Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 5186
Training / Education
2015-06-03
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels. The first day of the course begins with a brief review of the evolution of motor fuel through 100 years of performance and specification.
Event
2014-11-18
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. In particular this includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions.
Event
2014-11-18
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes consideration of combustion, and performance metrics such as power and efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Nadeem Yamin, Abhishake Goyal
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Event
2014-10-23
Papers for this session on the general topic of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes hydrocarbon species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components, specific NOx species production over catalytic devices, well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andrew Smallbone, Amit Bhave, Peter Man
In this paper we combine experimental data, physics-based models and advanced numerical techniques to investigate 1) sources of friction losses in heavy-duty IC engines and, 2) fuel efficiency losses (and CO2 sources) in an engine and vehicle model over 160 ‘real-world’ and legislated drive cycles. These two applications are both typical examples where a multi-dimensional design space means that it is challenging to interpret and communicate the influence of each design parameter effectively and identify those of most importance for your chosen objective. In this paper, the authors present new methods to support a) the parameter estimation (model calibration) with respect to experimental data and, b) advanced global sensitivity analysis using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR).
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohsen Salem Radwan, Osayed Sayed Mohamed Abu-Elyazeed, Y. A. Attai, M. E. Morsy
Jojoba bio-diesel is one of the most promising bio-fuels to substitute gas oil in diesel engines. Therefore, since the ignition delay is an important parameter in combustion, emissions and engine noise , the present work was dedicated to measure and correlate the pressure rise ignition delay of jojoba bio-diesel and its blends with gas oil behind incident shock waves. For this purpose, a shock tube test set up was designed and manufactured. It was fully instrumented for delay measurement with two piezo-electric pressure transducers, dual mode charge amplifier, data acquisition card and a computer with suitable LabVIEW software. The test variables included the type of fuel (percentage of Jojoba bio-diesel in the blend with gas oil), equivalence ratio, ignition temperature and ignition pressure. It was found that jojoba bio-diesel exhibited a lower ignition delay in comparison with that of gas oil. Rich or lean mixtures produce long delays, whilst the minimum delay occurred near the stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on spray and soot formation. We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated bio-fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. The numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). We conducted a 3-D numerical study using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting a gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model, including soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. In this numerical study, the ambience temperature and density were set at 900 K and 12 g/cm3, respectively to reproduce the in-cylinder conditions almost similar to a low load and speed condition in the ordinary light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andreas Schmid, Beat Von Rotz, German Weisser, Kai Herrmann
During their lifetime, marine diesel engines are operated with a broad variety of fuels and fuel qualities. For their commissioning, the engines run on marine diesel oil whereas the rest of their rather long service life the engines mostly experience a variety of heavy fuel oils with a broad spectra of qualities. Especially viscosity, density, aromatic content and cetane number vary significantly depending on origin and batch number of the bunkered fuel. To ensure reliable engine operation irrespective of fuel quality, manufacturers have to make sure that injection systems and in-cylinder conditions allow the application of these fuels throughout the operating range. To do so, the optimization of combustion systems of large 2-stroke marine diesel engines still relies largely on extensive testing. However, experiments are more and more supported by CFD simulations, in spite of limitations regarding the applicability of the available spray, evaporation, combustion and emissions formation models to those systems.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pedro M. Barroso, Judith Dominguez, Mario Pita Sr, Xavier Ribas
An experimental study was carried out in order to determine the effect on performance and pollutant emissions of converting an existing heavy-duty diesel engine for alternative fuel use. More specifically, a HD diesel engine used in commercial vehicle applications with Euro II baseline emission level was studied in two ways: on the one hand the diesel engine was converted to a dedicated lean burn CNG engine and on the other hand the baseline diesel engine was converted to a dual-fuel engine (diesel + LPG) with multi-point LPG injection in the intake cylinder ports. The CNG engine conversion was achieved by means of some important modifications, such as the reduction of the compression ratio by increasing the volume of the combustion chamber in the piston, the design of a spark plug adapter for the installation of the spark plugs in the cylinder head, the design of a gas injection system to attain efficient multi-point gas flow and injection, and the implementation of a complete electronic management system by means of an engineered gas ECU.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amrit Singh, David Anderson, Mark Hoffman, Zoran Filipi, Robert Prucka
The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with the addition of intake fumigated natural gas. Fumigated dual-fuel systems replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated. A heavy duty diesel engine with the capability of running both natural gas and diesel is operated at points where knock occurs and the cylinder pressure traces are recorded.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Marek Flekiewicz, Grzegorz Kubica, Bartosz Flekiewicz
THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IN SI ENGINES FOR SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS Abstract The analysis of overall performance of the engine powered by selected gaseous fuels has been presented in this paper. Primary objective of the research was to determine the influence of fuel type on efficiency of energy conversion in the tested engine. The scope of the research featured: • the application low-carbon fuels, • the use of DME as a renewable fuel in blends with LPG. The use of low-carbon gaseous fuels gives the opportunity to reduce exhaust emissions. Changes in global economy including energy sources, are currently oriented onto the gradual replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources. World widely present activities include promotion of alternative fuel systems both in the vehicles as well as in stationary engines. The basic assumption in the presented research was the use of gaseous fuels, which main component is methane. The main problem taken into consideration was excessive duration of the combustion process, which is one of the causes of the engine overall efficiency reduction when running on gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jay Anderson, Scott Miers, Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
In recent years, increasing difficulty of crude oil production combined with rising oil prices and the popularization of green motoring have fostered greater research interest in alternative combustion fuels. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fuel that provides beneficial combustion properties, low tailpipe emissions and benefits from significant domestic production resources in the United States. Mainly because of these factors, CNG has begun see utilization in passenger vehicles. This work seeks to provide a practical evaluation of CNG as compared to gasoline as a fuel for use in passenger vehicle engines. To this end, two similar compact sedans were selected. The first is equipped with a gasoline combustion engine, while the second is powered by a modified version of this engine fueled with CNG. Both vehicles are factory configurations available for purchase. The vehicles were subjected to a number of chassis dynamometer tests including the UDDS, HWFET and US06 driving schedules as well as selected steady state testing.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Schaberg, Mark Wattrus
In many countries fuel standards permit the limited addition of FAME to diesel fuel. For example, in Europe, diesel fuel complying with the EN590:2009 regulation may contain up to 7% FAME, and the low carbon fuel standards being considered in many regions encourage the consideration of even higher levels of FAME addition. Standards organisations such as CEN, ASTM, and CARB are also contemplating standards for paraffinic diesel fuels such as GTL (Gas-to-Liquids) diesel and HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil), an example being CEN Technical Standard 15940:2012. Since these standards may also allow the addition of FAME, it was decided to perform an extensive evaluation of the properties and performance of blends of GTL diesel and FAME, including emissions performance which is reported on in this paper. Fuels that were variously considered in the study were blends of GTL and EN590 diesel containing 0, 7, and 20 vol% of SME and RME (Soy and Rapeseed Methyl Ester). Part of the study focussed on European engine technology, and tests were performed on a Euro 4 passenger vehicle and engine, and a Euro V heavy-duty engine.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5186

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: