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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2453
2016-10-24
Event
The focus of this session is the performance of integrated vehicle systems and the influence of driving styles and drive cycles on fuel consumption/economy. This will include how integration of vehicle components such as the powertrain, parasitics, accessories, mass elements, aerodynamics, tires, brakes, and hubs affect the overall vehicle energy and energy conversion efficiency.
2016-06-09
Event
2016-06-01 ...
  • June 1-3, 2016 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • November 30-December 2, 2016 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2016-04-25 ...
  • April 25-26, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 27-28, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Baltimore, Maryland
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized.
2016-04-14
Event
The focus of this session is the performance of integrated vehicle systems and the influence of driving styles and drive cycles on fuel consumption/economy. This will include how integration of vehicle components such as the powertrain, parasitics, accessories, mass elements, aerodynamics, tires, brakes, and hubs affect the overall vehicle energy and energy conversion efficiency.
2016-04-14
Event
The focus of this session is the performance of integrated vehicle systems and the influence of driving styles and drive cycles on fuel consumption/economy. This will include how integration of vehicle components such as the powertrain, parasitics, accessories, mass elements, aerodynamics, tires, brakes, and hubs affect the overall vehicle energy and energy conversion efficiency.
2016-04-14 ...
  • April 14-15, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 18-19, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Developing vehicles that achieve optimum fuel economy and acceleration performance is critical to the success of any automotive company, yet many practicing engineers have not received formal training on the broad range of factors which influence vehicle performance. This seminar provides this fundamental understanding through the development of mathematical models that describe the relevant physics and through the hands-on application of automotive test equipment. Attendees will also be introduced to software used to predict vehicle performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0903
Ram Vijayagopal, Kevin Gallagher, Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau
The energy density and power density comparisons of conventional fuels and batteries is often taken as an indicator for the comparison of conventional vehicles and electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are a few order of magnitudes behind fuels like gasoline. However this analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For comparison purposes we can expect the useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same, i.e. to drive 300 miles with the payload of about 300 lbs. Both Conventional and BEV will have a much different test weight based on what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent. This yearly increase in fuel economy standards and the increasing price of oil are driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to increase fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0678
Haifeng Lu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Fangen Yuan, Degang Xie, Shuang Yuan, Yuan Shen
China’s State Council has released the Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicle Industrialization Plan, which states an expected fleet average target of 5.0L/100km by 2020. This means that the OEMs must apply much more advanced technologies to their production models. Compared to the EGR technology in diesel engines, the gasoline engine EGR is not a large-scale application in the market. But it has a promising potential to optimize the fuel economy for its anti-knock effect, pumping loss reduction and compatibility to the three-way catalyst. In this research, a 1.3L turbocharged PFI gasoline engine was used to evaluate the LP(low pressure) water-cooled EGR technology. The operating conditions vary from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar, and the common engine operating points in NEDC cycle are tested separately. Meanwhile, the compression ratio is changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to get higher fuel efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0904
Michael Martin, Arno Eichberger, Eranda Dragoti-Cela
Due to the decreasing regional legal limitations for CO2 emissions or fuel economy, the effort for reducing these emissions increases more and more. The tasks of the energy management team is to evaluate the influence of CO2 emission improving measures and to define sets of such measures to ensure the target achievement during a vehicle development. The considered targets (CO2 emissions, but also driving performance) are vehicle individual targets as well as the regional fleet CO2 emissions or fleet average fuel economy targets. Future decreasing limits will lead to an increased number of needed technologies to improve CO2 emission and hand in hand will also lead to increasing costs. So the aim in the future will be to find the cost optimal combination of different measures to achieve the targets. Hereby vehicles individual, but also the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1214
