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2017-06-26 ...
  • June 26-28, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2017-04-06
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2017-04-05
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2017-04-05
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2017-04-05
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition, there are modeling studies and evaluation of PEM fuel cell cold start, analysis, turbo compressor and oxide supports.
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition,modeling and demonstration of novel fuel cell vehicle concepts are will be shown as well as hydrogen infrastructure, hydrogen storage and hydrogen fueling will be presented.
2017-04-04
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2017-04-04
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0874
Thorsten Langhorst, Felix Rosenthal, Thomas Koch
Throughout the world cost-efficient Naphtha streams are available in refineries. Owing to less processing, CO2 emissions emitted in course of production of these fuels are significantly lower than with conventional fuels. In common CI/SI engines, however, the deployment of Naphtha is considerably restricted due to unfavourable fuel properties, e.g. low cetane/octane numbers. Former investigations illustrated high knocking tendency for SI applications and severe pressure rise for CI combustion. Moreover, the focus of past publications was on passenger vehicle applications. Hence, this paper centers on heavy-duty stationary engine applications. Consequently, measures to increase the technically feasible IMEP with regard to limitations in knocking behaviour and pressure rise were explored whilst maintaining efficient combustion and low emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0780
Dongwei Wu, Baigang Sun, Qinghe Luo, Xi Wang, Yunshan Ge
Hydrogen internal combustion engine has advantages in many aspects compared with traditional internal combustion engine. E.g. hydrogen is renewable energy and its source is more widely and more easily, so it can alleviate the traditional energy crisis; the hydrogen internal combustion engine has the higher efficiency and the lower emissions. The structure of hydrogen internal combustion engine is highly consistent with the traditional internal combustion engine, so users do not need to change a lot when using hydrogen internal combustion engine. The combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixture are great significance for the performance and control of hydrogen internal combustion engine and it is also the theory and technical difficulties in the process of designing hydrogen internal combustion engine. The model that can accurately predict the mixture combustion velocity in cylinder is very important. The combustion velocity is an important parameter for mixture combustion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0733
Mario Martins, Ivanir Fischer, Franciel Gusberti, Rafael Sari, Macklini Dalla Nora
Ethanol with high levels of hydration is a low cost fuel that has offers the potential to replace fossil fuels and lower atmospheric CO2 emissions. However, it can be of difficult ignition depending on the hydration levels. Combustion modes like HCCI have shown to be very tolerant to the water content in the fuel due to their non-flame propagating nature. Moreover, HCCI tends to increase engine efficiency while lowering emissions levels. This paper demonstrates the operation of a 3-cylinder generator engine in which one of the cylinders acts as a dedicated EGR producer for a dedicated ethanol cylinder operating with HCCI of wet ethanol. When the diesel cylinder is under low load, due to the excess air, it produces low combustion gases and becomes almost solely an air heater, Heat is then directly recycled back to the ethanol cylinder intake to promote autoignition of wet ethanol.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0764
Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno, Carlo Beatrice
The paper reports the results of a wide experimental campaign aimed to assess the effects of the geometric compression ratio variation on the performance of light-duty diesel engines operated in dual-fuel NG-diesel mode in terms of fuel consumption, NVH and pollutant emissions. The single-cylinder research engine employed in the experimental campaign had a combustion system is representatives of a 2L automotive diesel engine for passenger cars. The test methodology was defined in order to analyse carefully the effects of the compression ratio, injection parameters and air throttling on the global performances and emissions, also in terms of emitted carbonaceous particles. Three pistons with different bowl volumes corresponding to compression ratio (CR) values of 16.5, 15.5 and 14.5 were selected for the whole test campaign.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0769
Pierpaolo Napolitano, Chiara Guido, Carlo Beatrice, Nicola Del Giacomo
An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction for carbon dioxide and is intrinsically cleaner, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the high duty engines category. An experimental research activity was devoted to the analysis of the potentiality offered by the application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG configuration on a light duty 2L Euro 5 automotive diesel engine, equipped with an advanced control system of the combustion. The test campaign foresaw to test the engine in dynamic and steady state conditions, comparing engine performance and emissions in conventional Diesel and Dual Fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Although low diesel fuel prices have reduced the appeal of natural gas (NG) engines recently, the CO2 advantage and low NOX and PM potential of NG makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and potential lower NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, traditional NG fueling strategies and/or poor air/fuel ratio control can result in significant levels of tailpipe methane (CH4) emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to the high global warming potential of CH4. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was shown to improve the brake thermal and combustion efficiencies over equivalent fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes in a previous publication.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0774
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly non-premixed combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I will investigates the effect of late post injection (LPI) and Part II will study the effect of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas late post-injections (LPI) was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder,15 liter HPDI engine. The post injection contains 10-25% of total fuel mass, and occurs after the main combustion event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0781
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0933
Yunhua Zhang, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu, Qian Feng
