, meanwhile, shows that methane, the major component, ranges greatly in concentration from a maximum of 100% to a minimum of around 60%. It is known that this variation in fuel composition has a relatively large effect on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of automotive engines. To shed more light on this question, a survey was made of the differences in the composition of natural gas fuels sold by major suppliers in Japan. The effects of that variation on the air-fuel ratio and on thermal properties such as the heating value, which are important factors in the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, were examined. Moreover, a theoretical analysis was conducted to examine the intrinsic combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of natural gas as an automotive fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2364
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has recently increased due to its domestic availability and reduced price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the initial flame process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single cylinder research engine with geometry representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2363
Jonathan Hall, Benjamin Hibberd, Mike Bassett, Simon Streng
The complexity of modern powertrain development is demonstrated by the combination of requirements for future emission regulations such as RDE, reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions as well as customer expectations for good driving performance. Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a proven technology to reduce automotive fleet CO2 emissions. Additionally, alternative fuels such as natural gas, offer the potential to significantly reduce both CO2 and exhaust gas emissions without having to accept limitations on driving performance and driving range. This paper will present results showing how the positive fuel properties of natural gas can be fully utilised in a heavily downsized, 1.2 litre, 3-cylinder engine. The engine has been modified to enable the engine to cope with the considerable challenges to the mechanical and thermal load capacity of the engine when operating at high specific outputs on CNG.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2208
Zifeng Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Hao Cai, Pingping Sun, David Dieffenthaler, Victor Gordillo, Jean-Christophe Monfort, Xin He, Steven przesmitzki
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2209
Uisung Lee, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Jacob Ward, Elliot Hicks, Dan Goodwin, Rebecca Boudreaux, Per Hanarp, Henrik Salsing, Parthav Desai, Emmanuel varenne, Patrik Klintbom, Werner Willems, Sandra L. Winkler, Heiko Maas, Robb de Kleine, John Hansen, Tine Shim, Erik Furusjö
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel for use in specially designed compression ignition diesel engines. A key advantage of using DME is the potential for reaching ultralow levels of regulated emissions using simple exhaust aftertreatment technologies and the absence of soot. DME can be produced from natural gas or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas or renewable natural gas from waste streams. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of several DME pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model that is developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The DME pathways include small scale DME production from landfill gas, manure-based biogas and methanol from fossil natural gas (NG), and large scale DME production directly from fossil NG.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2210
Mark Walls, Shinhyuk Joo, Michael Ross
Autogas is not a new fuel for internal combustion engines, but as engine technology evolves, the properties of autogas can be utilized to improve engine and vehicle efficiency. With support from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed testing to quantify efficiency differences with liquid autogas direct injection in a modern downsized and boosted direct-injected engine using only stock gasoline fuel injection hardware. Engine dynamometer testing demonstrated that autogas produced similar performance characteristics to gasoline at part load, but could be used to improve brake thermal efficiency at loads above 12 bar BMEP due to the favorable octane rating and latent heat of vaporization of autogas. At higher loads where the engine was knock limited on gasoline, autogas allowed operation at or near MBT ignition timing, reducing the need for fuel enrichment to control exhaust temperature.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2254
Karin Munch
Heavy alcohols have properties that are suitable for mixing with fossil diesel and for use as fuel in diesel engines. Alcohols can be produced from fossil resources, but can also be produced in more sustainable ways from renewable raw materials. The use of biofuels can contribute to a decrease of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study includes four alcohol/diesel blends each with one kind of heavy alcohol. The chosen alcohols are n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. The rather low cetane numbers (CN) of the alcohols have been compensated by adding a third component with high CN, here hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) have been used. The mixtures were prepared to have the same CN as diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2259
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Fanourios Zannikos
