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2016-05-18 ...
  • May 18-20, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2016-04-12
Event
This session focuses on work pertaining to the production and fundamental properties of new fuels and methods for assessing their performance. This will include work related to the issues of fuel stability, storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel stability, lubricity, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of inclusion of more than 7% biodiesel; the substitution of diesel fuel and gasoline with components other than biodiesel and ethanol respectively.
2016-04-12
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2881
Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar, Soumya Roy, Naveen Kumar
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man’s energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2797
Meichun Peng, Yue Zheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Jiahao Wang
This paper studies the characteristics of fuel consumption and emission of city transit buses,and analyzes the fuel conservation and emission reduction rate of LPG-HEV buses relative to LPG bases. The run speed, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission,etc. of 3 LPG-HEV buses and 2 LPG buses were tested by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under real driving world of city transit buses at Guangzhou in China. The test data was analyzed, and the test results were compared between LPG-HEV buses and LPG buses. The study results show the buses run below than 35 km/h and in acceleration region of -0.5~0.5 m/s2 mainly, the average speed is 18 km/h. The average fuel consumption of LPG-HEV buses is 51.02 l/100km with a drop of 6.23% compared with LPG buses, and the fuel saving appears below than 25 km/h, the lower the speed, the more obvious the effect of fuel saving.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2813
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining durability. This is a potential path to help the US reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe; however, this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2808
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2819
Vasu Kumar, Dhruv Gupta, Mohd Waqar Naseer Siddiquee, Aksh Nagpal, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency.
2015-09-24
Event
Research and development efforts that enable the use of alternative energy sources for aviation, with emphasis on commercial aviation fuels and energies that can supplement or replace current crude oil-derived kerosene jet fuels. Environmental, technical, economic and logistical challenges found in the production and use of alternative jet fuels.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2563
Alberto Charro, Solange Baena, Joseph K-W Lam
Abstract The paper presents an extensive assessment of the hygroscopic characteristics of a number of alternative jet fuel blends. These are blended with conventional Jet A-1 to conform with current aviation standards at a 50:50 ratio by volume, except for DSHC (Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon), which is blended at 10% DSHC and 90% Jet A-1. Given the lack of information available on the water solubility of alternative jet fuels, an effective analysis of experimental data about this characteristic in six different alternatives was performed. These included four ASTM approved alternatives (two Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetics from coal and natural gas, one HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) derived from camelina and DSHC. An extra two alternatives currently under consideration for ASTM approval were also tested; ReadiJet and an ATJ (Alcohol to Jet).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2467
Luca Gallo, Bernard Tashie-Lewis, Panos Laskaridis, Paul Miller, Mark Husband
Abstract The present work focuses on developing an integrated airframe, distributed propulsion, and power management methodology for liquid-hydrogen-fuelled HALE UAVs. Differently from previous studies, the aim is to assess how the synergies between the aforementioned sub-systems affect the integrated system power requirement, production, and distribution. A design space exploration study was carried out to assess the influence of distributing motor-driven fans on three different airframes, namely a tube-and-wing, a triple-fuselage, and a blended-wing-body. For the considered range of take-off masses from 5,000 to 15,000 kg, the 200 kW payload power requirement under examination was found to re-shape the endurance trends. In fact, the drop in specific fuel consumption due to the engine design point change alters the trends from nearly flat to a 25% maximum endurance increase when moving towards heavier take-off masses.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2562
Tak W. Chan, Wajid Chishty, Craig Davison, David Buote
Abstract This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2477
Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Massimo Cardone
Abstract Blends of propane-diesel fuel can be used in direct injection diesel engines to improve the air-fuel mixing and the premixed combustion phase, and to reduce pollutant emissions. The potential benefits of usinf propane in diesel engines are both environmental and economic; furthermore, its use does not require changes to the compression ratio of conventional diesel engines. The present paper describes an experimental investigation of the injection process for different liquid preformed blends of propane-diesel fuel in an optically accessible Common Rail diesel engine. Slight modifications of the injection system were required in order to operate with a blend of propane-diesel fuel. Pure diesel fuel and two propane-diesel mixtures at different mass ratios were tested (20% and 40% in mass of propane named P20 and P40). First, injection in air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure were performed to verify the functionality of the modified Common Rail injection system.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2483
Thangaraja Jeyaseelan, Pramod S Mehta
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2484
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini
Abstract The third generation of biodiesels, derived from microalgae, is one of the most interesting options for the replacement of fossil fuels. While the use of first generation biodiesels on different types of compression ignition engines is well documented in the open literature, much less information is available on algal fuels. As a matter of fact, the influence on combustion and pollutant emissions is not definitively assessed, depending on the combination of the specific features of both fuel and engine. The aim of this paper is to analyze the combustion process in a small industrial engine fueled by an algal Biodiesel, blended with standard Diesel fuel. The blend composition is the one typically used in most applications, i.e. 20% of biodiesel and 80% of Diesel (B20).
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2453
K Abdul Rahman, A Ramesh
In this experimental work the effect of double injection of diesel in a biogas-diesel partially premixed charge compression ignition (BDPPCCI) engine was studied. Biogas was inducted along with air while diesel was injected through a common rail system using an open electronic control unit. Experiments were done at a fixed brake mean effective pressure of 2 bar and an intake charge temperature of 40°C. The effect of start of injection (SOI) of first and second injection pulses and also the biogas energy share (BGES) were evaluated. Experiments were also done in the BDPPCCI mode with diesel being injected in a single pulse and in the biogas-diesel dual fuel (BDDF) mode for comparison. The thermal efficiency in the BDPPCCI mode was better with double injection of diesel as compared to single pulse injection due to better combustion phasing. Improved charge homogeneity and reduced wall wetting of diesel lowered the smoke emission levels with split injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2459
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The use of direct injection (DI) engines allows a more precise control of the air-fuel ratio, an improvement of fuel economy, and a reduction of exhaust emissions thanks to the ultra-lean combustion due to the charge stratification. These effects can be partially obtained also with an optimized Air Direct Injection that permits to increase the turbulence at low speed and load increasing the combustion stability especially in lean condition. In this paper, a gasoline PFI (named G-PFI), gasoline PFI-methane DI dual fuel (named G-MDF) lean combustion were analyzed. The G-MDF configuration was also compared with a gasoline PFI - air DI (named G-A) configuration in order to distinguish the chemical effect of methane from the direct injection physical effect. The tests were carried out in a small displacement PFI/DI SI engine. The experimental investigation was carried out in a transparent small single-cylinder, spark ignition four-stroke engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2486
Ajay Singh Verma, M. Muzaffarul Hasan, Ashish Karnwal, Vipul Vibhanshu
Abstract The continuous growth of population and development of industries give rise to massive increase in the global energy demand in recent years. Therefore present work investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of an unmodified four stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine utilizing isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol)-diethyl ether blends with diesel. The different fuel samples were prepared using 10% isopropyl, alcohol 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD15), 15% isopropyl alcohol, 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD20) and 20% isopropyl alcohol 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD25) with neat standard diesel. All experiment tests were performed with at variable compression ratio 17 and 18 at different load conditions. The effect of blends and compression ratio on combustion parameters viz. peak cylinder pressure and rate of heat release along with exhaust emissions CO, CO2, HC and NOx, were investigated.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2461
Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In the present activity, dual fuel operation was investigated in a single cylinder research engine. Methane was injected in the intake manifold while the diesel was delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount on both pollutant emissions and combustion evolution in an optically accessible engine. Emissions are in line with those previously published by other authors, it is noted no PM and constant NOx emissions. Moreover, a decrease of the brake specific CO emissions and an increase of the brake specific THC for the operating condition with the highest premixed ratio was detected. THC was mainly constituted by methane unburned hydrocarbons. Combustion resulted more or less stable. Moreover, via both UV-VIS spectroscopy and digital imaging, the spatial distribution of several species involved in the combustion process was analyzed.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2478
Johannes Palmer, Mogan Ramesh, Valeri Kirsch, Manuel Reddemann, Reinhold Kneer
Abstract Targeted fuel blending is a known method to improve the performance of an automotive engine. Two candidates for a biofuel blend are the linear C8H18O isomers 1-octanol and di-n-butyl ether (DNBE). Both fuels feature an increased amount of oxygen that reduces soot emissions. However, physical properties of both fuels differ significantly and thus, a different type of spray mixing and combustion is expected: The low reactivity of 1-octanol causes a long ignition delay enabling a better mixture homogenization, but also causes HC and CO emissions. DNBE in contrary is highly volatile, has a short ignition time and thus can act as an ignition booster for 1-octanol without losing positive effects concerning emissions. In this work a spray study is performed for blends of 1-octanol and DNBE. Measurements are conducted under diesel-like engine conditions with an 8-hole piezo injector. High-speed Schlieren and Mie scattering techniques are used for spray visualizations.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2482