Hillol Kumar Roy, Andrew McGordon, Paul A Jennings
Battery sizing has significant importance for the performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Although several research has been done over the years for the battery sizing, no research has focused on battery system efficiency which affects fuel economy. This paper has investigated battery system efficiencies of different optimum battery sizes which were optimised using two design optimisation methodologies. The first methodology considered a single driving pattern at a time, whereas, the second methodology considered different driving patterns simultaneously for the optimisation. The study considered a simulation model of a power-split HEV for the optimisation of battery size along with internal combustion engine, motor, and generator. An electric-assist charge sustaining supervisory control strategy was considered as the energy management. The maximum speed, acceleration, and gradeability were considered as design constraints.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1004
Somendra Pratap Singh, Shikhar Asthana, Shubham Singhal, Naveen Kumar
The energy crisis coupled with depleting fuel reserves and rising emission levels has encouraged research in the fields of performance and emission enhancement technologies and engineering designs. The present paper aims primarily to offset the problem of high emissions and low efficiency in low cost CI engines used as temporary power solutions on a large scale. The investigation relates to the low cost optimization of an intake runner having the ability to vary the swirl ratio within the runner. The test runs conducted for the intake revealed an increase in efficiency at the cost of increased NOx and CO2 (for some configurations) and at the same time, the UHC and CO emissions were considerably decreased. However, in a relative analysis, no configuration was able to simultaneously reduce all emission parameters and thus, there exists a necessity to find an optimized configuration as a negotiation between the improved and deteriorated parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1264
Tarun Mehra, Naveen Kumar, Salman Javed, Ashish Jaiswal, Farhan javed
Non-edible vegetable oils have a huge potential for biodiesel production and also known as second generation feedstock’s. Biodiesel can be obtained from edible, non-edible, waste cooking oil and from animal fats also. This paper focuses on production of biodiesel obtained from mixture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil which are easily accessible in India and other parts of world. Neem oil has a very high FFA content than sesame oil. Biodiesel production from neem oil requires pre-treatment neutralization procedure before alkali catalysed Trans esterification process also it takes large reaction time to achieve biodiesel of feasible yield. Neem oil which has very high FFA and sesame oil which has low FFA content are mixed in proper fraction and this mixture is Trans esterified without pre-treatment process at molar ratio of 6:1.Fuel properties of methyl ester were closed to diesel fuel and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1067
Mohannad Hakeem, Gopichandra Surnilla, Christopher House, Michael Shelby, Jason Williams, William Ruona, Naginder Gogna
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in colder and dry climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience less-than-optimal engine combustion which results in reduced on-road fuel economy. Humidity has an EGR-equivalent effect, and measuring it will correct the spark timing, mainly at Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) and borderline conditions, and claim back some of those losses. This paper aims at quantifying the small fuel economy benefits associated with on-board humidity measurement for certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions. Dyno data was collected for a Ford 2.3L GTDI engine at three speed load points, and intake air humidity was varied between 20% and 80% relative humidity. The effect of humidity compensation on spark timing, combustion phasing, knock, and consequently on overall engine efficiency was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1294
Jonggyu KIM, Pyoung Beom Kim, YoungChan Lee, Sunghee Jung, Byeong-Ug Choi
This paper presents the characteristics of a 3 Cylinder CVT vehicle and a process to improve fuel economy and reduce noise and vibration. To increase the lock-up area of damper clutch for the high fuel economy and to decrease booming and vibration affected by lock-up, chassis systems of a driveline and structure resonance characteristics are studied by experiment and simulation. CVT software calibration parameters are optimized for fuel economy and NVH. With This Study, the lock-up area has been increased by 300RPM and the fuel economy has been improved by approximately 1%, while the NVH characteristic is almost same.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0905
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
This study evaluates powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. In a companion paper, a fully integrated GT-Power engine model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a plausible series of engine technologies, including valve train improvements such as dual cam phasing and discrete variable valve lift, and engine downsizing with turbocharging and cooled EGR. In this paper, those engine efficiency/performance results are used in a vehicle drive cycle simulation to estimate the impact of engine and transmission technology improvements on light duty vehicle fuel consumption over the EPA’s FTP and HWY test schedules. The model test vehicle is a midsized sedan based on the MY2012 Ford Fusion with constant test weight of 3625 lbs, with constant drag and rolling resistance characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0684
Shinji Matsuo, Eiji Ikeda, yoshiaki ito, Hiroyuki Nishiura
This new Toyota Inline 4 Cylinder 1.8L engine put on hybrid car is added improvement to a base in previous 2ZR-FXE without changing a basic frame and developed the mileage improvement as ESTEC 2ZR-FXE.This engine achieved maximum thermal efficiency 40% who came to try it for the first time for a mass production gasoline engine in the world by there being many combustion improvement, knocking improvement, heat management, techniques of the friction reduction, and adopting it, and pursuing a mileage technology in detail.This report introduces these mileage improvement technology.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0902
Patrick Phlips
Cycle efficiency is defined as the ratio of the work required for a vehicle to drive a cycle to the fuel energy used. Previously derived analytic engine and transmission models for vehicle fuel consumption estimation are summarized briefly. Then the estimation of vehicle cycle work is put in a compatible formulation. Cycle efficiency is then found by equating the models for cycle work and for fuel usage. For non-hybrid vehicles, the efficiency is primarily proportional to the overall energy conversion efficiency of the powertrain, but is also a function of the displacement to weight ratio (D/M) and the gearing (N/V). The model therefore makes explicit the efficiency penalty of higher vehicle performance. The model is demonstrated using data for vehicles in the US light duty fleet in the EPA ‘Test Car List’. Efficiency trends are shown and analyzed for different levels of performance and powertrain technology on the EPA ’City’ and ‘Highway’ cycles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0901
Richard Barney Carlson, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin Stutenberg
Laboratory and on-road vehicle evaluation is conducted on four vehicle models to evaluate and characterize the real-world auxiliary loads over a wide range of conditions. The four vehicle models in this study include the Volkswagen Jetta TDI, Mazda 3 i-ELOOP, Chevrolet Cruze Diesel, and Honda Civic GX (CNG). Evaluation was conducted using a chassis dynamometer over standardized drive cycles as well as 12 months of on-road driving across a wide range of road and environmental conditions. The information gathered in the study serves as a baseline to quantify future improvements in auxiliary load reduction technology. The results from this study directly support automotive manufacturers in regards to potential “off-cycle” fuel economy credits as part of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations, in which credit is provided for advanced technologies in which reduction of energy consumption from vehicle auxiliary loads can be demonstrated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0909
John Thomas
A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas emissions for model year (MY) 2016 through 2025 passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the needed rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the MY 2004 US light-duty vehicle fleet to the MY 2014 fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of 28% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of needed vehicle rate-of-change.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1178
Yang Wang, Chun Hui
This paper focuses on the dynamic parameters matching and powertrain ratio optimization of an Extended Range City Bus (ERCB) for improving fuel economy. Firstly, according to the bus data and design targets of an ERCB, dynamic parameters are matched. Simulation models of each component that makes up the whole powertrain are established depending on the platform of AVL-CRUISE, including battery, motor, main reducer, wheels, etc. Dynamic performance, such as full load acceleration, climbing performance, maximum speed performance and endurance mileage, is simulated successively using AVL-CRUISE. Also the fuel economy performance under Chinese Urban Driving Cycle(CUDC) is worked out. The simulation results of each performance are analyzed. To improve the fuel economy, the transmission ratio and final ratio are optimized through a methodology with Isight software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0890
Richard Butcher
Measurement of lubricant related fuel economy with internal combustion [IC] engines presents technical challenges, though it does offer worthwhile insights into CO2 reduction. As engine technology progresses, large benefits become harder to find; so the importance of precise fuel economy measurement increases. Responding to the challenge of meeting CO2 targets, there are many successful areas of development currently for the IC engine; including downsizing/rightsizing, mechanical efficiency, advanced charging and combustion systems, thermal management, sophisticated electronic control and calibration. These technologies have been deployed against a back-drop of increasingly stringent criteria pollutant emission limits. The search for ever smaller improvements combined with growing engine and vehicle technology complexity significantly increases the challenge of producing high quality data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0297
Pulakesh Chakraborty, Ketan Kinage
The stringent regulations for emissions set by the government and the customers demand for improved fuel economy, better performance and drivability expectations is moderately increasing, creating new challenges for original equipment manufacturers. OEM’s are prompted to consider the employment of variable valve actuation mechanism in their next generation vehicles as a solution to meet the desired output. VVA is the term used to describe the method for the controlling the intake and exhaust valve timing, duration and valve lift event. The valve timings are critical events affecting the overall gas exchange process and the performance of the IC engine. Fixed parameters like target BSFC, emission norms, desired power output, desired torque output and volumetric efficiency help to select the optimum valve timings. The objective of the paper is to suggest a methodology for optimized valve timing for a high speed B hatch diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0167
Hugh Luke Humphreys, Joshua Batterson, David Bevly, Raymond Schubert
The fuel efficiency improvement of a Driver-Assisted-Truck-Platooning (DATP) system was evaluated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The DATP system uses a collection of sensors, integrated active safety systems, and V2V communications to enable regulation of the longitudinal distance between pairs of trucks without acceleration input from the driver in the following truck(s). The V2V linking of active safety systems and synchronized braking promotes increased safety of close following trucks while improving the fuel economy. Different configurations of vehicles, platoon sizes, and separation distances were considered as the relevant parameters. The primary objective of the CFD analysis is to optimize the target separation distance, as well as to determine the overall drag reduction of the platoon. This reduction directly results in fuel economy gains for the vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0656
Jung Hyun Kim, Taewoo KIM, SungJin Park, JungJae HAN, Choongsoo Jung, Young rock Chung, Sangsoo Pae
In cold start driving cycles, high viscosity of the lubrication oil (engine oil) increases the mechanical friction losses compared with warmed up condition. Thus, an engine oil warm up system can provide the opportunity to reduce the mechanical friction losses during cold start. In this study, an engine oil heater using EGR is used for the fast warm up of the engine oil. This paper presents the effect of the engine oil heater on the fuel economy and emissions over a driving cycle (NEDC). A numerical model is developed to simulate the thermal response of the powertrain using multi-domain 1-D commercial powertrain simulation software (GT-Suite) and it is calibrated using test data from a full size sedan equipped with a 2.0L diesel engine. The model consists of an engine model, coolant circuit model, oil circuit model, engine cooling model, friction model, and ECU model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0896
Masami Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamori, Satoshi Hirano, Teri Kowalski, James Linden
Fuel economy improvement has been one of most important challenges for the automotive industry, and oil and additive industries. The automotive, oil, and additive industries including related organizations such as SAE, ASTM, testing laboratories have made significant efforts to develop not only engine oil technologies but also engine oil standards over decades. API S category and ILSAC engine oil standard are well known and widely used engine oil specifications. The development of engine oil standard has important roles to ensure the quality of engine oils in the market and encourage industries to improve the engine oil performance periodically. However, the progress of technology advancement can go faster than the revision of engine oil standard. The introduction of new viscosity grades, SAE 0W-16 and 5W-16 is one good example. It was added into the SAE J300 standard that defines viscosity grades for engine oils April 2013.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1596
Kenji Tadakuma, Tomoyuki Doi, Mitsuhisa Shida, Kazuhiro Maeda
An experimental study on a reduction of aerodynamic drag and an improvement of fuel economy in platoon driving was conducted to develop an Intelligent Transport System (ITS) with a good fuel economy. Many other useful studies on the platooning have also been carried out. However, no attempt has yet been made to formulate the aerodynamic drag reduction rate in vehicle platooning quantitatively. The formulation is useful for setting goals of vehicle-to-vehicle distance control design and for estimating the improvement of the fuel economy. To obtain the rate without prediction due to the formulation, it is necessary to examine the characteristics of each prototype vehicle in road tests.
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