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Training / Education
2015-06-03
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels. The first day of the course begins with a brief review of the evolution of motor fuel through 100 years of performance and specification.
Event
2014-11-18
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. In particular this includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions.
Event
2014-11-18
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes consideration of combustion, and performance metrics such as power and efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Event
2014-10-23
Papers for this session on the general topic of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes hydrocarbon species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components, specific NOx species production over catalytic devices, well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on spray and soot formation. We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated bio-fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. The numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). We conducted a 3-D numerical study using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting a gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model, including soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. In this numerical study, the ambience temperature and density were set at 900 K and 12 g/cm3, respectively to reproduce the in-cylinder conditions almost similar to a low load and speed condition in the ordinary light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Schaberg, Mark Wattrus
In many countries fuel standards permit the limited addition of FAME to diesel fuel. For example, in Europe, diesel fuel complying with the EN590:2009 regulation may contain up to 7% FAME, and the low carbon fuel standards being considered in many regions encourage the consideration of even higher levels of FAME addition. Standards organisations such as CEN, ASTM, and CARB are also contemplating standards for paraffinic diesel fuels such as GTL (Gas-to-Liquids) diesel and HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil), an example being CEN Technical Standard 15940:2012. Since these standards may also allow the addition of FAME, it was decided to perform an extensive evaluation of the properties and performance of blends of GTL diesel and FAME, including emissions performance which is reported on in this paper. Fuels that were variously considered in the study were blends of GTL and EN590 diesel containing 0, 7, and 20 vol% of SME and RME (Soy and Rapeseed Methyl Ester). Part of the study focussed on European engine technology, and tests were performed on a Euro 4 passenger vehicle and engine, and a Euro V heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method. Many papers which show the result which the fuel produced by transesterification method can apply as diesel fuel are announced. It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with crude oil. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PES) which is a promoter of cancer. It is necessary to measure PEs contained in Jatropha crude oil and PM in exhaust gas for safe use. Measurement of un-vaporized fuel sprays which was injected into pressurized vessel by high speed video camera and ignition characteristics by ignitability evaluation equipment of fuel (FIA-100) of Jatropha blended fuel were performed. The conventional jerk type fuel injection system which is used for industrial diesel engine and the high pressure common rail type fuel injection systems which is used for modern automobile diesel engine were examined. The engine performance and exhaust emission including Particulate Matter (PM) was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vasu Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Vishvendra Tomar, Gagneet Kalsi
The world today is facing the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the rate of consumption of Fossil derived fuels is alarming. The use of non-conventional energy sources is to be increased so as to tackle the global climatic changes, environmental pollution and also to lower down the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. The urgent need to replace the petroleum products having harmful emissions has leaded us to the Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a well-known alternative for diesel with an advantage over the later because of its biodegradable, less toxic nature, superior lubricity,better emission characteristics and in a way environment friendly. The present study focuses on the comparative study and analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a light duty diesel engine on blends of Fish oil Biodiesel in Diesel and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Biodiesel in Diesel. The blends taken for the study are 5% (V/V), 10% (V/V), 15% (V/V) of fish oil methyl ester in diesel as FOMED05, FOMED10, FOMED15 and 5% (v/v), 10% (v/v), 15% (v/v) of calophyllum inophyllum oil methyl ester in diesel as COMED05, COMED10, COMED15 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Gian Marques, Lian Izquierdo, Camila Coutinho
Bioethanol and plant oil-derived biodiesel are generally considered first generation biofuels. More sustainable and cost effective new biofuels are being designed and produced using modern tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. These new microbial fuels have great potential to become viable alternatives and supplements for petroleum-derived liquid transportation fuels. MAN Latin America has worked in cooperation with REG Life Sciences, a North American industrial biotechnological company, to help in the development of high quality fuels for automotive purposes. The aim of this paper is to present the test engine results of a novel microbially produced fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), under the banner of UltraCleanTM Diesel, in a Proconve P7 (Euro V) MAN D0834, diesel engine. Described are a comprehensive performance and emissions evaluation as well as an interpretation of the primary fuel properties. The test engine was operated with standard Brazilian diesel (S50), a blend of 20% and 100% UltraCleanTM Diesel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Somnuek Jaroonjitsathian, Peerawat Saisirirat, Komkrit Sivara, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
