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Training / Education
2015-06-03
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels. The first day of the course begins with a brief review of the evolution of motor fuel through 100 years of performance and specification.
Event
2014-11-19
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-11-19
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-11-19
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-10-20
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-20
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, Ronghua Huang
Ethanol is a widely used alternative fuel to address the issue of sustainability. However, making the use of renewable fuel effective and efficient is still challenging. Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) has been in development due to its great potential in taking the advantages of ethanol fuel to increase the compression ratio and thermal efficiency. The work reported in this paper contributes to understanding the fuel and gas behaviours which are crucial in the development of EDI+GPI engine. A set of engine models have been developed using ANSYS FLUENT. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of cylinder pressure in an engine and spray shapes in a constant volume chamber. The verified model was used to investigate the fuel vaporization and mixture formation of the EDI+GPI research engine. The effect of the ethanol/gasoline ratio on charge cooling has been studied. Compared with GPI only, EDI+GPI demonstrated stronger effect on charge cooling by decreased in-cylinder temperature and increased volumetric efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abhishek Sharma, Murugan Sivalingam
In this study, the effects of nozzle opening pressure on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection (DI) diesel engine have been investigated and compared with diesel operation. The engine was fueled with Jatropha methyl ester (JME)-Tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blend (JME 80%+TPO 20% on a volume basis), when running the engine at five different nozzle opening pressures viz., 210, 220, 230, 240, and 250 bar in addition to original nozzle opening pressure of 200 bar. The results confirmed that the injection pressure up to 220 bar gave better results for the JMETPO20 blend in terms of performance and emission characteristics compared to that of original injection pressure , and also 230, 240 and 250 bar. At 220 bar nozzle opening pressure, for the JMETPO20 blend the brake thermal efficiency was higher by about 5.12%, and the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were lower by about 1.75% and 6.2% respectively compared to original nozzle opening pressure at full load.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
XiaoDan Cui, Beini ZHOU, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on spray and soot formation. We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated bio-fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. The numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). We conducted a 3-D numerical study using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting a gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model, including soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. In this numerical study, the ambience temperature and density were set at 900 K and 12 g/cm3, respectively to reproduce the in-cylinder conditions almost similar to a low load and speed condition in the ordinary light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andreas Schmid, Beat Von Rotz, German Weisser, Kai Herrmann
During their lifetime, marine diesel engines are operated with a broad variety of fuels and fuel qualities. For their commissioning, the engines run on marine diesel oil whereas the rest of their rather long service life the engines mostly experience a variety of heavy fuel oils with a broad spectra of qualities. Especially viscosity, density, aromatic content and cetane number vary significantly depending on origin and batch number of the bunkered fuel. To ensure reliable engine operation irrespective of fuel quality, manufacturers have to make sure that injection systems and in-cylinder conditions allow the application of these fuels throughout the operating range. To do so, the optimization of combustion systems of large 2-stroke marine diesel engines still relies largely on extensive testing. However, experiments are more and more supported by CFD simulations, in spite of limitations regarding the applicability of the available spray, evaporation, combustion and emissions formation models to those systems.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Michal Geca, Grzegorz Baranski, Grzegorz Litak
The addition of hydrogen to an Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine seems to be particularly suitable to arrive at a near-zero emission Otto engine. In this way it would be able to meet easily the most stringent regulations. The fluctuations in the combustion process of gasoline with hydrogen addition in an spark ignition engine were investigated. The cyclic combustion pressure was measured and its cyclic oscillations were expressed by indicated mean effective pressure per cycle. The statistical and multifractal analyses applied to the corresponding time series showed considerable changes in the engine dynamics for hydrogen percentages ranging from 5% to 20%. The tests were carried out for four-cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition engine C20LE Holden for 7 various operating points for speeds from 1500 to 3900 rpm. The load expressed as the pressure in the intake manifold has been changed within a range of pd = 37 – 85 kPa. The research has been conducted on the original fuel – petrol and the original fuel with added a hydrogen fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Marek Flekiewicz, Grzegorz Kubica PhD, Bartosz Flekiewicz
THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IN SI ENGINES FOR SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS Abstract The analysis of overall performance of the engine powered by selected gaseous fuels has been presented in this paper. Primary objective of the research was to determine the influence of fuel type on efficiency of energy conversion in the tested engine. The scope of the research featured: • the application low-carbon fuels, • the use of DME as a renewable fuel in blends with LPG. The use of low-carbon gaseous fuels gives the opportunity to reduce exhaust emissions. Changes in global economy including energy sources, are currently oriented onto the gradual replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources. World widely present activities include promotion of alternative fuel systems both in the vehicles as well as in stationary engines. The basic assumption in the presented research was the use of gaseous fuels, which main component is methane. The main problem taken into consideration was excessive duration of the combustion process, which is one of the causes of the engine overall efficiency reduction when running on gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed methane-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed resulting in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The effect of lambda, start of injection and diesel substitution ratios on nozzle tip temperature was determined using an instrumented DI injector with a thermocouple inserted in the nozzle tip. From this study a baseline case was selected with a nozzle tip temperature of 325 °C. From the baseline case, λ, SOI and diesel substitution was changed individually creating 3 high temperature cases and 3 low temperature cases with the nozzle tip temperature 350 °C and 305 °C respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
ARIJ BEN AMARA, Bertrand Lecointe, Nicolas Jeuland, Takuya Takahashi, Yutaka IIda, Hiromichi Hashimoto, Julien Bouilly
The stability of Diesel/Biodiesel blends can play an important role in deposits formation inside the fuel injection system (FIS). The impact of the stability of FAME/Diesel fuel blends on lacquer deposits formation and on the behavior and reliability of the FIS was investigated using blends of Rapeseed and Soybean methyl esters (RME, SME) and conventional Diesel fuel (volume fractions of RME and SME range from 0 to 20%v/v). Fuels were aged under accelerated conditions and tested on an injection test rig according to an operating cycle developed to provoke injector needle blocking. The soaking duration was found to affect injector fouling. A relationship between the injector fouling tendency and the fuel stability was established. Under current test condition, injectors fouling increased with fuel oxidation measured with Total-Acid-Number. Needle fouling occurred at a TAN level of 0.25mg KOH/g and needle blocking occurred at a TAN level of 0.5 and 1 mg KOH/g for B20-SME and B20-RME, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Vincent Chen, Carlos Espinoza, Tyler Berte, Thomas Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Alexander Bergmann
Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the U.S. has increased approximately 6-fold over the last decade from 2 to 13 billion gallons per year. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol at a concentration of 10% by volume (E10). Ethanol is also available as E85, which after a recent change in specifications, is allowed to contain as much as 83% v/v as little as 51% v/v ethanol. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promotes the use of alternative fuels, with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandating the use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels in the transportation fuel pool by 2022. Although ethanol is expected to make up the majority of this requirement, other alcohol formulations can be considered as promising alternatives to gasoline. Butanol is an attractive biofuel for use in spark-ignited (SI) engines, and combines the advantages of gasoline in terms of energy density with the oxygen content and renewability of ethanol without being hydrophilic.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method. Many papers which show the result which the fuel produced by transesterification method can apply as diesel fuel are announced. It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with crude oil. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PES) which is a promoter of cancer. It is necessary to measure PEs contained in Jatropha crude oil and PM in exhaust gas for safe use. Measurement of un-vaporized fuel sprays which was injected into pressurized vessel by high speed video camera and ignition characteristics by ignitability evaluation equipment of fuel (FIA-100) of Jatropha blended fuel were performed. The conventional jerk type fuel injection system which is used for industrial diesel engine and the high pressure common rail type fuel injection systems which is used for modern automobile diesel engine were examined. The engine performance and exhaust emission including Particulate Matter (PM) was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Annika Talus, Lisen Johansson, Francesco Regali, Ali Saramat
Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Ageing of biodiesel increases the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water in the fuel, degradation products that are known to increase the corrosion of metals in the system and thereby cause internal injector deposits (IID) and fuel filter blocking (FFB) which damage the fuel system. When performing accelerated corrosion tests in laboratory, biodiesel continues to degrade further, resulting in too aggressive system. In order to avoid exaggeration of degradation products in aged biodiesel, a stable test fuel that resembles biodiesel but otherwise is resistant to additional ageing during testing is needed. In this study a stable test fuel has been prepared and doped with impurity (methanol) and degradation products such as SCFA and water. The prepared test fuel was evaluated with regards to its structure using GC-MS, water content using Karl Fisher volumetric titration, SCFA using extraction ion chromatography and methanol using GC-FID, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Stamatios Spyridon Kalligeros, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois, George Anastopoulos
Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel in winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend cloud point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent vehicle stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that saturaded monoglyceride content were a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters. It was also discovered that saturated diglycerides, were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest procedure in order to predict the content of the saturated monoglycerides even with uncertainty which can vary from -50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as it introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013. The model is based on the assumption that saturated fatty esters, saturated fatty acids and saturated monoglycerides are present in the same proportions in the FAME.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Juhani K. Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Paivi Aakko-Saksa, Sari Mannonen, Ville Vauhkonen, Pirita Roslund
UPM BioVerno, a high quality “drop-in” renewable diesel fuel from tall oil, was studied as a component in regular mineral-oil based fossil diesel fuel. For this work, UPM teamed up with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland for field testing. The aim was to evaluate the functionality and performance of four (4) passenger cars by taking into account e.g. fuel consumption and exhaust emissions when compared to fossil reference fuel. The field test included 20.000 km on-road driving with each car by experienced drivers from VTT with variable trip lenghts, traffic and climate conditions. Initial, mid-term and final in-laboratory tests were run for perfor¬man¬¬ce and emissions. Four other make/model cars were subjected to similar tests with UPM BioVerno test blend and reference diesel. Apart from regulated exhaust emissions, a list of non-regulated species were also measured. The main parts of these field and in–laboratory tests are discussed in this article. UPM BioVerno proved to be a high quality blending component that did not change the functionality nor the emission characteristics of the tested diesel passenger cars.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ekarong Sukjit, Jose M. Herreros, Karl Dearn, Athanasios Tsolakis
The interest in ethanol as a fuel blend component in compression ignition engines is increasing especially in non-petroleum producing countries, due predominantly to the potential emissions benefits of the oxygen in the ethanol molecules. However, the use of fuel blends with high percentages of ethanol can lead to poor fuel quality, affecting for example fuel miscibility, cetane number, viscosity and lubricity. An approach which can be used to improve these properties is the addition of biodiesel forming ternary blends (ethanol-biodiesel-diesel). To avoid the use of first generation of biodiesel derived from edible sources (bypassing potential foodstock supply issues), the addition of castor oil-derived biodiesel (COME) with methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH) as a principal constituent provides an attractive alternative. The addition of C18:1 OH into ethanol-diesel blends provides high viscosity and improved lubricity. This study reports the findings of an investigation of the physical properties of ethanol-diesel blends with the addition of hydroxylated biodiesel derived from castor oil.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amar Deep, Dhruv Gupta
Diesel engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. As these engines, are the backbone of contemporary global transportation and accounts a 30% of world’s energy consumption, which is second highest after the industrial sector. Therefore, the fossil fuel consumption becomes the prime concern. Following the global energy crisis and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. Currently, biodiesel has been identified as the most attractive and practical choice to replace fossil fuel as the main source of energy, due to the similarity with conventional diesel in terms of chemical structure and energy content. However, its development and application have been hindered by the high cost of required feedstock. Therefore, in recent years, researchers have been seeking alternative sources of oil which are economical. The orange peel oil emerges as a good competitor in the field of alternate oil for biodiesel production, due to its low viscosity and low cold flow plugging temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic. This paper presents a brief review of recent literature on the subject as well as the results of a detailed experimental programme carried out under laboratory conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pramod S. Mehta, Thangaraja Jeyaseelan PhD
