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2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-04-23
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2015-04-23
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1085
Marc C. Besch, Joshua Israel, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Hemanth Kappanna, Daniel Carder
Abstract This study was aimed at experimentally investigating the impact of diesel/natural gas (NG) dual-fuel retrofitting onto gaseous emissions emitted by i) legacy, model year (MY) 2005 heavy-duty engines with cooled EGR and no after-treatment system, and ii) a latest technology engine equipped with DPF and urea-SCR after-treatment systems that is compliant with 2010 US-EPA emissions standards. In particular, two different dual-fuel conversion kits were evaluated in this study with pure methane (CH4) being used as surrogate for natural gas. Experiments were conducted on an engine dynamometer over a 13-mode steady-state test cycle as well as the transient FTP required for engine certification while gaseous emissions were sampled through a CVS system. Tailpipe NOx emissions were observed at a comparable level for diesel and diesel/CH4 dual-fuel operation for the 2010 compliant engine downstream the SCR.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
Abstract As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1177
Steven Mathison, Kiyoshi Handa, Timothy McGuire, Tyler Brown, Todd Goldstein, Michael Johnston
Abstract Appendix H of the SAE J2601 standard defines a development hydrogen fueling protocol named the MC Default Fill, which builds upon the foundation of the table based protocol, utilizing the same assumptions, boundary conditions, and process limits as the current standard. The MC Default Fill facilitates the following beyond the table based protocol: 1) the potential to provide faster, more consistent fueling times for fuel cell electric vehicle customers, and 2) the ability to continuously and dynamically adjust to a wide range of dispenser fuel delivery temperatures, allowing for more flexibility in station design. Computer simulations and laboratory bench tests were previously conducted and documented, validating the function and operation of the protocol.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0521
Yong-Yuan Ku, Ta-Wei Tang, Ko Wei Lin, Steven Chan
With the development of world economy, the shortage in the supply of oil energy as well as the greenhouse effect have become a public concern around the world. The application of biodiesel on vehicle transportation has become the focus of development in many countries. Biodiesel, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), is made during the process of transesterification of the animal and vegetable oils. Compared with fossil diesel, biodiesel has some characteristics, such as organic acid, higher water saturation, and oxygen content. From the results of the literatures [1] to [5], it showed that biodiesel would cause the inflation of some plastic and flexible products and the corrosion of metal materials. Metal fuel tanks have the characteristics of high flammability, high impact resistance, and good workability and are often used in commercial vehicles. The corrosion of metal materials is a natural chemical change and it can be influenced by the environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0611
Aref M. A. Soliman, Mina M.S. Kaldas
Abstract This paper presents experimental and theoretical investigations for ride comfort performance of compressed natural gas fuelled car. A compressed natural gas and gasoline fuel are used to run the engine car and its effect on the vehicle ride comfort is evaluated. The ride comfort performance in terms of experimental Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the vertical acceleration at near driver's feet on the floor, on the front and back seat for the same passenger car fuelled by gasoline and natural gas is evaluated. Furthermore, seven degrees of freedom vehicle mathematical model is developed, and validated through laboratory tests. The validation process is performed by comparing the predicted RMS values of the vertical accelerations with the measured RMS values. Furthermore, the optimum values of vehicle suspension parameters are obtained through the validated vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Yahaya Alhassan, Amar Deep
Abstract Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus the need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks has risen. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with the production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (°C) were considered the significance factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
Abstract The depletion of resources, increased cost of fossil fuel and increased environmental awareness reaching the critical condition. Development of viable alternative fuels from renewable resources is gaining the international attention and acceptance. The vegetable oils have the potential of alternative fuel for compression ignition engines by converting it into biodiesel. The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1679
Lynn C. McLean, Mohamed El-Sayed
Abstract Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, is a byproduct of both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. As a chemical, propane (C3H8) is a nontoxic, colorless, and virtually odorless hydrocarbon. It is economical to store and transport in liquefied form. Due its availability and adoptability as engine fuel, propane is quickly becoming one of the viable alternatives fueling 17 million vehicles worldwide. So far, there are about 270,000 propane fueled vehicles in the U. S. This number represents about 1.6 percent of the world propane fueled vehicles. In this paper, a commercial viability a multi-year cost study of captive fleet buses is conducted for LPG as alternative mass transportation fuel in comparison with gasoline and diesel. The study is based on more than four million of recorded mass transportation service miles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Abstract Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram D. Jadhav, Madhukar S Tandale