Formerly, the Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blended fuels has been studied by running the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and found that the higher HVO blended fuel can suppress NOX, lowering the particulate matter (PM) while improving the vehicle fuel economy. The result also shown that the 20% HVO + 5%FAME blended with diesel fuel has been proven to compatible with the advance diesel engine technology via the severe engine durability tests and fuel injection system tests. Therefore, the effects of two paraffinic diesel fuels, which are Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) and Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO), on a common-rail DI diesel engine have been mainly focused in this work. The main objective of this work was to study the relationships between fuel properties and theirs combustion characteristics by analyzing cylinder pressure data and exhaust emissions intensively. Subsequently, the research team needs to quantify the effectiveness of using GTL and HVO as a blending component for superior diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pradip Lingfa, Pranab Das, Lalit Das, Satya Naik
Abstract In the present experimental investigations the influence of injector opening pressures and injection timings on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated single diesel engine has been investigated. The tests were conducted with four different fuels, namely diesel and Tung biodiesel blends (TB10, TB15, TB20 and TB50) at three different injector opening pressures (150 bar, 200 bar and 250 bar) respectively. Fuel injection opening pressures were varied by changing the spring tension of the needle valve of injector nozzle. The three different injection timings (standard timing at 23° BTDC, retarded timing of 21° BTDC and advanced timing of 25° BTDC) were used. The injection timings were varied by changing the thickness of the shim. The entire tests were conducted at the constant engine speed of 1500 rpm under various load conditions. The experimental results showed that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of Tung biodiesel improved at higher injector opening pressure.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
George S. Dodos, Dimitrios Karonis, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois
It is well known that biodiesel (FAME) is more susceptible to thermal and oxidative deterioration compared to conventional diesel fuel. Therefore the evaluation of its oxidation behavior is of prime importance in order to check the sufficient ageing reserve of the fuel. For this reason the determination of oxidation stability has been included in the applicable requirements of several international biodiesel standards such as the European Standard EN14214 and the ASTM D6751. For many years the only standardized method for measuring the oxidation stability of FAME and biodiesel blends was EN14112/EN 15751 that utilizes a Rancimat apparatus for determining the induction period. The Rancimat method gives reliable results however its main drawback consists in the fact that it cannot be employed for measuring the stability of conventional petroleum diesel. Hence, no direct assessment can be conducted on the impact of FAME on petro-diesel stability. The Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT- PetroOxy) is a pretty new, quick test method in which oxidation stability is directly measured via oxygen depletion.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Shehan O. Haputhanthri
The combined future volumes of conventional petroleum, heavy oil, oil sands and oil shale total 29.9 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). At a production growth rate of 5%, conventional petroleum and heavy oil resources will last only 51 years as assessed in 2009. Therefore an alternate for petroleum fuel should be identified without delay. Ammonia can offer a carbon-free solution to energy crisis without strenuous changes to the existing infrastructure. Ammonia contains about 17% by weight of Hydrogen, which is much better than all other non-carbon based Hydrogen storage methods. Ammonia, when blended with hydrocarbon fuels, can be used as a composite fuel to power existing IC engines. Such blends, similar to ethanol and gasoline fuel blends can be used to commercialize ammonia as an alternate transportation fuel. However due to the molecular structures of polarized ammonia and hydrocarbons with a long carbon chain, feasibility of dissolving ammonia alone in the liquid phase of hydrocarbons is very low.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Simona Silvia Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Luca Marchitto, Gerardo Valentino, Adrian Irimescu
Liquids with stable suspensions of nanoscale (typically 1−100 nm) materials are defined nanofluids. The nanomaterials can be metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or carbon-based nanostructures. These represent a tool if used as additives for traditional liquid fuels to enhance ignition and combustion. Because of their unique structures and unusual mechanical and electric properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied for applications in material, electrical, and biomedical sciences. They also have unique thermal properties; e.g., CNTs are reported to have unusually high thermal conductivity compared to the bulk material−graphene monolayer. Intensive investigation has been conducted into the thermal conductivity of nanofluids with CNTs. However, the optical and radiative properties of nanofluids with carbon-based nanostructures, as well as their impact on droplet evaporation and combustion, have not been deeply studied. The present paper examines the radiative properties of nanofluid fuels with suspensions of carbon nanotubes CNTs.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Vincent Chen, Carlos Espinoza, Tyler Berte, Thomas Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Alexander Bergmann
Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the U.S. has increased approximately 6-fold over the last decade from 2 to 13 billion gallons per year. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol at a concentration of 10% by volume (E10). Ethanol is also available as E85, which after a recent change in specifications, is allowed to contain as much as 83% v/v as little as 51% v/v ethanol. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promotes the use of alternative fuels, with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandating the use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels in the transportation fuel pool by 2022. Although ethanol is expected to make up the majority of this requirement, other alcohol formulations can be considered as promising alternatives to gasoline. Butanol is an attractive biofuel for use in spark-ignited (SI) engines, and combines the advantages of gasoline in terms of energy density with the oxygen content and renewability of ethanol without being hydrophilic.
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