Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 5611
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition, there are modeling studies and evaluation of components mainly in PEM fuel cell systems, hydrogen storage and hydrogen fueling.
2017-04-04
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2017-04-04
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2017-04-04
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2016-11-17
Event
This session includes papers focused on the gaseous and particulate emissions performance from operating small engines, both diesel and gasoline on oxygenated fuel blends.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used, and two ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0056
Qi-Jun Huang, Chia-Hong Chung, Yong-Fu Syu, Yuh-Yih Wu, CHAO-KAI LI
Butanol is deemed as a potential alternative fuel for motor vehicle, but there are few studies about applying butanol in engine combustion. This paper focuses on application of butanol-gasoline blend fuel on scooter engine. In this research, different volume percentage of butanol-gasoline blend fuel, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are applied on 125cc scooter engine to conduct engine experiment, and higher than B60 blended fuel is declared as high concentration of butanol blended fuel. The test conditions are set at 4000 and 6000rpm under partial load and full load. After executing engine experiment, the engine performance, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), emissions and combustion analysis are discussed. Furthermore, viscosity and fuel spray test are carried out with high concentration of butanol. The engine experimental result shows that B20 fuels can increase engine performance under engine 4000 and 6000rpm.
2016-10-27
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2016-10-25
Event
This session focuses on work pertaining to the production and fundamental properties of new fuels and methods for assessing their performance. This will include work related to the issues of fuel stability, storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel stability, lubricity, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of inclusion of more than 7% biodiesel; the substitution of diesel fuel and gasoline with components other than biodiesel and ethanol respectively.
2016-10-24
Event
This session covers fuel cell advances from vehicle manufacturers in the first stage of series production FCEVs. In addition, there are modeling studies and evaluation of components mainly in PEM fuel cell systems, hydrogen storage and hydrogen fueling.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2266
Roger Cracknell, Michael Bardon, David Gardiner, Greg Pucher, Heather Hamje, David Rickeard, Javier ariztegui, Leonardo Pellegrini
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been identified as a technology which could give both high efficiency and relatively low engine-out emissions. Use of gasoline in advanced CI engines offers a potential route to address an over-supply of gasoline and an under-supply of diesel and other distillate products. Such a situation exists currently in European refineries where the effort to maximise diesel output is detrimental to refinery efficiency and to CO2 emissions due to more intensive processing. The introduction of any new vehicle technology requires widespread availability of appropriate fuels. It would be ideal therefore if GCI vehicles were able to operate using the standard grade of gasoline that is available at the pump. However, in spite of recent progress, operation at idle and low loads still remains a formidable challenge, given the relatively low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2190
Qi Shi, Tie Li, Xiaoqing Zhang, Bin Wang, Ming Zheng
Taking advantage of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as selection of the two wavelength lights, the role of bandpass filters, and available measuring range, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has potentials in application in diesel engines, the characteristics of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2288
Sam Shamun, Mengqin Shen, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Joakim Pagels, Anders Gudmundsson, Per Tunestal
The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running the engine in PPC mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels will aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, particle size and distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest amount of particles were gasoline followed by methanol. The two alcohols tested emitted nucleation mode particles only, whereas gasoline emitted accumulation mode particles as well.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2239
Zhuoyao He, Zhen Xu, Lei Zhu, Wugao zhang, Junhua Fang, He Lin, Bin Guan, Zhen Huang, Junjun Hu, Limin Chu
In-cylinder thermochemical fuel reforming, which involves running one cylinder rich of stoichiometric and routing its entire exhaust back into the intake manifold, is an attractive method for improving engine performances. Compared with other hydrocarbon fuels, the chemical structure of methane is more stable owing to much shorter carbon chain. As ethanol contains hydroxyl in chemical structure, it potentially generates OH radical during the combustion. Therefore, adding ethanol into natural gas might help its combustion process in in-cylinder thermochemical fuel reforming. This paper focused on researching the effects of ethanol-natural gas combined in-cylinder thermochemical reforming on the engine performances, before which the effect of in-cylinder natural gas thermochemical reforming on the engine performances was examined in detail. Cylinder #4 was running rich and its exhaust was coupled to the intake manifold of a four cylinder engine during the whole experiments.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2306
Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Jun Goto, Lin Jiang
The engine performance and the exhaust gas emissions in a dual fuel compression ignition engine with natural gas as the main fuel and a small quantity of pilot injection of diesel fuel with the ultra-high injection pressure of 250 MPa as an ignition source were investigated at 0.3 MPa and 0.8 MPa IMEP. With increasing injection pressure the unburned loss decreases and the thermal efficiency improves at both IMEP. At the 0.3 MPa IMEP, there is no deterioration in thermal efficiency and emission characteristics when increasing the injection pressure, but at 0.8 MPa IMEP, the NOx emissions and maximum rate of pressure rise increase with increasing injection pressure. At 0.3 MPa the THC and CO emissions are significantly reduced when decreasing the volumetric efficiency by intake gas throttling, but the NOx emissions increase and excessive intake gas throttling results in a decrease in the indicated thermal efficiency due to increases in pumping and cooling losses.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2301
Xiaoye Han, Qingyuan Tan, Meiping Wang, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) of neat n-butanol have shown significant benefits in NOx and smoke emissions. However, the rapid burn rate of n-butanol results in excessive maximum pressure rise rates and limits the engine load capability. The combustion process can be slowed down by applying exhaust gas recirculation and/or later injection timing, which usually deteriorates engine efficiency and combustion stability. In this study, the neat n-butanol combustion is optimized using a multi-event combustion strategy to organize the combustion process and control the fuel burn rates for practical engine operation at extended engine loads. As indicated by the experimental results, the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, enabled with port fuel injection (PFI), is generally earlier than that of n-butanol PPC, enabled with single-shot direct injection (DI), under the same engine operating conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2257
