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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2478
2017-06-08
Event
2017-04-04
Event
Separate sub-sessions cover powertrain control, calibration, and system-level optimization processes related to achieving stringent market fuel economy, emissions, performance, reliability, and quality demands. Topics include the control, calibration, and diagnostics of the engine, powertrain, and subsystems related to energy management in conventional and hybrid operation, considering the simultaneous optimization of hardware design parameters and control software calibration parameters.
2017-04-04
Event
The focus of this session is the performance of integrated vehicle systems and the influence of driving styles and drive cycles on fuel consumption/economy. This will include how integration of vehicle components such as the powertrain, parasitics, accessories, mass elements, aerodynamics, tires, brakes, and hubs affect the overall vehicle energy and energy conversion efficiency.
2016-11-30 ...
  • November 30-December 2, 2016 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0092
Tomokazu Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Kosei, Sadaaki Ito, Satoshi Iijima
Due to its body configuration, the engines of scooter type two wheeled vehicle are not directly exposed to the ram air. The cylinder head and the parts in the proximity therefore are cooled by the air blown from the cooling fan directly attached to the crankshaft. That means that the amount of cooling air depending on the engine speed is always supplied to the engine regardless of the engine condition being cold or hot. Also, the cooling capacity is designed so as to prevent any thermal problems even under the highest-temperature conditions. Accordingly, just after cold start or during running under a low load condition, the engine is operated under an over-cooled condition in many cases. When operated under an over-cooled condition, the fuel economy generally becomes poor. Such a phenomenon is attributable to an increase of friction loss from the increase of oil viscosity along with a lowering of oil temperature.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0036
Takamori Shirasuna, Ryoh Hatakeyama, Yukio Sakai
In recent years, the need is growing for a fuel efficiency enhancement of motorcycles equipped with Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT), of which the vehicle sales volume is rapidly increasing in developing countries. To develop a vehicle with excellent fuel efficiency, a precise estimation of fuel economy is required at the beginning stage of a vehicle development. One of the indices that are used for evaluation of fuel economy of a vehicle is fuel economy to a predetermined test mode of driving (mode fuel consumption). One of the parameters that plays an important role for the mode fuel consumption calculations is pulley ratio of CVT. In rubber belt CVTs for motorcycles, their pulley ratio varies at every moment depending on the balance between the traveling resistance and thrust force applied to the sidewall of the belt. The state of this pulley ratio variation differs among vehicles and/or among CVT specifications.
2016-10-28
Event
Automotive OEMs are moving to greater vehicle fuel economy using advanced internal combustion designs and controls hardware. Engine in-cylinder pressures and temperatures are being pushed higher to tease out every ounce of useful work from the combustion event but this push for optimization has a consequence in that small unintended changes in operating conditions have huge, an sometimes unwelcome effects. For high specific output engines, one of these unwelcome effects is called Stochastic Preigntion ( SPI) or what is also known as LSPI ( Low Speed Preigntion). Over the last 5 years, considerable research has occurred on this topic, with evidence that the problem is a function of both oil and fuel properties, and related to some kind of “deposit” and / or a liquid hydrocarbon droplet initiation mechanism. Oil and additive companies are quickly working to evolve oils to reduce the propensity for SPI.
2016-10-28
Event
The adverse health effects of carbonaceous nanoparticle have been demonstrated for a range of carbon nanoparticles originating from different pollution sources. Stringent particulate number (PN) emission regulations have resulted in significant efforts on PN reduction in vehicles during realistic driving conditions. The main source of the PN emission in GDI engines are the diffusion flames caused by the locally fuel rich zones on the piston surface and the injector tip. The carbon deposition can be a result of low-temperature chemistry pathways of alkylperoxy (RO2) and ketohydroperoxide (QOOH) radicals or the high temperature thermochemical decomposition of the fuel through pyrolysis. This presentation focuses on the effects of the fuels and injector designs on the formation of the deposits and consecutively particle number emissions.
2016-10-28
Event
2016-10-28
Event
2016-10-28
Event
Overview of the importance of detergency in fuels in the evolution of high efficiency vehicles. The presentation will cover the creation TOP TIERTM Detergent Gasoline program and upcoming program changes to keep current with global markets and advancing vehicle technologies
2016-10-28
Event
The choice of fuel quality in state-of-the-art combustion engines is affecting the entire fuel system in a vehicle. Most critical and sensitive parts are the injectors since even minor irritations may cause significant effects on the combustion process and emissions of the engine. Fuel and fuel additive suppliers need appropriate tools to ensure that their products are neither harming nor disturbing any of the components of the fuel injection system. For Diesel fuels, various standardized test methods are already available, but there´s a lack regarding gasoline fuel performance testing tools. The new test method described is able to show positive or negative effects of gasoline fuels on direct injection nozzles after a short running time and in an early stage, before impacts on power and driveability could be realized by the driver of a car.
