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2016-05-18 ...
  • May 18-20, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2808
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2813
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining durability. This is a potential path to help the US reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe; however, this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
2015-09-23
Event
Research and development efforts that enable the use of alternative energy sources for aviation, with emphasis on commercial aviation fuels and energies that can supplement or replace current crude oil-derived kerosene jet fuels. Environmental, technical, economic and logistical challenges found in the production and use of alternative jet fuels.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2467
Luca Gallo, Bernard Tashie-Lewis, Panos Laskaridis, Paul Miller, Mark Husband
The present work focuses on developing an integrated airframe, hybrid/turbo-electric distributed propulsion, and power management methodology for liquid-hydrogen-fuelled unmanned aerial systems. Differently from previous studies, the aim is to assess how the synergies between the aforementioned sub-systems affect the integrated system power requirement, production, and distribution. The proposed methodology integrates an aircraft conceptual design and performance routine, the propulsion system performance, sizing, and weight calculations as well as the lithium-ion battery charge/discharge computations. The scalable airframe platform combines geometrical, structural, aerodynamic, and performance calculations to capture the benefits of different propulsion/power management architectures as well as of alternative fuels. The distributed propulsion system performance was modelled with Turbomatch, Cranfield University simulation tool.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2563
Alberto Charro, Solange Baena, Joseph K-W Lam
The paper presents an extensive assessment of the hygroscopic characteristics of a number of alternative jet fuels. These are blended with conventional Jet A-1 to conform with current aviation standards at a 50:50 ratio, except for DSHC (Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon), which is blended at 10% DSHC and 90% Jet A-1. Given the lack of information available on the water solubility of alternative jet fuels, an effective analysis of experimental data about this characteristic in six different alternatives was performed. These included three ASTM approved alternatives (two Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetics – CTL (coal to liquid) and GTL (gas to liquid), and one HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) derived from camelina). An extra three alternatives currently under consideration for ASTM approval were also tested; the DSHC previously mentioned, ReadiJet and an ATJ (Alcohol to Jet).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2562
Tak W. Chan, Wajid Chishty, Craig Davison, David Buote
Black carbon is known to be a major component in gas turbine particulate matter exhaust emissions. Black carbon particles are relatively inert in atmosphere and the main removal mechanisms are dry and wet deposition. Current research suggests that BC particles have an overall positive climate forcing second to gas phase carbon dioxide. Recently, many studies have also suggested that ultrafine particle emissions can also be significant from gas turbine emissions. In addition, studies also suggested that the gas turbine emitted semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds are highly sensitive to ambient atmospheric conditions and can undergo gas-particle conversion to form new particles in the atmosphere.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2511
Theodoros Grigoratos, Georgios Fontaras, Giorgio Martini, Cesare Pelleto
Gas operated Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV) powered by Natural Gas (NG) are seen as a possible option for curbing CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and operating costs of goods transport. Initiatives have been adopted by various organizations worldwide in order to introduce NG fueled HDVs in their fleets. In this study, an advanced newly designed CNG prototype engine, which was developed in the framework of the FP7 research project “CO2 Reduction for long distance transport” (CO2RE), is benchmarked against its parent Euro V compliant CNG engine (reference) in terms of emissions and fuel consumption. The main technological innovation includes a new cylinder head equipped with a Variable Valve Actuation system designed to provide on the intake side a continuous fully flexible variation of the valve lift and timing. The newly developed engine was optimized for urban emission profiles and operation such as garbage collection purposes.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2477
Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Massimo Cardone
Abstract Blends of propane-diesel fuel can be used in direct injection diesel engines to improve the air-fuel mixing and the premixed combustion phase, and to reduce pollutant emissions. The potential benefits of usinf propane in diesel engines are both environmental and economic; furthermore, its use does not require changes to the compression ratio of conventional diesel engines. The present paper describes an experimental investigation of the injection process for different liquid preformed blends of propane-diesel fuel in an optically accessible Common Rail diesel engine. Slight modifications of the injection system were required in order to operate with a blend of propane-diesel fuel. Pure diesel fuel and two propane-diesel mixtures at different mass ratios were tested (20% and 40% in mass of propane named P20 and P40). First, injection in air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure were performed to verify the functionality of the modified Common Rail injection system.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2483
Thangaraja Jeyaseelan, Pramod S Mehta
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2484
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini
Abstract The third generation of biodiesels, derived from microalgae, is one of the most interesting options for the replacement of fossil fuels. While the use of first generation biodiesels on different types of compression ignition engines is well documented in the open literature, much less information is available on algal fuels. As a matter of fact, the influence on combustion and pollutant emissions is not definitively assessed, depending on the combination of the specific features of both fuel and engine. The aim of this paper is to analyze the combustion process in a small industrial engine fueled by an algal Biodiesel, blended with standard Diesel fuel. The blend composition is the one typically used in most applications, i.e. 20% of biodiesel and 80% of Diesel (B20).
