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2016-10-24
Event
This session focuses on work pertaining to the production and fundamental properties of new fuels and methods for assessing their performance. This will include work related to the issues of fuel stability, storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel stability, lubricity, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of inclusion of more than 7% biodiesel; the substitution of diesel fuel and gasoline with components other than biodiesel and ethanol respectively.
2016-10-24
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2016-10-24
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition, there are modeling studies and evaluation of components mainly in PEM fuel cell systems, hydrogen storage and hydrogen fueling.
2016-05-18
Journal Article
2016-01-9043
Timo van Overbrueggen, Marco Braun, Michael Klaas, Wolfgang Schroder
Abstract The interaction of biofuel sprays from an outward opening hollow cone injector and the flow field inside an internal combustion engine is analyzed by Mie-Scattering Imaging (MSI) and high-speed stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). Two fuels (ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)), four injection pressures (50, 100, 150, and 200 bar), three starting points of injection (60°, 277°, and 297° atdc), and two engine speeds (1,500 rpm and 2,000 rpm) define the parameter space of the experiments. The MSI measurements determine the vertical penetration length and the spray cone angle of the ethanol and MEK spray. Stereo-PIV is used to investigate the interaction of the flow field and the ethanol spray after the injection process for a start of injection at 60° atdc. These measurements are compared to stereo-PIV measurements without fuel injection performed in the same engine [19].
2016-05-12
Standard
J1616_201605
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a practical automotive fuel, with advantages and disadvantages when compared to gasoline. Large quantities of natural gas are available in North America. It has a higher octane number rating, produces low exhaust emissions, no evaporative emissions and can cost less on an equivalent energy basis than other fuels. Natural gas is normally compressed from 20 684 to 24 821 kPa (3000 to 3600 psig) to increase its energy density thereby reducing its on-board vehicle storage volume for a given range and payload. CNG can also be made from liquefied natural gas by elevating its pressure and vaporizing it to a gas. Once converted it is referred to LCNG.
2016-04-13
Event
This session focuses on work pertaining to the production and fundamental properties of new fuels and methods for assessing their performance. This will include work related to the issues of fuel stability, storage and transportation. This second of two parts focuses on work related to compression ignition engines and advance combustion techniques.
2016-04-13
Event
This session focuses on work pertaining to the production and fundamental properties of new fuels and methods for assessing their performance. This will include work related to the issues of fuel stability, storage and transportation. This first of two parts focuses on work relating to spark ignition engines.
2016-04-13
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2016-04-12
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0875
Ludvig Adlercreutz, Andreas Cronhjort, Johannes Andersen, Roy Ogink
Abstract With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0876
George Karavalakis, Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, Thomas Durbin, Jukka Nuottimäki, Kalle Lehto
Abstract Gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions were assessed from two current technology heavy-duty vehicles operated on CARB ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) blends, and a biodiesel blend. Testing was performed on a 2014 model year Cummins ISX15 vehicle and on a 2010 model year Cummins ISB6.7 vehicle. Both vehicles were equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Testing was conducted over the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Transient Cycle. The results showed lower total hydrocarbons (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and methane (CH4) emissions for the HVO fuels and the biodiesel blend compared to CARB ULSD. Overall, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions showed discordant results, with both increases and decreases for the HVO fuels.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0879
Toby Rockstroh, Gareth Floweday, Celeste Wilken
Abstract The benefits of blending ethanol into gasoline fuel are well established. Ethanol’s high latent heat of vaporisation and chemical auto-ignition resistance combine in producing significant knock resistance, enabling higher compression ratio and/or higher charge boosting. Its high flame speed characteristics result in shorter burn durations. Its high knock resistance and rapid burning enable ignition phasing optimisation. These factors all improve the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Current “flex-fuel” vehicles are designed to operate on both conventional gasoline as well as blends containing higher volumes of ethanol and/or methanol, the former being commonly known as E85. The American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D5798 specification for ethanol fuel blends was adapted in 2011 to prescribe a minimum ethanol content of 51 % with the remainder able to consist of low octane blending streams.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0880
Carlos Alberto Romero, Ricardo Acosta, Juan Lopez
Abstract It is the aim of the present paper to communicate some preliminary results of the research in progress related to the introduction of LPG as a supplementing fuel for the Colombian power grid supply. Most of the power units operating in Colombian oil wells are running on Diesel fuel and natural gas. Other fuels like LPG, heavy and dual fuel have received attention in recent years, due partially to the necessity to relieve the national overall petroleum dependency problem, and also because of the availability of a sizable amount of LPG derived from natural gas purification. In an effort to assess the use of LPG as a fuel alternative to Diesel and natural gas in oil wells, a field study has been carried out.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0877
