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Training / Education
2015-06-03
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels. The first day of the course begins with a brief review of the evolution of motor fuel through 100 years of performance and specification.
Event
2014-11-18
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Event
2014-11-18
This session invites paper focused on aspects of operating small engines on non-petroleum based fuels or non-conventional blends of fuels. This includes performance metrics such as power, efficiency and emissions. It also covers durability considerations including materials compatibility, wear rates, etc.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Nadeem Yamin, Abhishake goyal
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-22
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be presented.
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-21
This session focuses on the fundamental properties of fuels and methods for measuring these properties, as well as issues related to fuel storage and transportation. Examples include diesel fuel lubricity determination, fuel effects on deposits, cold weather issues, and environmental and toxicological impacts of new fuels
Event
2014-10-20
Papers for this session on the general topic of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes hydrocarbon species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components, specific NOx species production over catalytic devices, well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Lei Zhu, Wugao zhang, Zhen Huang, Junhua Fang
Because of its cleanness and renewability, biodiesel has a great potential as the alternative of diesel fuel to confront with the increasing energy crisis and environment pollution. In this study, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was used to reduce the typical regulated emission and particulate emission. The combined method of fuel design concept with diesel oxidation catalyst was applied in this study in order to improve the reduction efficiency of DOC and to explore the new generation after-treatment technology roadmap with low cost. DOC with Pt catalyst was equipped in the engine test bench in this study. The effects of DOC on diesel engine regulated emission, unregulated emission and particulate emission fueled with Euro V diesel fuel, biodiesel and ethanol-biodiesel blends were investigated in this study. It was found that DOC could reduce HC and CO effectively. Moreover, with the increase of ethanol percentage, the reduction ratio increased. DOC seemed have no effects on NOx emission, while it could improve the oxidation reaction from NO to NO2.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Simona Silvia Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Luca Marchitto, Gerardo Valentino, Adrian Irimescu
Liquids with stable suspensions of nanoscale (typically 1−100 nm) materials are defined nanofluids. The nanomaterials can be metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or carbon-based nanostructures. These represent a tool if used as additives for traditional liquid fuels to enhance ignition and combustion. Because of their unique structures and unusual mechanical and electric properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied for applications in material, electrical, and biomedical sciences. They also have unique thermal properties; e.g., CNTs are reported to have unusually high thermal conductivity compared to the bulk material−graphene monolayer. Intensive investigation has been conducted into the thermal conductivity of nanofluids with CNTs. However, the optical and radiative properties of nanofluids with carbon-based nanostructures, as well as their impact on droplet evaporation and combustion, have not been deeply studied. The present paper examines the radiative properties of nanofluid fuels with suspensions of carbon nanotubes CNTs.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohsen Salem Radwan, Osayed Sayed Mohamed Abu-Elyazeed, Y. A. Attai, M. E. Morsy
Jojoba bio-diesel is one of the most promising bio-fuels to substitute gas oil in diesel engines. Therefore, since the ignition delay is an important parameter in combustion, emissions and engine noise , the present work was dedicated to measure and correlate the pressure rise ignition delay of jojoba bio-diesel and its blends with gas oil behind incident shock waves. For this purpose, a shock tube test set up was designed and manufactured. It was fully instrumented for delay measurement with two piezo-electric pressure transducers, dual mode charge amplifier, data acquisition card and a computer with suitable LabVIEW software. The test variables included the type of fuel (percentage of Jojoba bio-diesel in the blend with gas oil), equivalence ratio, ignition temperature and ignition pressure. It was found that jojoba bio-diesel exhibited a lower ignition delay in comparison with that of gas oil. Rich or lean mixtures produce long delays, whilst the minimum delay occurred near the stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Toby Rockstroh, Victor Burger, Andy Yates, Dylan Smit
Recent work has highlighted a strong correlation between the so-called super-knock phenomenon and laminar flame speed [1]. Fuel components with high flame speed were shown to be very prone to pre-ignition leading to catastrophic super-knock and engine destruction. It has however also been shown that high laminar flame speed decreases the burn duration in spark ignition engines which can lead to improved engine thermal efficiency (and associated fuel efficiency) as well as knock resistance [2]. Synthetic gasoline blends can contain relatively high olefin content and it is known that some olefins can exhibit very high flame speed properties. These fuel formulations could therefore provide improved fuel efficiency and resistance to conventional knock on the one hand, but could potentially have a greater propensity for super-knock in modern boosted GDI engines. This paper investigated the laminar flame speed behaviour of a matrix of ten fuels and fuel components that were evaluated using a spherical combustion bomb.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mario Farrugia, Andrew Briffa, Michael Farrugia