Abstract The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In present study, the transesterification processes with heterogeneous catalyst. The various input parameters like methanol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO), catalyst concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) were studied by applying the orthogonal experimental array L9.ANOVA (F-test at P=0.05 contribution of each signal to noise factor) technique was used for optimization with the objective of maximizing the yield of high quality mangifera indica oil biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1681
Girish Khairnar, Jagrit Shrivas, Sachin Pande, Rohit Londhe, Yaser Hussaini, Yogesh Ambekar
Abstract Last mile transportation is an important supply chain and transportation requirement for the movement of people and goods from a transport hub to a final destination in that area. In India this requirement is largely met by 3 wheelers and small 4 wheelers (below 1 ton payload). Greaves cotton Ltd. (GCL) has played an important role for last mile transportation solutions in India by developing suitable engines for the above category vehicles. GCL is already supplying single cylinder air cooled 400 cc diesel / CNG, 435 cc & 510 cc diesel and 510 cc water cooled CNG BSIII engines for 3 wheeler applications. Single cylinder water cooled 510 cc and 611 cc BSIII diesel engines are being supplied for small commercial 4 wheeler applications. In India, BSIV emission norms are in place since April 2010 in metro cities for 4 wheelers. CNG network is well established in most of these cities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Abstract This article experimentally characterizes the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline. The experiments have been conducted for different engine speeds at various throttle positions. The experimental results demonstrated that engine brake power and brake thermal efficiency increased to certain extent and then decreases with the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel blend. The experimental results revealed that heat release and cylinder pressure increased with addition of hydrogen fraction till 20%. It also showed the reduction in HC and CO emissions in comparison with pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
Abstract The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested. These vehicles are powered by 4-strokes engines with a displacement ranging from 50 to 250 cm3 and a power ranging from 3.0 to 16.5 kW.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0963
Miao Tian, Robin Van Haaren, Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot
Abstract Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead. Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0960
Thomas Huelser, Daniel Klein, Benedikt Heuser, Thorsten Brands, Christian Schulz, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract With increasing interest in new biofuel candidates, 1-octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE) were presented in recent studies. Although these molecular species are isomers, their properties are substantially different. In contrast to DNBE, 1-octanol is almost a gasoline-type fuel in terms of its auto-ignition quality. Thus, there are problems associated with engine start-up for neat 1-octanol. In order to find a suitable glow-plug position, mixture formation is studied in the cylinder under almost idle operating conditions in the present work. This is conducted by planar laser-induced fluorescence in a high-speed direct-injection optical diesel engine. The investigated C8-oxygenates are also significantly different in terms of their evaporation characteristics. Thus, in-cylinder mixture formation of these two species is compared in this work, allowing conclusions on combustion behavior and exhaust emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0958
Naveen Kumar, Sidharth Bansal, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract Concerns about long term availability of petroleum based fuels and stringent environmental norms have been a subject for deliberations around the globe. The vegetable oil based fuels and alcohols are very promising alternative fuels for substitution of diesel, reduce exhaust emissions and to improve combustion in diesel engines which is mainly possible due to oxygenated nature of these fuels. Jatropha oil is important non-edible oil in India which is either used in neat or modified form as diesel fuel. Furthermore n-butanol is renewable higher alcohol having properties quite similar to diesel fuel. In the present study, n-butanol was blended in Jatropha Oil (JO) and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JME) on volumetric basis (10 and 20%). The blends were homogeneous and stable and there was no phase separation. The different physicochemical properties of blends were evaluated as per relevant standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0955
Hejun Guo, Qining Xun, Shenghua Liu, Xuanjun Wang
Abstract In the present paper, a new biofuel ethylene glycol monomethyl ether soyate has been developed. The biofuel was synthesized with a refined soybean oil and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as reactants and sodium as catalyst under 90°C. The synthesized crude product was purified and structurally identified through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FT-IR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analyses. The physicochemical properties of the biofuel and its addition effects on properties of diesel fuel were measured according to China national standard test methods. A single cylinder diesel engine was employed to evaluate the influences of the biofuel on engine fuel economy and engine-out emissions of CO, HC, NOx and smoke.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0950
