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2017-06-26 ...
  • June 26-28, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2017-04-06
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2017-04-05
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2017-04-05
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2017-04-05
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2017-04-05
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition, there are modeling studies and evaluation of PEM fuel cell cold start, analysis, turbo compressor and oxide supports.
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition,modeling and demonstration of novel fuel cell vehicle concepts are will be shown as well as hydrogen infrastructure, hydrogen storage and hydrogen fueling will be presented.
2017-04-04
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2017-04-04
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0755
Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Yongli Gao, Junhao Yan, Fushui Liu, Chia-Fon Lee
Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0546
Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Fabrizio D'Orrico, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola, Nicola Giovannoni
Conventional fossil fuels are more and more regulated in terms of both engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, oil price and political instabilities in oil-producer countries are pushing towards the use of alternative fuels compatible with the existing units. N-butanol is an attractive candidate as conventional gasoline replacement, given its ease of production from bio-mass and key physico-chemical properties similar to their gasoline counterpart. The compared combustion behavior of gasoline and n-butanol is tested on a single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) unit with optically accessible flat piston. The analysis is carried out at stoichiometric undiluted condition, lean-diluted and EGR-diluted mixture for both pure fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0874
Thorsten Langhorst, Felix Rosenthal, Thomas Koch
Throughout the world cost-efficient Naphtha streams are available in refineries. Owing to less processing, CO2 emissions emitted in course of production of these fuels are significantly lower than with conventional fuels. In common CI/SI engines, however, the deployment of Naphtha is considerably restricted due to unfavourable fuel properties, e.g. low cetane/octane numbers. Former investigations illustrated high knocking tendency for SI applications and severe pressure rise for CI combustion. Moreover, the focus of past publications was on passenger vehicle applications. Hence, this paper centers on heavy-duty stationary engine applications. Consequently, measures to increase the technically feasible IMEP with regard to limitations in knocking behaviour and pressure rise were explored whilst maintaining efficient combustion and low emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1003
Ye Liu, Gang Lv, Chenyang Fan, Na Li, Xiaowei Wang
The evolution of surface functional groups (SFGs) and the graphitization degree of soot generated in premixed methane flames are studied and the correlation between them is discussed. Test soot samples were obtained from an optimized thermophoretic sampling system and probe sampling system. The SFGs of soot were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after removing the soluble impurities from the soot samples, while the graphitization degree of soot was characterized by Raman spectrum and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The results reveal that the concentration of aliphatic C–H groups and C=O groups shows an initial increase and then decrease in the sooting history. The large amount of aliphatic C–H groups and small amount of aromatic C–H groups in the early stage of the soot mass growth process indicate that aliphatic C–H groups make a major contribution to the early stage of soot mass growth.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0711
Daniel Klein, Stefan Pischinger
The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on the soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the different bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol were investigated. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition as shown in a previous study. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr; however, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOx emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions over the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled to an advanced catalyst system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0654
Haiqiao Wei, Dengquan Feng, Mingzhang pan, JiaYing PAN
This article presents the effects of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), spark timing, compression ratio (CR), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the cyclic variation and individual cycle characteristics a of spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline, 2-methylfuran (MF) blends with various MF volumetric fractions from 0% to 100%. In addition, the coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) is used to quantify the effect of varying engine parameters on the combustion variation with gasoline-MF blends. The test results show consistently that the COVIMEP of gasoline-MF blends decreased (with increasing MF volume fraction) compared with that of gasoline. More specifically, when the spark advance increases, the COVIMEP first decreases and then increases for all the test fuels, and reached the lowest COVIMEP at maximum brake torque (MBT) spark advance for each of the test fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1285
Tarun Mehra
