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Training / Education
2014-10-16
Developing vehicles that achieve optimum fuel economy and acceleration performance is critical to the success of any automotive company, yet many practicing engineers have not received formal training on the broad range of factors which influence vehicle performance. This seminar provides this fundamental understanding through the development of mathematical models that describe the relevant physics and through the hands-on application of automotive test equipment. Attendees will also be introduced to software used to predict vehicle performance. The course begins with a discussion of the road load forces that act on the automobile (aerodynamic, rolling resistance, and gravitational) followed by a review of pertinent engine characteristics. This background information is then used to show how appropriate gear ratios for a vehicle transmission are selected and to develop models for predicting acceleration performance and fuel economy. The models form the basis for the computer software used to predict vehicle performance.
Training / Education
2014-09-23
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and improved drive quality, optimized powertrain calibrations are required for the many different vehicle configurations on today's roadways. While powertrain components such as the internal combustion engine, transmission, and hybrid electric powertrain are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the control theory, calibrations and system interactions between these components are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This webinar will introduce participants to the concepts behind optimized powertrain calibrations and how they impact fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and vehicle performance. Participants will also gain exposure to the role that the calibration plays in the system level interactions of the various powertrain components. Each participant will be asked to view the recording from the one-hour SAE Vehicle/Powertrain Calibration Engineering: What Is It and Why Is It For You? Telephone/Webcast as a course requirement.
Event
2014-06-05
Training / Education
2014-04-30
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%. This webinar will explore turbocharging for gasoline and diesel (heavy and light duty) engines, including the fundamentals of turbocharging, design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria. It will discuss the interaction between turbocharging and engine systems and the impact on performance, fuel economy and emissions. Developments in turbocharging technology such as variable geometry mechanisms, two-stage and sequential (series & parallel) turbocharging, EGR including low pressure loop, high pressure loop and mixed mode systems and novel turbocharging systems will be described using figures and data.
Training / Education
2014-04-28
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized. This seminar will highlight the role of lubricants in improving fuel efficiency and provide strategies for selecting the best oil for a given application. The course begins with a brief overview of the fuel consumption regulations and global perspective of passenger car lubricants and diesel oil specifications in North America, Europe and Asia. Limitations and advantages of various methods to measure fuel consumption in a variety of bench tests, dyno tests and actual vehicles will be presented.
Video
2014-04-10
At FEV, we approach each challenge in Überdrive. We're committed to taking technology to the next level. We put our customers' ideas into Überdrive every day, working together to strengthen concepts and discover new innovations. This video is a fun out-take on the things that make FEV engineers laugh, and celebrates the self-admitted geekery that makes our staff unique. It's a testament to the highly technical and innovative business we work in, combined with a little fun-loving insight into the way we think. Hope you enjoy it as much as we enjoyed making it! Visit us at fev.com!
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Pragadish Nandakumar
The fuel prices are increasing every day and so are the pollution caused by vehicles using fossil fuels. Moreover, in a car with an internal combustion engine, we get on average 25% efficiency, the other 75% is wasted, mostly through friction and heat. One important loss is the dissipation of vibration energy by shock absorbers in the vehicle suspension under the excitation of road irregularity and vehicle acceleration or deceleration. In this paper we design, manufacture and test a regenerative coil-over strut that is compact, simple in design and more economical. Since our strut is a modification of an existing strut design, it would be much more feasible to implement. We tested our prototype strut using a TATA Indica car under city road conditions. The damping characteristics and output voltage of the strut were recorded and compared with a normal coil over strut. Based on the test data, it was found that the strut was able to recover about 8-10 watts of electricity at 20kmph.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
David Ord, Eli White, P. Christopher Manning, Abhijit Khare, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is excited about the opportunity to apply for participation in the next Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition. EcoCAR 3 is a new four year competition sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors with the intention of promoting sustainable energy in the automotive sector. The goal of the competition is to guide students from universities in North America to create new and innovative technologies to reduce the environmental impact of modern day transportation. EcoCAR 3, like its predecessors, will give students hands-on experience in designing and implementing advanced technologies in a setting similar to that of current production vehicles. The primary goals of the competition are to improve upon a conventional internal combustion engine production vehicle by designing and constructing a powertrain that accomplishes the following: Reduce Energy Consumption Reduce Well-to-Wheel (WTW) GHG Emissions Reduce Criteria Tailpipe Emissions Maintain Consumer Acceptability in the area of Performance, Utility, and Safety Meet Energy and Environmental Goals, while considering Cost and Innovation This paper presents results from several modeling problems and conceptual vehicle designs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sandeep Karande, Michael Olson, Bipul Saha