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2409
Lorenzo Bartolucci, Stefano Cordiner, Vincenzo Mulone, Vittorio Rocco, Edward Chan
Predictive modeling of the premixed turbulent combustion process has become key to design advanced strategies for novel internal combustion engine solutions. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based combustion models are assessed but are unable to capture transient phenomena such combustion instabilities, self-ignition and other aspects related to the coupling between turbulence and chemistry. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based combustion models have demonstrated in several studies better capabilities to capturing those phenomena and, hence, present in general much higher accuracy. The aim of this work is to carry out a statistical analysis of numerical results obtained with a LES approach to describe a partially premixed natural gas spark ignition combustion process in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber (CVCC). The OpenFOAM based solver has been already validated in a previous paper by comparing results data experimentally gathered at the University of British Columbia.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2461
Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The diesel engine is currently the most efficient internal combustion engine technology. Moreover, in order to realize more efficient engine type could be convenient to combine this technology with one of the cleanest fuels available (methane). The main benefits are: methane (CH4) is cheaper than diesel and thus may reduce fuel costs; and, dual fuel technology also reduces particulate matter emissions. In the present activity, dual fuel operation was investigated in a single cylinder research engine. Methane was injected in the intake manifold while the diesel was delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount on the start of combustion, ignition delay, and combustion evolution.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2453
K Abdul Rahman, A Ramesh
In this experimental work the effect of double injection of diesel in a biogas-diesel partially premixed charge compression ignition (BDPPCCI) engine was studied. Biogas was inducted along with air while diesel was injected through a common rail system using an open electronic control unit. Experiments were done at a fixed brake mean effective pressure of 2 bar and an intake charge temperature of 40°C. The effect of start of injection (SOI) of first and second injection pulses and also the biogas energy share (BGES) were evaluated. Experiments were also done in the BDPPCCI mode with diesel being injected in a single pulse and in the biogas-diesel dual fuel (BDDF) mode for comparison. The thermal efficiency in the BDPPCCI mode was better with double injection of diesel as compared to single pulse injection due to better combustion phasing. Improved charge homogeneity and reduced wall wetting of diesel lowered the smoke emission levels with split injection.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2458
Yasumasa Suzuki, Taku Tsujimura, Takuro Mita
Hydrogen can be produced by electrolyzation with renewable electricity and the combustion products of hydrogen mixture include no CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons. In this study, engine performance with hydrogen / diesel dual fuel (hydrogen DDF) operation in a multi-cylinder diesel engine is investigated due to clarify advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen DDF operation. Hydrogen DDF operation under several brake power conditions are evaluated by changing a rate of hydrogen to total input energy (H2 rate). As H2 rate is increased, an amount of diesel fuel is decreased to keep a given torque constant. When the hydrogen DDF engine is operated with EGR, Exhaust gas components including carbon are improved or suppressed to same level as conventional diesel combustion. In addition, brake thermal efficiency is improved to 40% by increase in H2 rate that advances combustion phasing under higher power condition.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2459
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The use of direct injection (DI) engines allows a more precise control of the air-fuel ratio, an improvement of fuel economy, and a reduction of exhaust emissions thanks to the ultra-lean combustion due to the charge stratification. These effects can be partially obtained also with an optimized Air Direct Injection that permits to increase the turbulence at low speed and load increasing the combustion stability especially in lean condition. In this paper, a gasoline PFI (named G-PFI), gasoline PFI-methane DI dual fuel (named G-MDF) lean combustion were analyzed. The G-MDF configuration was also compared with a gasoline PFI - air DI (named G-A) configuration in order to distinguish the chemical effect of methane from the direct injection physical effect. The tests were carried out in a small displacement PFI/DI SI engine. The experimental investigation was carried out in a transparent small single-cylinder, spark ignition four-stroke engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2486
Ajay Singh Verma, M. Muzaffarul Hasan, Ashish Karnwal, Vipul Vibhanshu