Wolfgang Mühlbauer, Sebastian Lorenz, Dieter Brueggemann
Finite fossil energy sources and carbon dioxide as a main cause for climate changes are still under critical discussion. Therefore, scientists work on the replacement of fossil by alternative diesel fuels from biomass. Hence, in this study the in-cylinder combustion and particle number emissions of di-n-butyl ether (DNBE), as a representative of second generation biofuels, and of reference diesel fuel (B0) for comparison were analyzed by several measurement techniques at different injection and boost pressures. The heat release rate and thus the ignition delay as well as the center of combustion were analyzed by monitoring the global in-cylinder pressure signal using a pressure sensor. The combustion process was also visualized by simultaneous imaging of the hydroxyl radical and a spectral range of soot luminescence. This allows the analysis of the in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2481
Karim Khiari, Lyes Tarabet, Sary Awad, Khaled Loubar, Rachid Mahmoud, Mohand Tazerout
Abstract These last years, much of researches were carried out to find the appropriate substitution fuel to the fossil fuels. The use of biofuel prepared from non-edible vegetable oils are becoming a promising source to produce a fuel for diesel engine, commonly referred to as “biodiesel”. Considering the high oil extraction yield (around 40%) and the great quantity of pistacia lentiscus (PL) trees available in arid and semi-arid areas of Mediterranean countries, it is selected in the present work to study the biodiesel prepared from PL oil. PL biodiesel is obtained by converting PL seed oil with a single-step homogenous alkali catalyzed transesterification process. PL biodiesel characterization, according to the standard methods, shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of conventional diesel fuel. In a second part, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine is used to test PL biodiesel at 1500 rpm under various engine load conditions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2485
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Christian Schulz, Philipp Adomeit, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-heptane as diesel-like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine it was found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions. For this reason now NOx is investigated optically to avoid the traditional soot NOx trade-off in diesel combustion.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2488
Martin Pechout, Ales Dittrich, Martin Mazac, Michal Vojtisek-Lom
Abstract Butanol, which can be produced from biomass, has been suggested as an alternative to ethanol, due to its higher energy density, lower oxygen content and more favorable hygroscopic and corrosive properties. In the Czech Republic, E85 is widely sold at fuel stations and used in ordinary vehicles, both with and without aftermarket control units. This work investigates the potential of ordinary automobiles to run on butanol, and the associated effects on exhaust emissions under real driving conditions. A Škoda Felicia car with a throttle body injection and a Škoda Fabia car with a multi-point port injection have been run on gasoline and its mixtures with up to 85% volume of ethanol, of n-butanol, and of isobutanol (2-methyl-1-propanol). An auxiliary control unit has been used with higher alcohol content. On each fuel, each car was driven 5-6 times along a local test route.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2490
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract Ethanol is the most promising alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines, that is blended with gasoline, typically. Moreover, in the last years great attention is paid to the dual fueling, ethanol and gasoline are injected simultaneously. This paper aims to analyze the better methods, blending or dual fueling in order to best exploit the potential of ethanol in improving engine performance and reducing pollutant emissions. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000, 4000, and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the European homologation urban driving cycle.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2492
Joachim Beeckmann, Liming Cai, David Schaback, Raik Hesse, Heinz Pitsch
Abstract Ethanol currently remains the leading biofuel in the transportation sector, with special focus on spark ignition engines, as a pure as well as a blend component. In order to provide reliable numerical simulations of gasoline combustion processes under the influence of ethanol for modern engine research, it is mandatory to develop well validated detailed kinetic combustion models. One key parameter for the numerical simulation is the laminar burning velocity. Under the aspect of minimizing the general simulation effort for burning velocities, well-validated models have to be reduced. As a base kinetic mechanism for the reduction and optimisation process with respect to burning velocity calculations, a detailed model presented by Zhao et al. (Int. J. Chem. Kin. 40 (1) (2007) 1-18) is chosen. The model has been extensively validated against shock tube, rapid compression machine and burning velocity data. The detailed model consists of 55 species and 290 reactions.
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