Abstract Computer simulation is commonly used to determine the impact of hybrid vehicle technology on fuel economy and performance. One input required for this approach is a drive cycle that represents the desired vehicle speed at each time step in the simulation. Due to computational hardware limitations, simulated drive cycle durations are required to be shorter than those actually driven by real vehicles. Hence there is a need to develop a representative drive cycle of smaller time duration. For example, it is desirable to develop a one hour drive cycle that can give the same fuel economy and performance results as a drive cycle spanning many weeks. Specifically for the design of hybrid systems, it is desired that certain characteristics of micro-trips within the full length cycle are well replicated in the representative cycle. Taking these requirements into account, a new methodology was developed and tested. This paper explains this methodology and the final results obtained.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sunil Pathak, Y R Singh, Vineet Sood, S K Singal, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract The main objectives this paper is two-fold. First, the paper highlights the role of good road and traffic infrastructure for improving the on-road fuel economy of vehicle. Second, it investigate the dynamic driving parameters like positive tractive power level, modes of driving and velocity acceleration envelopes, affecting the on road energy demand and fuel economy. In this study, the gasoline passenger car was driven about 260 km each on two different intercity highways by same driver and at same load. The road and traffic condition of two highways was chosen entirely different, one highway as well organized and other as poorly organized. The fuel consumption and speed time trace were captured using on-board equipments in the field run. The average on road fuel economy was observed as 16.65 km/l (around 18% higher) for well organized highway as compared to 14.13 km/l for other highway. The analysis of speed and time trace for well organized and dis- organized highway trip for positive tractive power level distribution is summarized as: The gasoline vehicles are most fuel efficient in the mid power range and less efficient in the low and high power level range.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Benjamin Rodriguez Sharpe, Nigel Clark, Dana Lowell
This paper reviews fuel-saving technologies for commercial trailers, provides an overview of the trailer market in the U.S., and explores options for policy measures at the federal level that can promote the development and deployment of trailers with improved efficiency. For trailer aerodynamics, there are many technologies that exist and are in development to target each of the three primary areas where drag occurs: 1) the tractor-trailer gap, 2) the side and underbody of the trailer, and 3) the rear end of the trailer. In addition, there are tire technologies and weight reduction opportunities for trailers, which can lead to reduced rolling resistance and inertial loss. As with the commercial vehicle sector, the trailer market is diverse, and there are a variety of sizes and configurations that are employed to meet a wide range of freight demands. Despite this great diversity, box-type vans represent more than two-thirds of the sales market and likely constitute a large percentage of total trailer miles traveled.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola, Cosimo Senni, Alfredo Di Monte, Stefano Sgatti
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system, installed on the exhaust line, is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for Euro 6 compliancy for light and medium duty trucks and bigger passenger cars. Moreover, new more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed for Euro 6c stage and they are scheduled to be applied by the end of 2017. In this context, the interest for SCR technology and its application on light-duty trucks is growing, with a special focus on its potential benefit in term of fuel consumption reduction, thanks to combustion optimization. Nevertheless, the need to warm up the exhaust gas line, to meet the required NOx conversion efficiency, remains an issue for such kind of applications. In this work, the activity performed on different Euro 5-compliant light-duty vehicles, equipped with SCR, to fulfill Euro 6 emission level with fuel saving respect to current production level, is described.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stefan Schmidt, Maurice Smeets, Roland Boehner, Robert Aas, Christian Winkler, Markus Schoenen, Peter Hermann, Julian Tan, Magdi Khair, Joern Bullert
Tighter emission limits are discussed and established around the world to improve quality of the air we breathe. In order to control global warming, authorities ask for lower CO2 emissions from combustion engines. Lots of efforts are done to reduce engine out emissions and/or reduce remaining by suitable after treatment systems. Watlow, among others, a manufacturer of high accurate, active temperature sensor ExactSense™, wanted to understand if temperature sensor accuracy can have an influence on fuel consumption (FC). For this purpose a numerical approach was chosen where several non-road driving cycles (NRTCs) were simulated with the data base of a typical Stage IV heavy duty diesel engine. The engine is equipped with an exhaust gas after treatment system consisting of a DOC, CDPF and an SCR. In this work scope, the investigations shall be restricted to the FC benefits obtained in the active and passive DPF regeneration. The numerical investigations were performed using DPF soot loading and oxidation models using a commercially available software program.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mark Zima, Mingyu Wang, Prasad Kadle, Joe Bona
Abstract Variable displacement compressors have proven to be more energy efficient than the equivalent compressor with fixed displacement for mobile A/C applications. Variable displacement compressors de-stroke rather than cycle to prevent the evaporator from freezing. Cycling an internally controlled variable compressor is counter intuitive, yet results in a 15-20% reduction in the energy used by the compressor as demonstrated by tests on multiple vehicle applications. Externally controlled variable compressors have the highest energy efficiency and extending cycling to these compressors during cool temperatures reduces the compressor energy consumption by 10%.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohd Azman Abas, Owan Salim, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, Srithar Rajoo
Abstract Emissions from motor vehicles are known to be the major contributor of air pollution. Pollutants that are commonly concerned and regulated for petrol engines are Hydrocarbons, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter. One of the most important factor that vary these pollutants is the engine operating condition such as cold start, low engine loads and high engine loads which are found during actual driving. In actual driving conditions, particularly in urban areas, vehicles regularly travel at idle, low or medium speeds which signify the engine part load operations. Thus urban driving carries a crucial weight on the overall vehicle fuel economy. Understanding the implications of urban driving conditions on fuel economy will allow for strategic application of key technologies such as cylinder deactivation in the efforts towards better efficiency. This paper presents the measurement and analysis of engine condition during Malaysian actual urban driving in an attempt to formulate representable fuel consumption data.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jesus Benajes, Jaime Martin, Ricardo Novella, Daniela De Lima
Abstract Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) of fuels in the gasoline octane range has proven its potential to achieve simultaneous reduction in soot and NOX emissions, combined with high indicated efficiencies, while still retaining control over combustion phasing with the injection event. However, the octane range where the ignition properties of a given fuel are optimum depends on the engine running conditions. Thus, low octane fuels present problems for extending the ignition delay at medium to high engine loads; while too high octane fuels have ignition problems at low engine loads. Two-stroke engines arise as a promising solution to extend the load range of the PPC concept, since it intrinsically provides equivalent torque response with only half the IMEP required in a four-stroke engine. In this framework, the present research aims to evaluate the performance of the PPC concept for pollutant control using a commercial RON95 gasoline at different load conditions in a single-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine with poppet valves in the cylinder head.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Markus Schwaderlapp, Mirko Plettenberg, Dean Tomazic, Gregor Schuermann, Felix Ring, Stephen Bowyer
Measures for reducing engine friction within the powertrain are assessed in this paper. The included measures work in combination with several new technologies such as new combustion technologies, downsizing and alternative fuels. The friction reduction measures are discussed for a typical gasoline vehicle. If powertrain friction could be eliminated completely, a reduction of 15% in CO2 emissions could be achieved. In order to comply with more demanding CO2 legislations, new technologies have to be considered to meet these targets. The additional cost for friction reduction measures are often lower than those of other new technologies. Therefore, these measures are worth following up in detail.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Zissis Samaras, Chariton Kouridis, Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
Abstract The effect of “Start & Stop” and “Gear Shift Indicator” - two widespread fuel saving technologies - on fuel consumption and particle emissions of a Euro 5 passenger car is evaluated in this paper. The vehicle was subjected to a series of different driving cycles, including the current (NEDC) and future (WLTC) cycles implemented in the European type approval procedure at cold and hot start condition and particle number was measured with an AVL Particle Counter. In addition, we have utilized two Pegasor Particle Sensor units positioned in different locations along the sampling line to assess the impact of the sampling location on the particle characteristics measured during highly transient events. The results showed that the particle number emission levels over the WLTC were comparable to the NEDC ones, whereas NOx emissions were more than twofold higher. Both fuel saving technologies can lead to reduced fuel consumption and, subsequently CO2 emissions, in the order of 5%. However, their impact on particle emissions was not straightforward, as the impact of the DPF loading was found much more significant than the effect of these technologies.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West
To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. In addition, two minivans were subjected to coastdowns to examine the similarity in derived coefficients for two duplicate vehicles of the same model. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Timothy H. DeFries, Michael Sabisch, Sandeep Kishan, Francisco Posada, John German, Anup Bandivadekar