Biodiesel are mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from edible/non-edible oils and serve as an alternate fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. Biodiesel composition differs from petroleum diesel due to its oxygen content and presence of high degree of unsaturation in its molecule. While a neat saturated or edible biodiesel is not recommended as a sole fuel due to food versus fuel concerns, a neat unsaturated or non-edible biodiesel result in storage problem and NO emission penalty. It is known that saturated biodiesel such as palm oil has certain favorable characteristics in respect of NO reduction, better storage stability. Whereas, the unsaturated biodiesel such as karanja possesses better lubricity and cold flow properties. The change in injection timing due to the bulk modulus effect is reported to be the dominant factor affecting the biodiesel-NO emission. Many investigations on biodiesel report that the degree of unsaturation in biodiesel composition is one of the causes of increase in NO emission.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
George S. Dodos, Dimitrios Karonis, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois
It is well known that biodiesel (FAME) is more susceptible to thermal and oxidative deterioration compared to conventional diesel fuel. Therefore the evaluation of its oxidation behavior is of prime importance in order to check the sufficient ageing reserve of the fuel. For this reason the determination of oxidation stability has been included in the applicable requirements of several international biodiesel standards such as the European Standard EN14214 and the ASTM D6751. For many years the only standardized method for measuring the oxidation stability of FAME and biodiesel blends was EN14112/EN 15751 that utilizes a Rancimat apparatus for determining the induction period. The Rancimat method gives reliable results however its main drawback consists in the fact that it cannot be employed for measuring the stability of conventional petroleum diesel. Hence, no direct assessment can be conducted on the impact of FAME on petro-diesel stability. The Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT- PetroOxy) is a pretty new, quick test method in which oxidation stability is directly measured via oxygen depletion.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Shehan O. Haputhanthri
The combined future volumes of conventional petroleum, heavy oil, oil sands and oil shale total 29.9 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). At a production growth rate of 5%, conventional petroleum and heavy oil resources will last only 51 years as assessed in 2009. Therefore an alternate for petroleum fuel should be identified without delay. Ammonia can offer a carbon-free solution to energy crisis without strenuous changes to the existing infrastructure. Ammonia contains about 17% by weight of Hydrogen, which is much better than all other non-carbon based Hydrogen storage methods. Ammonia, when blended with hydrocarbon fuels, can be used as a composite fuel to power existing IC engines. Such blends, similar to ethanol and gasoline fuel blends can be used to commercialize ammonia as an alternate transportation fuel. However due to the molecular structures of polarized ammonia and hydrocarbons with a long carbon chain, feasibility of dissolving ammonia alone in the liquid phase of hydrocarbons is very low.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Padol Sukajit, Somnuek Jaroonjitsathian, Somchai Siangsanorh
Ethanol blended gasoline so called “Gasohol” has been mainly used as an alternative fuel in spark-ignited engine in Thailand for many years such as E10, E20 and E85. Regarding the global CO2 emission and fuel economy concerns, the introduction of Directed Injection Spark-ignited gasoline (DISI) engine in Thailand become more and more practical in the market. In general, DISI technology offers better fuel economy with higher thermal efficiency while decreases the CO2 emission compared to Port Fuel Injected gasoline (PFI) technology. On the other hand, DISI engine can emit a large number of small particulate matter (PM) and higher NOX emission due to the stratified charged and lean-burn combustion respectively. By the way, fuel ethanol as the presence of the oxygen in the fuel could suppress the particulate emission (PM). Therefore, the effects of ethanol blended gasoline such as E10 and E20 on DISI vehicle in term of regulate and unregulated emissions have been conducted in this study.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vikas S Revankar, Vinay N, S Hariharan, V Arvind
Petroleum fuels are being used exhaustively and there poses a risk of depletion in the near future. It is estimated that the fossil fuel reserves may last for another few decades. Alongside violent fluctuations in crude oil prices and concern on environmental impact with extensive use of fossil fuel in prime movers lead to a deliberate search for feasible alternative fuel. In this context, non edible bio-oils are becoming very important and their properties compare favorably with the requirement of IC engines after suitable conditioning. The major problem associated with using raw oils is their high viscosity and low volatility. The widely accepted method to reduce viscosity is by the transesterification process which produces esters of respective oils. This paper deals with comparison of performance, combustion and emission characteristics of B20 AOME and B20 FOME fuelled in four stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated, water cooled, 10 bhp, compression ignition (C.I.) engine with 17.5:1 compression ratio.
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