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2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-04-23
Event
This session includes four papers related to spark-ignition engines and their fuels and five papers related to the processes of compression ignition combustion of different fuels.
2015-04-23
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1744
Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Chenaniah Langness, Christopher Depcik
The growth of hydraulic fracking has resulted in a dramatic cost reduction of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), a low carbon fuel. CNG cannot be used as singular fuel in conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines because of its high auto-ignition characteristics. However, CNG-assisted diesel combustion represents a means to shift the energy consumption of CI engines away from liquid fossil fuels. Calculation of the rate of heat release is vital for understanding and optimizing this mode of engine operation. A previously constructed three-zone equilibrium heat release model that is calibrated to engine exhaust hydrocarbon measurements was augmented in order to allow for the addition of CNG in the engine intake. The model was also adapted to permit reuse of unburned CNG gas with other exhaust species via exhaust gas recirculation. This is because experiments demonstrated a potentially dramatic increase in methane emissions under high CNG flow rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0803
Marko Jeftić, Jimi Tjong, Graham Reader, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Experimental testing was done with a modern compression ignition engine to study the effect of the engine load and the effect of different fuels on the post injection characteristics. Two different fuels were utilized; ultra-low sulphur diesel and n-butanol. The results showed that a post injection can be an effective method for increasing the operating range of the engine load. Engine operation at high load can be limited by the peak cylinder pressure but the test results showed that an early post injection can increase the engine load without increasing the peak in-cylinder pressure. Neat butanol combustion may have a very high peak in-cylinder pressure and a very high peak pressure rise rate even at low load conditions. The test results showed that a butanol post injection can contribute to engine power without significantly affecting the peak pressure rise rate and the peak in-cylinder pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1745
Cemil Bekdemir, Rik Baert, Frank Willems, Bart Somers
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a promising combustion concept in terms of controllability and load range compared to other high efficiency low pollutant emission concepts, such as Homogeneous and Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI/PCCI). Up to now, these RCCI strategies mainly rely on the combination of two liquid fuels: a diesel like and gasoline like fuel. Recently, this concept also became interesting from an operational cost perspective since one of the fuels can be natural gas (CNG). This is especially interesting for the partial substitution of diesel fuel in the heavy-duty market, as it bears the potential of decreasing CO2 and soot emissions on top of RCCI’s general potential of high thermal efficiency and low engine-out NOx emission. Engine control development requires fast models that capture the main features and trends of the processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0845
Prasad Divekar, Zhenyi Yang, David Ting, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Experimental investigation of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) cycles is conducted with diesel and ethanol fuels on a high compression ratio (18.2:1), common-rail diesel engine. Two LTC modes are studied; near-TDC injection of diesel with high intake charge dilution, and port injected ethanol ignited by direct injection of diesel with moderate exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Indicated mean effective pressure up to 10 bar in the diesel LTC mode and 17.6 bar in the dual-fuel LTC mode has been realized. While the NOx and smoke emissions are significantly reduced, a thermal efficiency penalty is observed from the test results. In this work, the efficiency penalty is attributed to increased HC and CO emissions and a non-conventional heat release pattern. The influence of heat release phasing, duration, and shape, on the indicated performance is explained with the help of parametric engine cycle simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0848
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a cost-effective option for improving the efficiency and performance of gasoline engines. Nevertheless, particulate emission are larger than conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Ethanol is very effective in particle emissions reduction. On the other hand, the low vapor pressure of ethanol makes cold start very difficult, and the low lower heating value (LHV) results in lower energy density and then larger fuel consumption. The dual-fuel injection system can be used to improve the engine performance and reduce the fossil fuel consumption performing simultaneously a direct-injection (DI) and a port-fuel-injection (PFI) of different fuels. The aim of the paper is the investigation of the particle emissions from ethanol-gasoline dual fuel combustion. The engine was operated also in gasoline-gasoline dual fuel mode to distinguish the effect of injection strategy from the effect of fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1242
Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