Jonas Galle, Roel Verschaeren, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract The need for simulation tools for the internal combustion engine is becoming more and more important due to the complex engine design and increasingly strict emission regulation. One needs accurate and fast models, but fuels consist of a complex mixture of different molecules which cannot realistically be handled in computations. Simplifications are required and are realized using fuel surrogates. The main goal of this work is to show that the choice of the surrogates is of importance if simplified models are used and that the performance strongly depends upon the sensitivity of the fuel properties that refer to the main model hypotheses. This paper starts with an overview of surrogates for diesel and bio-diesel as well as the motivation for choosing them. Next, a phenomenological model for vaporizing fuel-sprays is implemented to assess how well-known surrogates for diesel and bio-diesel affect the obtained results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0937
Philip Zoldak, Joel John Joseph, William Shelley, Jaclyn Johnson, Jeffrey Naber
Abstract The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) diesel engines to NG fuel and combustion systems (compressed or liquefied). The intention is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining or improving overall vehicle fuel economy. This is a potential path to help the US achieve energy diversity and reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-injected, premixed NG spark-ignited combustion systems have been used for medium and heavy duty engines with widespread use in the US and Europe. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0932
Satoru Sasaki, Masaaki Kato, Takamasa Yokota, Mitsuru Konno, Denis Gill
Abstract DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines for nearly twenty years. DME has a vapour pressure of approximately 0.5MPa at ambient temperature (293K), thus it requires pressurized fuel systems to keep it in liquid state which are similar to those for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (mixtures of propane and butane). The high vapour pressure of DME permits the possibility to optimize the fuel injection characteristic of direct injection diesel engines in order to achieve a fast evaporation and mixing with the charged gas in the combustion chamber, even at moderate fuel injection pressures. To understand the interrelation between the fuel flow inside the nozzle spray holes tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with modelling approaches for the fuel flow, cavitation, evaporation and the gas dynamics of 2-phase (liquid and gas) flows.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0770
Mehrdad Afshari, Jafar Hashemi Daryan, Seyed Ali Jazayeri, Reza Ebrahimi, Farshad Salimi Naneh Karan
Abstract Currently, the interest in using alternative clean types of fuels has been extensively increased all over the world because of the global approach in reducing engine emissions and creating new sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. The hydrogen-methane blend is one of the alternative fuels which includes the benefits of both of the fuels compared to the traditional petrol/gasoline fuel. This paper addresses a two-zone quasi-dimensional model to investigate the performance of an SI engine which uses a mixture of methane and hydrogen. In this model, gases inside the cylinder are divided into two regions: burned and the unburned. The chemical reactions are supposed to be in equilibrium in each zone, but the extended Zedlovich mechanism is utilized to determine the amount of the NOx available in the exhaust gas. Also, CO concentration is determined by two steps kinematic reactions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0768
Louis Sileghem, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract Stricter CO2 and emissions regulations are pushing spark ignition engines more and more towards downsizing, enabled through direct injection and turbocharging. The advantages which come with direct injection, such as increased charge density and an elevated knock resistance, are even more pronounced when using low carbon number alcohols instead of gasoline. This is mainly due to the higher heat of vaporization and the lower air-to-fuel ratio of light alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. These alcohols are also attractive alternatives to gasoline because they can be produced from renewable resources. Because they are liquid, they can be easily stored in a vehicle. In this respect, the performance and engine-out emissions (NOx, CO, HC and PM) of methanol, ethanol and butanol were examined on a 4 cylinder 2.4 DI production engine and are compared with those on neat gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0827
Yan Zhang, Macklini Dalla Nora, Hua Zhao
Abstract Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0821
Alvaro Pinheiro, David Vuilleumier, Darko Kozarac, Samveg Saxena
Abstract This paper follows a cycle-simulation method for creating an engine performance map for an ethanol fueled boosted HCCI engine using a 1-dimensional engine model. Based on experimentally determined limits, the study defined operating conditions for the engine and performed a limited parameter sweep to determine the best efficiency case for each condition. The map is created using a 6-Zone HCCI combustion model coupled with a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for ethanol, and validated against engine data collected from a 1.9L 4-Cylinder VW TDI engine modified to operate in HCCI mode. The engine was mapped between engine speeds of 900 and 3000 rpm, 1 and 3 bar intake pressure, and 0.2 and 0.4 equivalence ratio, resulting in loads between idle and 14.0 bar BMEP. Analysis of a number of trends for this specific engine map are presented, such as efficiency trends, effects of combustion phasing, intake temperature, engine load, engine speed, and operating strategy.
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