A conversion of a SI engine that was originally run with a carbureted SI engine is reported in this work. The conversion was implemented on a 1988 Skoda 120L with a 1174cc rear engine. The conversion to run on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was carried out using a programmable Engine Control Unit (ECU) that operated a single point fuel injection system. The LPG used was a commercially available mixture of Butane and Propane. The fuel injection system was designed to operate with the LPG in the liquid state. A circulating pump was used to maintain availability of LPG in liquid state at the inlet to the fuel injector. This made possible the use of similar fuel injection parts as in a petrol (gasoline) system. Injection of the fuel in the liquid state provided cooling to the intake air as measured during driving of the vehicle and also on chassis dynamometer runs. Engine power output measured on the chassis dynamometer showed equal power between petrol and LPG around mid rpm of 2500 rpm with a slight decline (4%) in power of the LPG system at 5000rpm.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kohei Kuzuoka, Tadashi Kurotani, Hiroshi Chishima, Hirotsugu Kudo
Bio-ethanol is one of the major alternative liquid fuels used to replace conventional fossil fuels for motor vehicles because of its productivity, lower CO2 emissions and compatibility with conventional fuels. It is used in many areas of the world as ethanol blended gasoline at low concentrations such as "E10 gasoline". It can be used in a similar way as conventional gasoline, but for additional improvement in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, it is important to investigate its combustion procedure. It is common knowledge that ethanol has high anti-knock properties. However, due to its lower ethanol fraction, ethanol blended gasoline (E10) does not. In this study, a method was studied to effectively use this small amount of ethanol within ethanol blended gasoline to improve thermal efficiency and high load performance in a high compression ratio engine. Ethanol blended gasoline was separated into high concentration ethanol fuel and gasoline using a fuel separation system employing a membrane.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, Ronghua Huang
Ethanol is a widely used alternative fuel to address the issue of sustainability. However, making the use of renewable fuel effective and efficient is still challenging. Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) has been in development due to its great potential in taking the advantages of ethanol fuel to increase the compression ratio and thermal efficiency. The work reported in this paper contributes to understanding the fuel and gas behaviours which are crucial in the development of EDI+GPI engine. A set of engine models have been developed using ANSYS FLUENT. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of cylinder pressure in an engine and spray shapes in a constant volume chamber. The verified model was used to investigate the fuel vaporization and mixture formation of the EDI+GPI research engine. The effect of the ethanol/gasoline ratio on charge cooling has been studied. Compared with GPI only, EDI+GPI demonstrated stronger effect on charge cooling by decreased in-cylinder temperature and increased volumetric efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos, Tom Headen, Stephen Bennington
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An alternative approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine IMEP. The 0.1 % sodium borohydride diglme solution and pure diglyme exhibited durations of ignition delay shorter than that of the reference fossil diesel, while testing of the 2 % sodium borohydride solution resulted in failure of the fuel injector.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Moritz Schumacher, Michael Wensing
Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells for future energy scenarios based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC). This scenario incorporates LOHCs to store hydrogen from fluctuating renewable energy sources and deliver it to decentralised power generation units. Hydrogen engines were deeply investigated in the past decade and the results show efficiencies similar to CI engines. Due to the low energy density and tendency towards pre-ignition of hydrogen, the key element to reach high efficiency and a safe operation is a direct injection of the hydrogen. Because high injection pressure is not available in practical applications or would reduce the possible driving range, a low injection pressure is favourable. The low density leads to large flow cross sections inside the injector, similar to CNG direct injectors. So far, some research CNG and hydrogen low pressure direct injectors were investigated, but no commercial injector is available. The objective of this work is the development of a low pressure hydrogen direct injector, with the ability to run unlubricated in neat hydrogen and meeting the necessary flow rate for a stationary engine generating 7.5 kW per cylinder at 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abhishek Sharma, Murugan Sivalingam
In this study, the effects of nozzle opening pressure on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection (DI) diesel engine have been investigated and compared with diesel operation. The engine was fueled with Jatropha methyl ester (JME)-Tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blend (JME 80%+TPO 20% on a volume basis), when running the engine at five different nozzle opening pressures viz., 210, 220, 230, 240, and 250 bar in addition to original nozzle opening pressure of 200 bar. The results confirmed that the injection pressure up to 220 bar gave better results for the JMETPO20 blend in terms of performance and emission characteristics compared to that of original injection pressure , and also 230, 240 and 250 bar. At 220 bar nozzle opening pressure, for the JMETPO20 blend the brake thermal efficiency was higher by about 5.12%, and the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were lower by about 1.75% and 6.2% respectively compared to original nozzle opening pressure at full load.
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