Abstract The continuous growth of population and development of industries give rise to massive increase in the global energy demand in recent years. Therefore present work investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of an unmodified four stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine utilizing isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol)-diethyl ether blends with diesel. The different fuel samples were prepared using 10% isopropyl, alcohol 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD15), 15% isopropyl alcohol, 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD20) and 20% isopropyl alcohol 5% diethyl ether by volume (IPD25) with neat standard diesel. All experiment tests were performed with at variable compression ratio 17 and 18 at different load conditions. The effect of blends and compression ratio on combustion parameters viz. peak cylinder pressure and rate of heat release along with exhaust emissions CO, CO2, HC and NOx, were investigated.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2513
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Vit Beranek, Jitka Stolcpartova, Martin Pechout, Vojtech Klir
Abstract N-butanol and isobutanol are alcohols that can be produced from biomass by fermentation and are possibly more compatible with existing engines than ethanol. This work reports on the effects of these two isomers on exhaust emissions of an unmodified direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. A Ford Focus car with a 1.0-liter Euro 6 Ecoboost DISI engine has been tested on a chassis dynamometer using WLTP and Artemis driving cycles, and on the road on a one-hour test loop containing urban, rural and motorway driving. Two isomers of butanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-propanol, were each blended with gasoline at 25% volume. Non-oxygenated gasoline and 15% ethanol in gasoline (E15) were used as reference fuels. The vehicle performed well in terms of cold start, drivability, general performance, and off-cycle particle emissions, staying within several mg of particle mass and about 2×1012 particles (per PMP procedure) per km during laboratory tests.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2491
Tankai Zhang, Karin Munch, Ingemar Denbratt
Global warming driven by “greenhouse gas” emissions is an increasingly serious concern of both the public and legislators. A potentially potent way to reduce these emissions and conserve fossil fuel resources is to use n-butanol, iso-butanol or octanol (2-ethylhexanol) from renewable sources as alternative fuels in diesel engines. The effects of adding these substances to diesel fuel were therefore tested in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine operated using factory settings. These alcohols have better calorific values, flash points, lubricity, cetane numbers and solubility in diesel than shorter-chain alcohols. However, they have lower cetane numbers than diesel, so either hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) or Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to the diesel-alcohol mixtures to generate blends with the same Cetane Number (CN) as diesel.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2479
Maximilian Malin, Vladimir Krivopolianskii, Bjørn Rygh, Vilmar Aesoy, Eilif Pedersen
Maritime environmental restrictions urge the need for cleaner emissions from shipping, by improved combustion processes, alternative cleaner fuels and exhaust gas cleaning. Alternative fuels, like bio fuel (fish oil), has a potential to reduce soot production during the combustion process and will be deeply investigated in this article. For this purpose a constant volume pre-combustion rig laboratory was build up in the last year and is used as a basic investigation tool for studying the fuel injection system (including investigation in combustion, spray development, fuel evaporation process and ignition delay) in engines. The focus of this study is to investigate the injector in full size, including experiments with multi nozzle injections, and with full optical access to the chamber. To generate similar injection condition in the combustion rig as in the internal combustion engine, the rig is heated up using a so called chemical heating process.
2015-06-29
WIP Standard
J1555
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only, some operations for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.), and some for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
2015-06-03
Magazine
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives from companies such as BorgWarner, Perkins, Cummins, and Danfoss reflect upon challenges inside, and outside, the industry, and what technologies, innovations, and strategies will need to be implemented to thrive into the long-term future. 16th Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
2015-06-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9073
Peter Schihl, Eric Gingrich, Laura Decker
The U.S. Army currently uses JP-8 for global operations according to the ‘one fuel forward policy’ in order to reduce the logistics burden of supplying a variety of fuels for given Department of Defense ground vehicle applications. One particular challenge with using global JP-8 is the lack of or too broad a range of specified combustion affecting properties including ignition quality, high temperature viscosity, and density. In particular, the ignition quality of JP-8 has dramatically varied throughout the past decade on a global basis covering a range of 29 to 70 cetane index. This key combustion affecting parameter was explored in this study by evaluating a synthesized low ignition quality jet fuel blended in 25% volumetric proportions with JP-8 to effectively cover a cetane number range of 25 to 45 in a single cylinder diesel engine operated at various light, medium, and high load operating conditions.
2015-04-23
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2015-04-23
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
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