Exploring and enhancement of biodiesel production from feedstock like non-edible vegetable oil is one of the powerful method to resolve inadequate amount of conventional raw materials and their high prices. The main aim of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters of a biodiesel obtained from non-edible feedstocks, namely Neem (Azadirachta Indica) oil and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil, with response surface methodology using Doehlert’s experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the mixture A50S50 oil mixture at 51.0450 C over a period of 45 minutes are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 8.45, and catalyst concentration: 1.933 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters give the highest yield for the A50S50 biodiesel with a value of 95.24%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0734
Eshan Singh, Muhammad Waqas, Bengt Johansson, Mani Sarathy
The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures, comprising n-heptane and iso-octane, is known to exhibit non-linear octane response. However, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-15 vol% ethanol with each of PRF70 and PRF84. In the present work, the experimental conditions were utilized to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0817
Remi Konagaya, Ken Naitoh, Kohta TSURU, Yasuo Takagi, Yuji Mihara
Hydrogen will be used more from now in energy systems such as fuel cell systems, hydrogen tanks, chemical plants, rockets, and combustion engines. Hydrogen is supplied as gas jets for many cases of the energy systems. There are important experimental reports of penetration length and longitudinal coverage of various gas jets [Hamamoto et al. Trans. of Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1987]. However, the mixing process of hydrogen gas and air (or oxygen) is still mysterious on penetration length and longitudinal coverage, i.e., diffusion speed to the direction normal to the jet axis for various conditions. This is because, unfortunately, numerical simulations at the level of large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) for gases of multi-components and their experimental visualizations are not performed very much, whereas studies for liquid sprays of fossil fuels have been done extremely frequently until now.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0871
Alexander K. Voice, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver
Lubricity of various fuels was tested using a modified version of ASTM D6079, which uses a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The fuels were tested as received, and with various amounts of commercial diesel lubricity additives. Lubricity of the neat fuels was found to be the best for diesel certification fuel, and worst for light-end fuels. Among the light-end fuels, market gasoline and several formulated gasolines had slightly better lubricity than straight-run naphtha. Several commercial diesel lubricity additives were tested including those with organic-acid, ester, and arctic ester chemistry. All diesel lubricity additives tested were able to substantially improve the lubricity of the naphtha and gasoline fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0810
Jan-Hendrik Redmann, Maik Beutler lng, Jennifer Kensler PhD, Martin Luebbers lng, Roger Cracknell
In light of increasingly stringent CO2 emission targets engine development has been driven to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce energy losses. One strategy to reach this goal is the full utilisation of fuel octane. Octane is the fuel´s knock resistance, which is characterised as research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). Engine knock is caused by the undesired self-ignition of the fuel air mixture ahead of the flame front initiated with the spark. It leads to pressure fluctuations that can severely damage the engine. Modern vehicles utilize different strategies to avoid knock. One extreme strategy assumes a weak fuel quality, and to protect the engine retards the spark timing at the expense of combustion efficiency. The other extreme carefully detects knock in every engine cycle and retards the spark timing only in case knock is detected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0780
Dongwei Wu, Baigang Sun, Qinghe Luo, Xi Wang, Yunshan Ge
Hydrogen internal combustion engine has advantages in many aspects compared with traditional internal combustion engine. E.g. hydrogen is renewable energy and its source is more widely and more easily, so it can alleviate the traditional energy crisis; the hydrogen internal combustion engine has the higher efficiency and the lower emissions. The structure of hydrogen internal combustion engine is highly consistent with the traditional internal combustion engine, so users do not need to change a lot when using hydrogen internal combustion engine. The combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixture are great significance for the performance and control of hydrogen internal combustion engine and it is also the theory and technical difficulties in the process of designing hydrogen internal combustion engine. The model that can accurately predict the mixture combustion velocity in cylinder is very important. The combustion velocity is an important parameter for mixture combustion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0733
Mario Martins, Ivanir Fischer, Franciel Gusberti, Rafael Sari, Macklini Dalla Nora
Ethanol with high levels of hydration is a low cost fuel that has offers the potential to replace fossil fuels and lower atmospheric CO2 emissions. However, it can be of difficult ignition depending on the hydration levels. Combustion modes like HCCI have shown to be very tolerant to the water content in the fuel due to their non-flame propagating nature. Moreover, HCCI tends to increase engine efficiency while lowering emissions levels. This paper demonstrates the operation of a 3-cylinder generator engine in which one of the cylinders acts as a dedicated EGR producer for a dedicated ethanol cylinder operating with HCCI of wet ethanol. When the diesel cylinder is under low load, due to the excess air, it produces low combustion gases and becomes almost solely an air heater, Heat is then directly recycled back to the ethanol cylinder intake to promote autoignition of wet ethanol.
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