The fuel supply chain faces the challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms. Microbial growth is an issue usually known to be associated with middle distillate fuels and biodiesel, however, incidents where microbial populations have been isolated from unleaded gasoline storage tanks have also been recently reported. Alcohols are employed as gasoline components and the use of these oxygenates is growing esp. regarding ethanol, which can be a renewable alternative to gasoline as well. Despite their alleged disinfectant properties, a number of field observations suggests that biodeterioration could be a potential issue in fuel systems handling ethanol-blended gasoline. The impact of alcohol-fuel blends on fuel microbial susceptibility has been the subject of few studies and additional work could contribute to the understanding of this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohols on microbial proliferation in unleaded gasoline fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2258
Yoshihiro Okoshi, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Yuta Mitsugi, Kotaro Tanaka, Masaaki Kato, Tomoya Tsuji, Mitsuru Konno
Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel for CI engines. DME features good auto ignition characteristics and soot-free combustion. In order to develop an injection system suitable for DME, it is necessary to understand the fuel properties. Sound speed is one of the important fuel properties that affects the injection characteristics. However, the measurement data under high-pressure corresponding to that in fuel injection system are lacking. Critical temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel fuel, and is close to the injection condition. Sound speed at critical point is theoretically 0 m/s. It is important to understand the behavior of the sound speed around the critical point. In this study, we measured sound speed in a wide pressure and temperature range of 1-80 MPa, 298-413 K, including the critical point. Sound speed in DME increases with pressure rises or temperature falls. It is approximately 400 m/s slower than that in diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2257
Hua LI, Liang Yu, Linqi Ouyang, Shuzhou Sun
The ignition delay time of toluene reference fuels composed of isooctane, n-heptane and toluene was studied in a shock tube under the conditions of medium to high temperature ranges, different pressures (10-20 bar), and various equivalence ratios (0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2) by reflected waves.Three different ternary blends, TRF2 (42.8% isooctane/13.7% n-heptane/43.5% toluene), TRF3 (65% isooctane/10% n-heptane/25% toluene) and TRF4 (87.2% isooctane/6.3% n-heptane/6.5% toluene), with the same Research Octane Number of 95 (RON=95) were constructed. The experimental results showed that there was an obvious negative correlation between the ignition delay time of the toluene reference fuels and the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio; and, a minimal discrepancy of TRF2, TRF3, and TRF4 was measured at pressures of 10 and 20 bar in a stoichiometric ratio. Based on Curran’s detailed kinetic model for PRF (primary reference fuel) (Combust.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2256
Kristin Götz, Barbara Fey, Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Jürgen Bünger, Markus Knorr, Olaf Schröder
The climate target of the European Union (EU) is the reduction of 40 % greenhouse gas reduction from the 1990s level by 2030 [1]. Currently the transport sector is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emission producer in the EU [2]. Drop-in biofuels can contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector and so as well the total GHG emissions. Diesel R33, a new developed biofuel enables sustainable mobility fulfilling the European diesel fuel specification and can reduce the GHG emissions of about 17 % versus fossil diesel fuel. Diesel R33 is made from seven percent used cooking oil methyl ester, 26 percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and 67 percent high quality diesel fuel. HVO was produced from rapeseed and palm oil. This new biofuel was tested in a fleet of 280 vehicles (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, off-road vehicles and urban buses) covering all emission classes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2263
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
In this study, macroscopic spray characteristics of Waste cooking oil (WCO), Jatropha oil, Karanja oil based biodiesels and baseline diesel were compared under simulated engine operating condition in a constant volume spray chamber (CVSC). The high pressure and high temperature ambient conditions of a typical diesel engine were simulated in the CVSC by performing pre-ignition before the fuel injection. The spray imaging was conducted under absence of oxygen in order to prevent the fuels from igniting. The ambient pressure and temperature at fuel injection timing were 4.17 MPa and 804K, respectively. The fuels were injected by a common-rail injection system with injection pressure of 80 MPa. High speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the evaporating sprays. From these images, macroscopic spray parameters such as liquid tip penetration length, spray cone angle and spray area were determined.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2262
Atsushi Shimada, Yuzo shirakawa, Takao Ishikawa
The internal combustion engine wastes large amount of heat energy. The heat energy accounts for about 60% of the fuel energy supplied to an engine. If the heat energy could be converted the output power of an engine, the thermal efficiency of an engine could be improved. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency of an engine has peaked because of the each combustion properties, such as knocking, narrow combustible range in spark ignition (SI) engine. The thermal efficiency of SI engine increases as the compression ratio and the ratio of the specific heat increase. If high octane number fuel is used for the fuel of the engine, the thermal efficiency could be improved. Moreover, if fuel can burn in dilute condition, the thermal efficiency could be improved further. Therefore, an exhaust heat recovery, a high compression combustion, a lean combustion are important methods for the thermal efficiency improvement. These three methods could be combined by using hydrous ethanol as fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2261