Preetham Churkunti, Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Christopher Depcik
Abstract Biodiesel is a potential alternative to Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD); however, it often suffers from increased fuel consumption in comparison to ULSD when injection timings and/or pressures are similar. To decrease fuel consumption, increasing biodiesel injection pressure has been found to mitigate the issues associated with its relatively high viscosity and lower energy content. When doing so, the literature indicates decreased emissions, albeit with potentially greater nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in contrast to ULSD. In order to better understand the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions, this study explores the influence of fuel injection pressure on ULSD, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) biodiesel, and their blends in a single-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. In particular, fuel injection pressures and timings for WCO biodiesel and blended fuels are adjusted to attempt to mimic the in-cylinder pressure profile of operation using ULSD.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0878
Ahmed Elwardany, Jihad Badra, Jaeheon Sim, Muneeb Khurshid, Mani Sarathy, Hong Im
Abstract The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called ''Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)'' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0885
Earl Christensen, Robert L. McCormick, Jenny Sigelko, Stuart Johnson, Stefan Zickmann, Shailesh Lopes, Roger Gault, David Slade
Abstract Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the veracity of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0882
Martin Tuner
Abstract Alternative fuels have been proposed as a means for future energy-secure and environmentally sustainable transportation. This review and benchmarking show that several of the alternative fuels (e.g. methanol, ethanol, higher alcohols, RME, HVO, DME, and biogas/CNG) work well with several different engine concepts such as conventional SI, DICI, and dual fuel, and with the emerging concepts HCCI, RCCI, and PPC. Energy consumption is in most cases similar to that of diesel or gasoline, with the exception of methanol and ethanol that use less energy, especially in SI engines. Tailpipe emissions of CO2 with respect to engine work output (tank-to-output shaft) can be reduced by more than 15% compared to a highly efficient gasoline SI engine, and are the lowest with CNG / lean-burn SI and with alcohols in several engine concepts. Alternative fuels are considered safe and in most cases are associated with reduced risk with respect to cancer and other health and environmental issues.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0883
Walter Mirabella, Francesco Avella, Marco Di Girolamo, Tim Abbott, Oliver Busch
Abstract A thorough bibliographic survey was carried out to collect literature-available information about blending octane numbers (BONs) of most widely used ethers by the refining industry (mainly MTBE and ETBE). The intention was to review the publicly reported BONs values, to suggest the most appropriate figures for future reference, while also understanding the causes of the differences. Summary tables feature all BON values, either explicitly reported in literature or calculated based on experimental results. Due to synergistic intermolecular interactions with hydrocarbons, BONs typically depend on base stock composition. The octane gain tends to grow as the paraffin content in the base stock increases. Moreover BONs tend to decrease as the octane numbers (ON) of the base stock increase.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0887
Erik Svensson, Changle Li, Sam Shamun, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Fabian Mauss
Abstract Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0886
Punit Kumar Singh, A S Ramadhas, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract To tackle the problems associated with the volatility of crude oil prices and ever stringent emission norms, oil industries and automobiles manufacturers are experimenting with various alternative fuels to increase its percentage share in the energy mix and to reduce the vehicular emissions. Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuels for the gasoline engines as it does not require any major engine modification and new infrastructure for the fuel distribution network. Ethanol as sole fuel or blending component for gasoline for use in spark ignition engines has been investigated many decades. Currently, 10% ethanol is blended in motor gasoline in India and the ethanol concentration may be further increased in future. In order to study the effect of higher blends of ethanol (upto 20%) on engine in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission, investigations were carried out on a latest generation passenger car engine in a climatic controlled test cell.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1009
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Chuanzhen Zhang, Jia Liu, Zihang Peng, Huiming Gong
Abstract Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1005
Yuanzhou Xi, Nathan Ottinger, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0996
Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis Kahlbaum, Shon Van Hulzen, Robert L. Furey
Abstract In 2008-2009, EPA and DOE tested fifteen 2008 model year Tier 2 vehicles on 27 fuels. The fuels were match-blended to specific fuel parameter targets. The fuel parameter targets were pre-selected to represent the range of fuel properties from fuel survey data from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers for 2006. EPA's analysis of the EPAct data showed that higher aromatics, ethanol, and T90 increase particulate matter (PM) emissions. EPA focused their analysis only on the targeted fuel properties and their impacts on emissions, namely RVP, T50, T90, aromatics, and ethanol. However, in the process of fuel blending, at least one non-targeted fuel property, the T70 distillation parameter, significantly exceeded 2006 Alliance survey parameters for two of the E10 test fuels. These two test fuels had very high PM emissions. In this study, we examine the impacts of adding T70 as an explanatory variable to the analysis of fuel effects on PM.
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