Ethanol has demonstrated strong, anti-knock performance in spark ignition (SI) engines, and this is one important reason for its increasing use around the world. Ethanol’s high octane rating is attributed to both its low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling capability. Further, whilst detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms have been developed for gasoline surrogates and ethanol, little work has been done to investigate whether autoignition in modern, SI engines with ethanol/gasoline blends can be reproduced by these mechanisms, in particular for cases with direct fuel injection. This paper therefore presents a numerical study of the trace knocking of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results of these numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained in a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
As a cheap, clean alternative, neat methanol and methanol gasoline are widely used as vehicle fuel in many provinces in China. Though burning methanol is able to curb carbonaceous pollutants from engine, NOx and carbonyls, in particular formaldehyde, remain concerns over atmospheric environment and public health. In this paper, regulated, carbonyl emissions together with particulate matter from a neat methanol/gasoline dual-fuel passenger car were examined over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results yielded that, CO, HC and NOx from different fuel regimes were very similar. 14 kinds of carbonyl compounds in the exhaust samples were analyzed. In comparison with gasoline baseline, approximately 41.9% more carbonyls, majority of which were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propyl aldehyde and benzaldehyde, were discharged by methanol fuelling. Regarding particulate matter, a remarkable decrease of 63% in mass was obtained by fuelling with methanol.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10 – a blend of ethanol, isobutanol and gasoline. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 11.2% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.1% with the isobutanol blends).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit, designed and developed by a joint collaboration between the Professional School “Leon Battista Alberti” (Rimini, Italy) and local specialized companies. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0853
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Arulselvan Subramanian
A comparative study was made on the effect of methanol addition (by blending) and induction (by carburetion) on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a vegetable oil (Madhuca Indica called as Mahua oil) based diesel engine. A single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rev/min. was used. Initially methanol was blended with Mahua oil in different proportions such as 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume and tested for engine performance and emissions. In the second phase a carburetor was fitted at the intake manifold and methanol was inducted by fumigation technique. Tests were conducted at the engine loads of 100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of the maximum power output with varying amount of methanol. Results of 100% and 40% loads were compared and analyzed. Neat Mahua oil resulted in inferior performance and increased emissions at both power outputs as compared to neat diesel operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0955
Hejun Guo, Qining Xun, Shenghua Liu, Xuanjun Wang
Utilization of clean energy resources for modern automotive engines has been attached great importance in recent years. Biofuel has been well known as one of the alternative fuels for diesel engine, which is able to burn completely during engine operation and thereby can give rise to a significant smoke reduction. In the present paper, a new biofuel ethylene glycol monomethyl ether soyate has been developed. The biofuel was synthesized with a refined soybean oil and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as reactants and sodium as catalyst under 90℃. The synthesized crude product was purified and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR and GPC analyses. The physicochemical properties of the biofuel and its addition effects on properties of diesel fuel were investigated according to China national standard test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Yahaya Alhassan, Amar Deep
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks is required. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (oC) were considered as the factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated. The results of the experimental matrix were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
In this study, the optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), homogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), homogeneous catalyst types (NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the transesterification for the production of Mangifera oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Homogenous alkali catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using homogenous catalyst such as NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA. The optimum experimental condition obtained from this study are; 1:16 methanol to oil molar ratio, KOH as the catalyst type, at a loading 1.5 wt% and a reaction temperature of 64°C played the most important role in the yield of Mangifera methyl ester.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1681
Girish Khairnar, Jagrit Shrivas, Sachin Pande, Rohit Londhe, Yaser Hussaini, Yogesh Ambekar