Maira Alves Fortunato, Aurelie Mouret, Chrsitine Dalmazzone PhD, Laurie Starck
The use of biodiesel has risen worldwide in the last decade. In Europe the authorized biodiesel content into diesel blends is 7%v/v (8%v/v in France). In Asia and in some countries in South America this percentage can go up to 15%v/v with prospects to achieve 30%v/v in some regions by 2020. In addition, different countries will use different biodiesel feedstocks to supply their needs which will depend on the resources available locally. In parallel with this feature, some problems due to biodiesel content and feedstock quality are largely pointed out in the literature, which includes cold flow properties issues of methyl esters, especially Palm Methyl esters PME. The present work was carried out on diesel-biodiesel blends from 0 to 30%PME in order to evaluate the impact of crystals formation on fuel filter plugging using a rig test. The fuel was maintained at 5°C and 20°C during soaking.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2260
Mitsuharu Oguma, Mayumi Matsuno, Masayoshi Kaitsuka, Kazuaki Higurashi
Improvement of thermal efficiency is an important problem for internal combustion engines. However, it’s not easy because of trade-off between increasing thermal efficiency and emission reduction. In SI engines, there are some measures to increase thermal efficiency such as high compression combustion, lean combustion, heat recovery, etc. If wasted heat energy from engine system can be reused in the engine system itself, the thermal efficiency can increase totally. Fuel reforming with dehydrogenation reaction by exhaust heat is one of the measures to increase thermal efficiency using hydrogen mixed SI combustion. For this kind engine system, hydrous ethanol has a good potential. Furthermore, when the hydrous ethanol inject to combustion chamber directory, high compression combustion can be achieved by its large amount of latent heat. Therefore, fuel lubricity is an important check point for the hydrous ethanol reforming engine systems.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2265
Ashraya Gupta, Dhruv Gupta, Naveen Kumar
The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium–large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity than conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2267
Maira Alves Fortunato, Laurie Starck
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of fuel injectors systems (FIS) as a result of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) which are related to fuel stability degradation and insolubles formation. Here, the impact of Diesel/biodiesel blends formulation and temperature on the fuel stability was studied based on total acid number (TAN), density, viscosity and surface tension. We have compared fuel ageing during storage with fuel ageing into the fuel injection system and determined the most important physical-chemical parameters that could be used to follow fuel degradation on-board. Based on the results biodiesel fuel tends to deteriorate during delivering and storage before refueling. Also, during engine running biodiesel autoxidation process starts showing a remarkable TAN increase on fuels remaining on return lines and injector tip.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2255
Martin Krieck, Marco Günther, Stefan Pischinger, Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Heinze, Matthias Thewes
Direct injection of LPG (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG fuel, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems (LPG PFI) to downsized gasoline DI engines. Furthermore higher combustion efficiencies are achieved with LPG DI operation compared to LPG PFI. For state-of-the-art gasoline direct injection engines, mechanically driven high pressure fuel pumps are used to compress fuel prior to injection into the cylinder. Since the thermal conditions of these pumps are considerably influenced by heat transfer of the engine, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in LPG evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump. This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2264
Mrinmoy Kalita, M Muralidharan, M Subramanian, M Sithananthan, Anil Yadav, Vivekanand Kagdiyal, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
World energy consumption has increased continuously for decades and expected to grow very fast with rapid economic growth in developing countries. In the current scenario of growing demand for petroleum fuels and highly volatile crude prices, the current usage of petroleum fuel must be curbed to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution. It is imperative to find an alternative renewable fuel particularly for transportation purpose. Butanol is one of the potential alternative fuels that can be burned in IC engines in the same way as gasoline.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2266
Roger Cracknell, Michael Bardon, David Gardiner, Greg Pucher, Heather Hamje, David Rickeard, Javier ariztegui, Leonardo Pellegrini
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been identified as a technology which could give both high efficiency and relatively low engine-out emissions. Use of gasoline in advanced CI engines offers a potential route to address an over-supply of gasoline and an under-supply of diesel and other distillate products. Such a situation exists currently in European refineries where the effort to maximise diesel output is detrimental to refinery efficiency and to CO2 emissions due to more intensive processing. The introduction of any new vehicle technology requires widespread availability of appropriate fuels. It would be ideal therefore if GCI vehicles were able to operate using the standard grade of gasoline that is available at the pump. However, in spite of recent progress, operation at idle and low loads still remains a formidable challenge, given the relatively low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions.
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