Biodiesel as a renewable energy is becoming increasingly attractive due to the growing scarcity of conventional fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the development of after-treatment technologies for the diesel engine brings new insight concerning emissions especially the particulate matter pollutants. In order to study the coupling effects of biodiesel blend and CCRT (Catalyzed Continuously Regeneration Trap) on the particulate matter emissions, the particulate matter emissions from an urban bus operated under steady and transient conditions respectively on real road equipped with and without CCRT (the same bus) fuelled with biodiesel blends BD10 (90% pure diesel and 10% biodiesel by volume) and BD0 (100% pure diesel) was tested and analyzed using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Results showed that the particulate number-size distribution of BD10 had two peaks in nuclei mode and accumulation mode respectively except the condition of high speed, which was similar to BD0.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0665
Hassan vafamehr, Alasdair Cairns, Mohammadmohsen Moslemin Koupaie
The experimental work was concerned with improving understanding of the effects of latent heat of vaporisation of different ethanol blends during heaving knocking combustion in modern spark ignition engines. The unique single cylinder engine employed included full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding unusually high in-cylinder pressures. Heavy knock was deliberately induced under moderate loads using inlet air heating and a primary reference fuel blend of reduced octane rating. High-speed chemiluminescence imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement were used to evaluate the combustion events. Under normal operation the engine was operated under port fuel injection with a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture. Multiple centred auto-ignition events were regularly observed, with knock intensities of up to ~40bar. Additional excess fuel was then introduced directly into the end-gas in short transient bursts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0865
Mark Walls, Michael Joo, Michael Ross
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly known as autogas when used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Autogas is primarily made up of propane, but can contain small amounts of butane, methane and propylene. Autogas is not a new fuel for internal combustion engines, but as engine technology evolves, the properties of autogas can be utilized to improve engine and vehicle efficiency. With support from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed testing to quantify efficiency differences with liquid autogas direct injection in a modern downsized and boosted direct-injected engine using the production gasoline fuel injection hardware. Engine dynamometer testing demonstrated that autogas produced similar performance characteristics to gasoline at part load, but could be used to improve brake thermal efficiency at loads above 12 bar BMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1292
Saiful Bari, Idris Saad
Diesel engine can be run with biodiesel which has the potential to supplement the receding supply of crude oil. As biodiesel possess similar physiochemical properties to diesel, most diesel engines can run with biodiesel with minimum modifications. However, the viscosity of biodiesel is higher, and the calorific value is lower than diesel. Therefore, when biodiesel is used in diesel engines, it is usually blended with diesel at different proportions. Use of 100% biodiesel in diesel engines shows inferior performance of having lower power and torque. Improving in-cylinder airflow characteristic to break down higher viscous biodiesel and to improve air-fuel mixing are the aims of this research. Therefore, guide vanes in the intake runner were used in this research to improve the performance of diesel engine run with biodiesel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0727
Ida Truedsson, Christine Rousselle, Fabrice Foucher
The transportation sector adds to the greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. One way to decrease this impact from transportation is by using renewable fuels. Ethanol is a readily available blend component which can be produced from bio blend-stock, today used in low concentrations in gasoline internationally. One some markets fuel containing up to 85 vol% ethanol is used. This study focuses on gasoline blended with 50vol% ethanol. The high ethanol blended gasoline was used in a direct injection light duty engine, originally designed for diesel combustion. Due to the high ignition resistance of the fuel, it required high intake temperatures of 180°C to achieve stable combustion at low load operation. To enable combustion with the lower intake temperatures more commonly used in commercial vehicles, ozone was injected with the intake air. Experiments were performed at intake air temperatures from 100°C to 170°C, at an engine speed of 1500 rpm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1287
Markus Sartory, Markus Justl, Patrick Salman, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell, Ewald Wahlmüller
As the availability of hydrogen filling stations is highly limited, cost effective and flexible solutions for decentralized hydrogen production are needed. Therefore a modular, scalable and highly efficient hydrogen supply infrastructure for industrial, automotive and mobile applications is developed and presented in this paper. The modular system design consists of a 35 MPa electrolysis system, an optional 70 MPa single stage compressor for automotive applications, storage and dispenser modules as well as the required peripheral components. The number of electrolysis modules can be varied application-oriented and therefore customer-specific solutions can be realized. The flexible concept can be adapted to the actual hydrogen demand and is optimized for any application regarding capacity utilization and cost effectiveness.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Shubham Gupta, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehardun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle comply with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0661
Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Carrie Hall
Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel which has attracted a lot of attention recently, in particular in the US due to shale gas availability. The higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, compared to gasoline, allows for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG allows increasing the efficiency at high engine loads compared to fuels with lower knock resistance. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC) resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state engine tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline (E10) port-fuel injection (PFI) and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios (CR), 10.5 and 12.5.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1069
Igor Trevas, Adm José baeta, Charles Pimenta, Heder Fernandes, Matheus Carvalho, Raphael Montemor
Variable Valve Actuation system (VVA) is a technology developed for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance mainly by reducing pumping losses. Many automakers have used VVA in their engine projects with excellent results. Usually, VVA systems are built to control the valve events in four different ways: changing the amplitude of the valve lift, the valve open angle, the valve close angle or a combination of those modes. A special attention at the calibration activity is needed to reach the optimum performance of this system, beyond this, it was necessary to develop a different way to calibrate, much more focused in the development of the combustion and the gas exchange process requiring an intense use of a pressure indicating system. This work presents a comparison between different way of actuation in combustion analysis of a VVA system on a spark ignition engine.
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