Fuel economy (FE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measured via chassis testing under laboratory conditions were never intended to represent the wide range of real-world driving conditions that are experienced during a vehicle's lifetime. Comprehensive real-world information is needed to better assess US FE label adjustments, determine off-cycle credits for FE standards, and forecast real-world driving behavior, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. This paper explores a cost effective method to collect in-use fuel consumption data using the on-board diagnostics (OBD) data stream in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). The accuracy of fuel consumption calculated from the OBD data was analyzed in two ways. First, fuel rates calculated from standard OBD Parameter IDs (PIDs) were compared with fuel rate estimates based on enhanced PID (OEM fuel injector fuel rate) data in two different vehicles. The cumulative fuel rate derived from standard PIDs was lower than the fuel rate values obtained from injector-based data (Enhanced PID) for the tested vehicles by approximately 3% and 13%.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Byungchan Lee, Dohoy Jung, John Myers, Jae-Hoon Kang, Young-Ho Jung, Kwang-Yeon Kim
Abstract A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation. The results from the study indicate that the potential fuel economy improvement during the driving cycle is 7.3 % at 24°C ambient temperature, and 20.1 % at −6.7°C.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ivan Arsie, Andrea Cricchio, Vincenzo Marano, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare, Walter Nesci
This paper deals with modeling and analysis of the integration of ThermoElectric generators (TEG) into a conventional vehicle, specifically aimed at recovering waste heat from exhaust gases. The model is based on existing and commercial thermoelectric materials, specifically Bi2Te3, having ZTs not exceeding 1 and efficiency below 5%, but a trade-off between cost and performance that would be acceptable for automotive applications. TEGs operate on the principle of thermoelectric energy conversion via Seebeck effect, utilizing thermal gradients to generate electric current, with exhaust gases at the hot side and coolant at the cold side. In the simulated configuration the TEG converters are interfaced with the battery/alternator supporting the operation of the vehicle, reducing the energy consumption due to electrical accessories and HVAC. Heat exchanger models for steady-state solutions have been simulated to estimate the actual temperature of hot and cold sides, as a function of vehicle operation and TEG configuration.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aaron Birckett, Nayan Engineer, Paul Arlauskas, Mark Shirley, Paul Neuman
Abstract This paper describes the simulation, design, and testing of a mechanically supercharged 2.4L I-4 gasoline direct injection engine with Miller cycle late intake valve closing and high geometric compression ratio. Engine downspeeding is also achieved through modified transmission gear ratios. A 3.3L naturally-aspirated V6 engine was chosen as the benchmark for comparison. Intended vehicle application is a mid-size passenger car or small/mid-size CUV. The CAE tool GT-Power was used for component selection and air path development. The powertrain simulation model was then exercised to show both improved fuel economy and performance compared to the V6 baseline engine. The design of a bespoke integrated supercharger with magnetic clutch, charge air cooler, and intake manifold was made and procured. A large new software aggregate was ported into an existing production ECU with modified internal circuitry. Volumetric efficiency was calibrated using automated engine mapping techniques and software.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daisuke Takaki, Hirofumi Tsuchida, Tetsuya Kobara, Mitsuhiro Akagi, Takeshi Tsuyuki, Morihiro Nagamine
Abstract This paper presents a study of a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine for improving fuel economy. The use of a higher compression ratio and further engine downsizing have been examined in recent years as ways of improving the fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines. It is particularly important to improve fuel economy under high load conditions, especially in the turbocharged region. The key points for improving fuel economy in this region are to suppress knocking, reduce the exhaust temperature and increase the specific heat ratio. There are several varieties of cooled EGR systems such as low-pressure loop EGR (LP-EGR), high-pressure loop EGR (HP-EGR) and other systems. The LP-EGR system was chosen for the following reasons. It is possible to supply sufficient EGR under a comparatively highly turbocharged condition at low engine speed. It is important for knocking suppression to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the EGR gas, which means using EGR gas from the catalyst downstream.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hadeel Solaka Aronsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures which consist of more than 200 different hydrocarbon species. In order to decrease the chemical and physical complexity, oxygenated surrogate components were used to enhance the fundamental understanding of partially premixed combustion (PPC). The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by octane number. There are two methods to measure the octane number: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). In this paper, RON and MON were measured for a matrix of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol (TERF) blends spanning a wide range of octane number between 60.6 and 97. First, regression models were created to derive RON and MON for TERF blends. The models were validated using the standard octane test for 17 TERF blends. Second, three different TERF blends with an ignition delay (ID) of 8 degrees for a specific operating condition were determined using a regression model. This was done to examine the model accuracy for ID and study fuel composition effect on combustion events and emissions.
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