Last mile transportation is an important supply chain & transportation requirement for the movement of people and goods from a transport hub to a final destination in the area. In India this requirement is largely met by 3 wheelers & small 4 wheelers (below 1 ton payload). Greaves cotton Ltd. (GCL) has played an important role for last mile transportation solutions in India by developing suitable engines for the above category vehicles. GCL is already supplying single cylinder air cooled 400 cc diesel / CNG, 435 cc & 510 cc diesel BSIII engines for 3 wheeler applications and single cylinder water cooled 510 cc & 611 cc BSIII diesel engines for small commercial 4 wheeler applications. In India, BSIV emission norms are in place since April 2010 in metro cities for 4 wheelers. Also CNG network is well established in most of these cities. Hence to serve this market, the CNG engine variant development of the 611 cc diesel BSIII engine was initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0804
Jinli Wang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Experimental research were carried out on a compression ignition engine with compression ratio of 17.5 with direct-run Naphtha. Exhaust recirculation ratio sweeps were carried out with three injection strategies. Premixed charge compression ignition, partially premixed combustion and low temperature combustion modes were realized and compared with each other. The first injection strategy is single injection. The injection timing is scanned to form partially premixed combustion and low temperature combustion. The second injection strategy features a large early first injection with fixed timing to form premixed charge and a small second injection near top dead center, which was scanned. The third injection strategy is similar to the traditional diesel injection strategy, which has a small pilot injection with fixed interval before the main injection. Results show that all injection strategies could realize both low NOx and low particulate matter emissions simultaneously.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0863
Hideyuki Ogawa, Peilong Zhao, Taiki Kato, Gen Shibata
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas from an intake manifold as the main fuel and a small quantity of directly injected diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, super-charged, direct injection diesel engine with common rail fuel injection and low pressure loop cooled EGR. This type of combustion poses problems including large unburned emissions at low engine load conditions and limitations on the maximum load due to excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, the equivalence ratio of the natural gas, and the intake oxygen concentrations changed with cooled EGR on the combustion and emissions in the dual fuel operation was systematically investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1679
Lynn C. McLean, Mohamed El-Sayed
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a byproduct of both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. As a chemical, propane (C3H8) is a nontoxic, colorless, and virtually odorless hydrocarbon. In it liquefied form propane is highly compactable and therefore extremely economical to store and transport. Due its availability and adoptability as engine fuel, propane is quickly becoming one of the most viable alternative fuel in the world known as Propane Autogas. While thousands of LPG fueled vehicles such as buses, taxis, delivery and other fleet vehicles are on the road few comprehensive studies on LPG as alternative fuel in mass transportation are documented. In this paper, a comprehensive commercial study for LPG as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel is conducted. The study includes the required infrastructure for fueling, the fuel supply, the fueling station, and the conversion of the fleet vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0958
Naveen Kumar, Sidharth Bansal, Harveer Singh Pali
Concerns about long term availability of petroleum based fuels and stringent environmental norms have been a subject for deliberations around the globe. Moreover, diesel engines are considered work horse in India because of higher power output and efficiency. Such engines are widely used in transport, industrial and agriculture sector, however, they also contribute significantly to air pollution. The vegetable oil based fuels and alcohols are very promising alternative fuels to substitute diesel, reduce exhaust emissions and to improve combustion in diesel engine. This is mainly possible due to oxygenated nature of these fuels. Jatropha oil is important non-edible oil in India which is either used in neat or modified form as diesel fuel. Furthermore n-butanol is renewable higher alcohol having properties quite similar to diesel fuel. In the present study, n-butanol was blended in Jatropha Oil (JO) and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JOME) on volumetric basis (5,10,15 and 20%).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect to the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. A lot of research is being carried throughout the world to evaluate the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of the existing engines using several alternative fuels. Expert studies indicate hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future due to its superior combustion qualities and availability. This article experimentally characterizing the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0889
