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Training / Education
2015-06-03
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels. The first day of the course begins with a brief review of the evolution of motor fuel through 100 years of performance and specification.
Event
2014-11-19
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-11-19
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-11-19
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-20
Papers for this session on the general topic of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes hydrocarbon species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components, specific NOx species production over catalytic devices, well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, Ronghua Huang
Ethanol is a widely used alternative fuel to address the issue of sustainability. However, making the use of renewable fuel effective and efficient is still challenging. Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) has been in development due to its great potential in taking the advantages of ethanol fuel to increase the compression ratio and thermal efficiency. The work reported in this paper contributes to understanding the fuel and gas behaviours which are crucial in the development of EDI+GPI engine. A set of engine models have been developed using ANSYS FLUENT. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of cylinder pressure in an engine and spray shapes in a constant volume chamber. The verified model was used to investigate the fuel vaporization and mixture formation of the EDI+GPI research engine. The effect of the ethanol/gasoline ratio on charge cooling has been studied. Compared with GPI only, EDI+GPI demonstrated stronger effect on charge cooling by decreased in-cylinder temperature and increased volumetric efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed methane-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed resulting in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The effect of lambda, start of injection and diesel substitution ratios on nozzle tip temperature was determined using an instrumented DI injector with a thermocouple inserted in the nozzle tip. From this study a baseline case was selected with a nozzle tip temperature of 325 °C. From the baseline case, λ, SOI and diesel substitution was changed individually creating 3 high temperature cases and 3 low temperature cases with the nozzle tip temperature 350 °C and 305 °C respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
ARIJ BEN AMARA, Bertrand Lecointe, Nicolas Jeuland, Takuya Takahashi, Yutaka IIda, Hiromichi Hashimoto, Julien Bouilly
The stability of Diesel/Biodiesel blends can play an important role in deposits formation inside the fuel injection system (FIS). The impact of the stability of FAME/Diesel fuel blends on lacquer deposits formation and on the behavior and reliability of the FIS was investigated using blends of Rapeseed and Soybean methyl esters (RME, SME) and conventional Diesel fuel (volume fractions of RME and SME range from 0 to 20%v/v). Fuels were aged under accelerated conditions and tested on an injection test rig according to an operating cycle developed to provoke injector needle blocking. The soaking duration was found to affect injector fouling. A relationship between the injector fouling tendency and the fuel stability was established. Under current test condition, injectors fouling increased with fuel oxidation measured with Total-Acid-Number. Needle fouling occurred at a TAN level of 0.25mg KOH/g and needle blocking occurred at a TAN level of 0.5 and 1 mg KOH/g for B20-SME and B20-RME, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method. Many papers which show the result which the fuel produced by transesterification method can apply as diesel fuel are announced. It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with crude oil. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PES) which is a promoter of cancer. It is necessary to measure PEs contained in Jatropha crude oil and PM in exhaust gas for safe use. Measurement of un-vaporized fuel sprays which was injected into pressurized vessel by high speed video camera and ignition characteristics by ignitability evaluation equipment of fuel (FIA-100) of Jatropha blended fuel were performed. The conventional jerk type fuel injection system which is used for industrial diesel engine and the high pressure common rail type fuel injection systems which is used for modern automobile diesel engine were examined. The engine performance and exhaust emission including Particulate Matter (PM) was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Annika Talus, Lisen Johansson, Francesco Regali, Ali Saramat
Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Ageing of biodiesel increases the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water in the fuel, degradation products that are known to increase the corrosion of metals in the system and thereby cause internal injector deposits (IID) and fuel filter blocking (FFB) which damage the fuel system. When performing accelerated corrosion tests in laboratory, biodiesel continues to degrade further, resulting in too aggressive system. In order to avoid exaggeration of degradation products in aged biodiesel, a stable test fuel that resembles biodiesel but otherwise is resistant to additional ageing during testing is needed. In this study a stable test fuel has been prepared and doped with impurity (methanol) and degradation products such as SCFA and water. The prepared test fuel was evaluated with regards to its structure using GC-MS, water content using Karl Fisher volumetric titration, SCFA using extraction ion chromatography and methanol using GC-FID, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Stamatios Spyridon Kalligeros, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois, George Anastopoulos
Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel in winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend cloud point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent vehicle stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that saturaded monoglyceride content were a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters. It was also discovered that saturated diglycerides, were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest procedure in order to predict the content of the saturated monoglycerides even with uncertainty which can vary from -50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as it introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013. The model is based on the assumption that saturated fatty esters, saturated fatty acids and saturated monoglycerides are present in the same proportions in the FAME.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Juhani K. Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Paivi Aakko-Saksa, Sari Mannonen, Ville Vauhkonen, Pirita Roslund
UPM BioVerno, a high quality “drop-in” renewable diesel fuel from tall oil, was studied as a component in regular mineral-oil based fossil diesel fuel. For this work, UPM teamed up with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland for field testing. The aim was to evaluate the functionality and performance of four (4) passenger cars by taking into account e.g. fuel consumption and exhaust emissions when compared to fossil reference fuel. The field test included 20.000 km on-road driving with each car by experienced drivers from VTT with variable trip lenghts, traffic and climate conditions. Initial, mid-term and final in-laboratory tests were run for perfor¬man¬¬ce and emissions. Four other make/model cars were subjected to similar tests with UPM BioVerno test blend and reference diesel. Apart from regulated exhaust emissions, a list of non-regulated species were also measured. The main parts of these field and in–laboratory tests are discussed in this article. UPM BioVerno proved to be a high quality blending component that did not change the functionality nor the emission characteristics of the tested diesel passenger cars.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ekarong Sukjit, Jose M. Herreros, Karl Dearn, Athanasios Tsolakis
The interest in ethanol as a fuel blend component in compression ignition engines is increasing especially in non-petroleum producing countries, due predominantly to the potential emissions benefits of the oxygen in the ethanol molecules. However, the use of fuel blends with high percentages of ethanol can lead to poor fuel quality, affecting for example fuel miscibility, cetane number, viscosity and lubricity. An approach which can be used to improve these properties is the addition of biodiesel forming ternary blends (ethanol-biodiesel-diesel). To avoid the use of first generation of biodiesel derived from edible sources (bypassing potential foodstock supply issues), the addition of castor oil-derived biodiesel (COME) with methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH) as a principal constituent provides an attractive alternative. The addition of C18:1 OH into ethanol-diesel blends provides high viscosity and improved lubricity. This study reports the findings of an investigation of the physical properties of ethanol-diesel blends with the addition of hydroxylated biodiesel derived from castor oil.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amar Deep, Dhruv Gupta
Diesel engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. As these engines, are the backbone of contemporary global transportation and accounts a 30% of world’s energy consumption, which is second highest after the industrial sector. Therefore, the fossil fuel consumption becomes the prime concern. Following the global energy crisis and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. Currently, biodiesel has been identified as the most attractive and practical choice to replace fossil fuel as the main source of energy, due to the similarity with conventional diesel in terms of chemical structure and energy content. However, its development and application have been hindered by the high cost of required feedstock. Therefore, in recent years, researchers have been seeking alternative sources of oil which are economical. The orange peel oil emerges as a good competitor in the field of alternate oil for biodiesel production, due to its low viscosity and low cold flow plugging temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic. This paper presents a brief review of recent literature on the subject as well as the results of a detailed experimental programme carried out under laboratory conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pramod S. Mehta, Thangaraja Jeyaseelan PhD
Biodiesel are mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from edible/non-edible oils and serve as an alternate fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. Biodiesel composition differs from petroleum diesel due to its oxygen content and presence of high degree of unsaturation in its molecule. While a neat saturated or edible biodiesel is not recommended as a sole fuel due to food versus fuel concerns, a neat unsaturated or non-edible biodiesel result in storage problem and NO emission penalty. It is known that saturated biodiesel such as palm oil has certain favorable characteristics in respect of NO reduction, better storage stability. Whereas, the unsaturated biodiesel such as karanja possesses better lubricity and cold flow properties. The change in injection timing due to the bulk modulus effect is reported to be the dominant factor affecting the biodiesel-NO emission. Many investigations on biodiesel report that the degree of unsaturation in biodiesel composition is one of the causes of increase in NO emission.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Shehan O. Haputhanthri