Hua LI, Liang Yu, Linqi Ouyang, Shuzhou Sun
The ignition delay time of toluene reference fuels composed of isooctane, n-heptane and toluene was studied in a shock tube under the conditions of medium to high temperature ranges, different pressures (10-20 bar), and various equivalence ratios (0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2) by reflected waves.Three different ternary blends, TRF2 (42.8% isooctane/13.7% n-heptane/43.5% toluene), TRF3 (65% isooctane/10% n-heptane/25% toluene) and TRF4 (87.2% isooctane/6.3% n-heptane/6.5% toluene), with the same Research Octane Number of 95 (RON=95) were constructed. The experimental results showed that there was an obvious negative correlation between the ignition delay time of the toluene reference fuels and the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio; and, a minimal discrepancy of TRF2, TRF3, and TRF4 was measured at pressures of 10 and 20 bar in a stoichiometric ratio. Based on Curran’s detailed kinetic model for PRF (primary reference fuel) (Combust.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2363
Jonathan Hall, Mike Bassett, Benjamin Hibberd, Simon Streng
The complexity of modern powertrain development is demonstrated by the combination of requirements for future emission regulations such as RDE, reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions as well as customer expectations for good driving performance. Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a proven technology to reduce automotive fleet CO2 emissions. Additionally, alternative fuels such as natural gas, offer the potential to significantly reduce both CO2 and exhaust gas emissions without having to accept limitations on driving performance and driving range. This paper will present results showing how the positive fuel properties of natural gas can be fully utilised in a heavily downsized, 1.2 litre, 3-cylinder engine. The engine has been modified to enable the engine to cope with the considerable challenges to the mechanical and thermal load capacity of the engine when operating at high specific outputs on CNG.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2208
Zifeng Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Hao Cai, Pingping Sun, David Dieffenthaler, Victor Gordillo, Jean-Christophe Monfort, Xin He, Steven przesmitzki
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2258
Yoshihiro Okoshi, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Yuta Mitsugi, Kotaro Tanaka, Masaaki Kato, Tomoya Tsuji, Mitsuru Konno
Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel for CI engines. DME features good auto ignition characteristics and soot-free combustion. In order to develop an injection system suitable for DME, it is necessary to understand the fuel properties. Sound speed is one of the important fuel properties that affects the injection characteristics. However, the measurement data under high-pressure corresponding to that in fuel injection system are lacking. Critical temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel fuel, and is close to the injection condition. Sound speed at critical point is theoretically 0 m/s. It is important to understand the behavior of the sound speed around the critical point. In this study, we measured sound speed in a wide pressure and temperature range of 1-80 MPa, 298-413 K, including the critical point. Sound speed in DME increases with pressure rises or temperature falls. It is approximately 400 m/s slower than that in diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2296
David Emberson, Terese Lovas, Mateusz Szczeciński, Paweł Mazuro
A stochastic reactor model has been employed to aid the development of a new highly efficient and compact opposing piston, barrel engine. In order to utilize the engine across a broad range of applications and the designers have identified the use of low calorific value fuels derived from biomass gasification in HCCI mode as one possible end use. Biogas from solid fuel gasification can vary largely in composition depending on feedstock and gasification method. In order to test the engines ability to run on biogas in general terms, identifying a simple surrogate fuel mixture which can be varied during testing is of great importance. A stochastic reactor model as available in the commercially available software, Logesoft, has been used to examine suitable surrogate gas mixtures which could be used to best simulate the biogas during initial engine testing and development.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2303
Changhwan Woo, Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt R. Hawkes, Qing Nian Chan
Ethanol has been selected for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion, considering its higher resistance to auto-ignition, higher evaporative cooling and oxygen contents than widely used gasoline, all of which could further improve already high brake efficiency and low smoke/NOx emissions of GCI engines. The in-cylinder phenomena and engine-out emissions were measured in a single-cylinder automotive-size diesel engine equipped with a conventional common-rail system with a special emphasis on double injection strategies implementing early first injection near BDC and late second injection near TDC.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2218
Meichun Peng, Longlong Zeng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Yue Zheng
The paper studies the power hybridization characteristics of LPG hybrid electric city buses running in real word, and analyzes the relationship between degree of hybridization (DOH) and vehicle running conditions. It was performed on-board tests in the center district of Guangzhou city to sample several parameters of vehicle running on road by PEMS and CAN, including of speed and torque of engine and motor instantaneously, etc. And it was conducted data processing to calculate the engine and motor power and DOH second by second, and statistical analysis on charging and discharging state of power battery. It is found that the power battery of LPG-HEV bus is mainly in discharge state with 47.2% operation time, and it is in discharge state basically at period of acceleration, whereas it is the opposite at deceleration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2309
Ehsan Ansari, Kamran Poorghasemi, Behrouz Khoshbakht Irdmousa, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jeffrey Naber
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a promising dual-fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) mode with significant potential for reducing NOx and particulate emissions while improving or maintaining thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel engines. The large reactivity difference between diesel and natural gas (NG) fuels provides a strong control knob for phasing and shaping combustion heat release. In this work, the brake thermal efficiencies, emissions and combustion characteristics of a light duty 1.9L, four-cylinder diesel engine operating in single fuel diesel mode and in NG-diesel RCCI mode are investigated and compared. The engine is run at speeds of 1300 to 2500 RPM and loads of 1 to 7 bar BMEP. Operation is limited to 10 bar/deg maximum pressure rise rate and 6% COV of IMEP.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5611

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: