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2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-04-21
Event
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels.
2015-04-21
Event
This session explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials. A discussion on lifecycle analysis of the energy sources is also highly recommended. The SDPC encourages usage of papers, presentations, and panels in this session to display leading edge technologies and practical tools for engineers.
2015-01-23
Event
This session will focus on the safety of electrical systems in electric cars including battery testing. It will also cover international regulations on hydrogen and CNG and guidelines on modification to convert to electric vehicles.NHTSA report on Ford/SAE projects; Hydrogen GTR: cylinder tests, NASA cylinder lifetime testing, EV Safety / Battery Safety.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0058
Sukrut Thipse, Ajit Vinayak Kulkarni, Suresh J Vispute, S D Rairikar, Shailesh B Sonawane, Vinayak Shivalink Sagare, Kishor Kumar Kauathekar, Subhanker Dev
A duel fuel (Diesel-CNG) engine is diesel engine fitted with a dual fuel conversion kit to enable use of clean burning alternative fuel like compressed natural gas. Dual fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, lower emissions, higher compression ratio, better efficiency and less modifications on existing diesel engines. The base engine is a diesel engine where diesel and natural gas are burned simultaneously. Natural gas is fed into the cylinder; the amount of diesel injection is reduced accordingly. As dual fuel systems allow retrofitting of diesel engines, CO2 and other tail pipe emission s like PM, NOx, CO and HC reduces. At the same time by replacing diesel with natural gas helps to reduce imports bill. Normally natural gas is a cheaper fuel compared to diesel. Cost savings of dual fuel vehicles will depend on the share of gas added.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0053
Chandrakant Awate, Jayesh Zadokar, Sanjay Patel, Anay Malaviya, Vinti Arora cEng
With ever increasing population growth and increase in per capita income, put lots of demand on energy requirements. On the other side depletion in fossil fuel, rocketing fuel prices and as we move ever closer to the 2021 fuel economy targets and CO2 emissions standards, it is imperative to find solutions which are cost-effective and from sustainable energy sources. Being in the tropical region, India has high solar insolation, which can be used for energy generation. This paper describes best possible ways to use solar energy for automotive application. This paper explains various types of photovoltaic (PV) technologies – crystalline and thin film solar cells. A medium sized sedan vehicle with mild hybrid technology and roof mounted PV panel is used for all experiments. Authors describe the benefits and limitations of each PV technology with experimental measurement and payback period analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Plant origin vegetable oils are long considered as a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine applications. However, higher viscosity and density compounded with poor cold flow properties of these oils lead to serious operational and durability problems in diesel engines like injector chocking, higher deposit formations, poor combustion characteristics etc. In this context, application of additives in neat vegetable oil to enable them for engine application seem to present a promising alternative for rural stationary diesel engines where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not feasible. In the present study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0056
Pedro M. Barroso, Xavier Ribas, Mario Pita Sr, Judith Dominguez, Edgard De Seia
This work is based on the development of heavy-duty diesel engines for alternative fuel use over the years. Three HD diesel engines for on-highway truck applications were studied: a 13L diesel engine was converted to a dedicated lean-burn NG engine and two diesel engines (14 and 4.25L) were converted to dual-fuel operation with diesel-NG and diesel-LPG respectively. The dedicated NG engine conversion was achieved by means of some relevant modifications, such as the reduction of the compression ratio, the design of a gas injection system, the design of a spark plug adapter, and the implementation of a complete EMS. In relation to the dual-fuel cases, some minor modifications were made to the diesel baseline engines such as the installation of the gas train components and the implementation of a gas ECU for the management of the diesel and gas injection using some selected CAN bus J1939 signals.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favourable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a "Hydrogen Economy" are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0051
Srinivas Jilakara, Jaikumar V Vaithianathan, Saravanan Natarajan, Venkateswara R Ramakrishnan, GP Subash, Mathew Abraham, Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Lalit Mohan Das
Hydrogen is considered as one of the potential alternate fuel compared to other alternate fuels like CNG,LPG, Ethanol etc.due to its unique properties and absence of carbon. In the current work, Hydrogen engine of 2.5 L,four cylinder, spark ignited Turbocharged-Intercooled engine is developed for Mini Bus application.Multi-point fuel injection system is used for injecting the hydrogen in the intake manifold.Initially boost simulation is performed to select the optimum compression ratio and turbocharger. The literature review is conducted to find the optimum equivalence ratio with minimal NOx emissions and it has been shown in the literature that in-order to get the minimal NOx emissions Hydrogen engines must be operated between equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. In the present study full throttle performance is conducted mainly with the above equivalence ratio range with minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0052
Ashish Jashvantlal Modi, Dhiren Patel
As concerned with the IC engine now a day’s energy conservation and higher thermal efficiency are the main issues. As there is a big amount of heat loss in atmosphere due to which the efficiency is lower for the standard engine. There is one possible solution to reduce such problem by converting the conventional CI engine in to the LHR engine. For the current work the performance and emission characteristics are evaluated for the twin cylinder ceramic coated water cooled CI engine using blends of diesel and neem bio diesel. For the present work the bio-diesel was prepared in laboratory from non-edible vegetable oil (neem oil) by transesterification process with methanol, where potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used in as a catalyst. Inside Cylinder of combustion chamber, Piston top surface (crown) and valve faces were coated with the Magnesium Zirconate (MgZrO3).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0046
Sukrut S Thipse, Shailesh B Sonawane, Ashwin F D' Souza, Kishor Kumar Kauathekar, S D Rairikar
CNG has long since been established as a front runner amongst other available alternative fuels. In India, its infrastructure and penetration far exceeds others. While other, more efficient alternatives are been researched, CNG has established itself in the market are the alternative fuel of choice for majority of Indians. CNG technology has evolved itself from the basic venturi system to the more efficient sequential injection system nowadays. While the efficiency of an engine using sequential injection CNG has increased, the inherent problem with respect to lower volumetric efficiency and hence less power still persists. Direct injection CNG technology is seen as the solution to this age old problem. In the older days, the lack of technological expertise in SI direct fuel injection provided a stumbling block for development of direct gas injection.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Title: Diesel CNG – The Potential of a Dual Fuel Combustion Concept for lower CO2 and Emissions – Authors: Juergen Manns, Dr. Maximilian Brauer, N.N. Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in exhaust gas emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however – the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for different operating points on a research single cylinder engine.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0047
Darshan Jain, Saravanan Kumarasamy, K. C. Vora
Abstract:- Jatropha curcus.L, which is often referred to as “Jatropha” is a plant that produces seeds with high oil content. The plant can be grown on low fertile land with no intensive water supply. The seeds are toxic and are non-edible which make it an important source for producing bio-diesel in developing countries. The Jatropha seeds consist of kernels enclosed by shells. The maximum oil content of the seed is present in white kernels.There are different types of expelling methods such as Mechanical extraction, Solvent extraction and Enzymatic extraction.The study was conducted with hand driven mechanical expeller which is most conventional way of extracting oil from seeds and with mechanical efficiency of 60-80% for single pass. The study includes various combinations of parameters like seed treatment, sun drying, pre-heating, soaking at different temperatures and different de-hulling compositions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission . In this case study, simulation model of a CNG LCV is used to analyse the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0057
K. R. Patil, S. S. Thipse, Arundhati Warke
Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel for diesel engines owing to its high ignition quality. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effect of blends of DEE with diesel as an oxygenate and cetane improver on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. In this study, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% diethyl ether (by volume) were blended into diesel. The engine tests were carried out for 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% of full load and 100% load. The laboratory fuel tests also carried out to measure the basic properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane index, flash point, distillation profile and miscibility. Laboratory fuel tests showed that the DEE can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel as it is completely miscible with diesel fuel.
2014-11-18
Event
This session includes papers focused on the gaseous and particulate emissions performance from operating small engines, both diesel and gasoline on oxygenated fuel blends.
2014-11-18
Event
This session includes papers focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. In particular this session looks at metrics such as spray behaviour and combustions characteristics for gasoline and diesel engines.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0032
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Abstract Motorcycle sales have increased consistently during the last decade mostly in developing countries, especially in the BRICS. Low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars associated to the economic growth are the main reason for such trend. Emission limits have become stricter and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Flex fuel motorcycles have now become available, but effects of the combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends on the emissions are still an open issue that requires further understanding. This paper presents the most recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends: E22, E61, E85 and 100% ethanol. Both regulated (CO, THC, NOx) and unregulated emissions (Aldehydes, NMHC, NH3, N2O) were studied.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0093
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Marcello Fiaccavento, Francesco Giari, Antonio Marchetti
Abstract This paper investigates abnormal combustion during the cranking phase of spark-ignition small engines, specifically the occurrence of backfire at the release of the starter motor during kickback. The research focusses on the influence of fuel composition, mainly in terms of ethanol percentage, on backfire occurrence. Interest in this abnormal combustion is growing due to the increased use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline. Moreover, this issue will become even more topical due to the implementation of simple control and fuel supply systems on low cost-engines, which are widely used in developing countries. Experimentation was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel vehicles.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0086
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Abstract This paper describes the influence of different kinds of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) on the smoke emissions of a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and the soot formation characteristics in suspended single droplet combustion. The study used eight kinds of commercial FAME and diesel fuel blends. The tested FAMEs are saturated fatty acids with 8 to 18 carbon molecule chains, and with three different double bonds with C18. The results show that with all the FAME mixtures here, the brake thermal efficiencies with the FAME-diesel fuel blends were similar to neat diesel fuel operation while the smoke emissions with all of the tested FAME-diesel fuel blends were lower. To examine the differences in the soot formation characteristics, measurements of the formed soot mass were also performed with a basic experimental technique with suspended single droplet combustion.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0085
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Abstract In order to reduce the smoke emission of PME/1-butanol blend by increasing the 1-butanol content, PME/1-butanol blend is tested using a DI diesel engine with jerk-type fuel injection pump. With PME/1-butanol blend, there is no problem on the start-ability and stability of the engine operation up to 60 mass% of 1-butanol. On the other hand, with gas oil/1-butanol blend, there is no problem on those up to 40 mass% of 1-butanol. The PME/1-butanol blend has longer ignition delay compared with PME due to the low cetane number of 1-butanol. With increasing 1-butanol content, the smoke emissions of PME/1-butanol blend decrease although the HC and CO emissions increase due to the longer ignition delay.
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