Jai Gopal Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive in economic and environmental terms. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emission and few of them are regulated worldwide, while several other species are not regulated as yet. New research is indicating that these unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is very popular in several Asian countries and various governments are considering its wide scale implementation. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at rated engine speeds for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using Karanja biodiesel blends (KB20 and KB40) in a state-of-the-art common rail direct injection (CRDI) SUV transportation engine (Tata, Safari DICOR 2.2L). This engine has a maximum fuel injection pressure of 1600 bar.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0904
J. Sadhik Basha
The impact of nano-additives with the diesel and biodiesel fuels is one of the current scopes of research with regards to the fuel modification techniques. Intensive research is underway to utilize the nano-additives judiciously without affecting our ecological environment. In the present work, the effects of nano-additives (Alumina and Carbon Nanotubes) blended biodiesel emulsion fuels on the performance, smoke, gaseous emission and combustion characteristics of a constant speed four stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine was investigated. It is recognized that emissions of nanoparticles from diesel engines is of great concern and that if this work demonstrates a performance benefit then further work will be focused on the health impact issues. Esterification and emulsification techniques were adopted to prepare the jatropha biodiesel and jatropha water-biodiesel emulsion fuels respectively. The whole investigation was carried out in five phases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0966
Sauhard Singh, Anil Bhardwaj, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh, B P Das, Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N B Chougule
The ever increasing demand of fuels for vehicles can only be met by use of alternate fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). The hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and is considered to be the first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy. While, automotive industry matures up with the usage of new engines, lubricant manufacturers are also moving on to the next stage by formulating oils to be used in gas engines such as CNG, HCNG etc. This paper presents the evaluation of gas engine oil on 6-cylinder heavy duty CNG engine using 18 percent HCNG. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was optimized for using HCNG fuel. Initial performance of the engine using HCNG was compared vis-à-vis CNG and, thereafter, the engine was subjected to endurance test of 500 hours as per 8 mode engine simulated driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0950
Jonas Galle, Roel Verschaeren, Sebastian Verhelst
The need for simulation tools for the internal combustion engine is becoming more and more important due to the complex engine design and increasingly strict emission regulation. This implies models that are able to give more accurate results while keeping the time efforts for calculations at an acceptable level. Fuels consist of a complex mixture of different molecules which cannot realistically be handled in computations. Simplifications are required and are realized using fuel surrogates. The main goal of this work is to show that the choice of the surrogates is of importance if simplified models are used and that the performance strongly depends upon the sensitivity of the fuel properties that refer to the main model hypotheses. This is important as this is usually not taken into consideration by modelers. As a consequence of these influences, too much tuning needs to be done to match experiments with the modeling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1265
Yoann Viollet, Marwan Abdullah, Abdullah Alhajhouje, Junseok Chang
In a regulatory environment for spark ignition (SI) engines where the focus is continuously looking into improvements in fuel economy and reduction in noxious emissions, the challenges to achieve future requirements are utmost. In order to effectively reduce CO2 emissions on a well to wheel basis, future fuels enabling high efficiency SI engines will have to not only satisfy advanced engine requirement, i.e. high knock resistance, but also produces less CO2 emissions in the refinery. In this paper, compression ratio 10.5 single cylinder SI engine test were conducted to characterize combustion with two dual fuel configurations. Straight run refinery naphtha was used for low octane component, and two oxygenates were used for high octane knock inhabitant component, such as, Methanol and MTBE (Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether). Research Octane Number (RON) of naphtha was 61, while RON of Methanol was 106 and RON of MTBE was 116.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1255
Michael Pontoppidan, Jose G. C. Baeta
The approach of combining highly boosted Ethanol Direct Injected (EDI) engines with extreme downsizing represents a powerful means to reduce CO2 emission at reduced production costs, making it possible to replace high-displacement E0 or E22 engines with smaller highly boosted engines running with bio-fuels such as hydrated ethanol in Brazil (E100) or in North America and Europe (E85). The DI approach is an ideal system for an ethanol engine as the fuel properties enable high compression ratios (CR) in the range of 12 to 13:1, eliminating knock occurrence and generating precise fuel metering. Applied initially to a single turbocharged downsized, down-speeded engine can be obtained a significant decrease in engine friction and a reduction in the exhaust emissions as well a recovery of the power output. This leads to a significant improvement in brake thermal efficiency.
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