The combined future volumes of conventional petroleum, heavy oil, oil sands and oil shale total 29.9 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). At a production growth rate of 5%, conventional petroleum and heavy oil resources will last only 51 years as assessed in 2009. Therefore an alternate for petroleum fuel should be identified without delay. Ammonia can offer a carbon-free solution to energy crisis without strenuous changes to the existing infrastructure. Ammonia contains about 17% by weight of Hydrogen, which is much better than all other non-carbon based Hydrogen storage methods. Ammonia, when blended with hydrocarbon fuels, can be used as a composite fuel to power existing IC engines. Such blends, similar to ethanol and gasoline fuel blends can be used to commercialize ammonia as an alternate transportation fuel. However due to the molecular structures of polarized ammonia and hydrocarbons with a long carbon chain, feasibility of dissolving ammonia alone in the liquid phase of hydrocarbons is very low.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Padol Sukajit, Somnuek Jaroonjitsathian, Somchai Siangsanorh
Ethanol blended gasoline so called “Gasohol” has been mainly used as an alternative fuel in spark-ignited engine in Thailand for many years such as E10, E20 and E85. Regarding the global CO2 emission and fuel economy concerns, the introduction of Directed Injection Spark-ignited gasoline (DISI) engine in Thailand become more and more practical in the market. In general, DISI technology offers better fuel economy with higher thermal efficiency while decreases the CO2 emission compared to Port Fuel Injected gasoline (PFI) technology. On the other hand, DISI engine can emit a large number of small particulate matter (PM) and higher NOX emission due to the stratified charged and lean-burn combustion respectively. By the way, fuel ethanol as the presence of the oxygen in the fuel could suppress the particulate emission (PM). Therefore, the effects of ethanol blended gasoline such as E10 and E20 on DISI vehicle in term of regulate and unregulated emissions have been conducted in this study.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vikas S Revankar, Vinay N, S Hariharan, V Arvind
Petroleum fuels are being used exhaustively and there poses a risk of depletion in the near future. It is estimated that the fossil fuel reserves may last for another few decades. Alongside violent fluctuations in crude oil prices and concern on environmental impact with extensive use of fossil fuel in prime movers lead to a deliberate search for feasible alternative fuel. In this context, non edible bio-oils are becoming very important and their properties compare favorably with the requirement of IC engines after suitable conditioning. The major problem associated with using raw oils is their high viscosity and low volatility. The widely accepted method to reduce viscosity is by the transesterification process which produces esters of respective oils. This paper deals with comparison of performance, combustion and emission characteristics of B20 AOME and B20 FOME fuelled in four stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated, water cooled, 10 bhp, compression ignition (C.I.) engine with 17.5:1 compression ratio.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pradip Lingfa
Abstract In the present experimental investigations the influence of injector opening pressures and injection timings on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated single diesel engine has been investigated. The tests were conducted with four different fuels, namely diesel and Tung biodiesel blends (TB10, TB15, TB20 and TB50) at three different injector opening pressures (150 bar, 200 bar and 250 bar) respectively. Fuel injection opening pressures were varied by changing the spring tension of the needle valve of injector nozzle. The three different injection timings (standard timing at 23° BTDC, retarded timing of 21° BTDC and advanced timing of 25° BTDC) were used. The injection timings were varied by changing the thickness of the shim. The entire tests were conducted at the constant engine speed of 1500 rpm under various load conditions. The experimental results showed that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of Tung biodiesel improved at higher injector opening pressure.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kalle Lehto, Aki Vepsäläinen, Ulla Kiiski, Markku Kuronen
Diesel fuel requires sufficient lubricity to prevent excessive wear in the fuel injection equipment. The processes for removing sulphur from diesel fuel also eliminate compounds that are responsible for its lubricating properties. This phenomenon is counterbalanced by employing lubricity additives to restore fuel lubricity to an acceptable level. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of two different laboratory methods for testing lubricity. The two methods were the EN 590 standard method HFRR and a less utilized method Scuffing Load Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (SLBOCLE). Three different commercial lubricity additives were used and RME used for lubricity purposes in the same as the additives. To study the possible effect of the base fuel, the tests are performed with various fossil diesel fuels with different total aromatic content, paraffinic diesel (HVO), and blends of these. The best HFRR - SLBOCLE correlation was found with RME used as a lubricity additive, but the results were still conflicting concerning the approval limits.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
More Manjunath, Pratheesh Prakash PhD, Vasudevan Raghavan, Pramod S. Mehta
Biologically derived fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) commonly known as biodiesels are a proven alternative to the ever depleting energy source for compression ignition engines - petroleum diesel. The previous engine investigations published in literature have established that biodiesels are not only effective as an alternative to petroleum diesel but is also less polluting when compared to the former. The engines experiments are not sufficient enough to scientifically reason process of biodiesel combustion in engines. Detailed studies on characterization of biodiesel fuels, their effects on fundamental processes involved in internal combustion engine operation like droplet evaporation and combustion is essential in explaining the physics of the combustion process of compression ignition engines. Even though there exists enormous literature on both fundamental and engine investigations pertaining to the use of biodiesel fuels, only a few has been conducted on biodiesels of Indian origin.
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