2016-10-28
Event
2016-10-27
Event
Shortly after the formation of a Deposit Panel within the Coordinating Research Council, CRC, Diesel Performance Group, the engine manufacturers approached the Panel and requested initiation of an urgent effort to evaluate the causes of a new internal injector deposit problem. Fuel / injector interaction studies would require a test tool. The panel identified several rigs, evaluated them, and concluded that the one developed by Delphi was able to discriminate among fuels. This report provides a detailed description of a follow up project to compare the Delphi rig test results to those generated by actual engines, Cummins and John Deere, to determine if this more practical shorter-duration test rig is able to predict injector sticking tendency of fuels, eliminating expensive longer-duration engine tests using very large diesel volume.
2016-10-27
Event
The technical revolution in engine design and fuel delivery has been matched by similar advances in chromatographic and mass spectrometric instrumentation. Historically GC-MS has been the instrument of choice for analysis of fuels (gasoline, diesel and AVTUR fuel), e.g. readily differentiating aliphatics from aromatics and easily identifying and quantify rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. Whilst effective at detecting these volatile species GC-MS is limited in detecting higher molecular weight and thermally labile species, e.g. surfactants, detergents, lubricity agents. The advent of atmospheric ionisation techniques in the 1980, advances in chromatography, ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), ultrahigh pressure supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry now affords the tools to address the analysis of these materials and possible deposit precursors.
2016-10-27
Event
Engine and FIE manufacturers are facing an increased number of complaints on abnormal engine functioning related to internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). Possible consequences are increased emissions, rough engine running and misfiring due to impairments in the timing of the injector, modified injection quantities or sticking injector needles. It is expected that the introduction of more complex injection strategies and highly accurate but sensitive injection components into future engine generations will exacerbate the risk of dysfunctioning. In order to understand the different processes implied, this work describes the basic mechanisms and influencing parameters on the formation of fuel related deposits. These results have been obtain from extensive experimental measurement campaigns, theoretical modelling of the fuel oxidation process and comparison with the literature.
2016-10-27
Event
2016-10-27
Event
Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDIDs) can be formed from metal carboxylate soaps, artificial low-MW succinimides, and fuel degradation due to extreme conditions within FIE. Shell has used acoustic cavitation (sonication) to model the hydrodynamic cavitation aspect of fuel degradation to IDID. Shell has also studied the effect of nozzle fouling on the structural characteristics of high pressure diesel sprays into either a water reservoir or a pressurised constant volume chamber. In the water reservoir study, fouling increased the spray cone angle by 10-140%. Fouling particularly affected the early stages of spray evolution, with the cycle-to-cycle variability of the cone angle being 2-3x greater when an injector was fouled, along with transient radial bulges which might reduce the axial momentum and affect combustion performance. In contrast, at the end of injection ligament and droplet formation were not affected by fouling.
2016-10-27
Event
A review of the published literature on the ambient storage stability of B-X/ULSD blends will be presented. Then experimental results will be presented designed to test the hypothesis that the ambient storage stability of retail B-X/ULSD blends are dependent upon fuel dissolved oxygen concentration. Possible chemical mechanisms for the observed results will be proposed.
2016-10-27
Event
Internal deposits can appear in diesel, dual fuel vehicles and even in aircraft fuel circuit system and injectors. Deposits formation are often linked in the literature to fuels chemistry, hydrocarbons tendency to undergo thermal-oxidation process. Here, we present the IFPEN approach to study fuels degradation and deposits formation. Also, an important focus on the analytical tools to study the morphology and chemical composition of deposits formed by the different fuels, as well as their reactivity, the surface deposits-metals chemical bonds and deposits main chemical composition. Deposits formation into fuel liquid phase was compared to deposits formed direct in contact with a metallic surface. Results show that deposits precursors are nanoparticles, formed in the liquid phase. In the case of fuel stagnation over a metallic surface (soaking), the nanoparticles can form covalent bond with upper surface atoms and start the adhesion process.
2016-10-27
Event
As engine technology and particularly the fuel injection equipment have evolved to meet ever stricter emissions legislation, engines have become more sensitive to deposit formation resulting from changes in fuel quality. This makes it crucial that the structure of deposits arising from incomplete combustion and thermal conversion in high pressure injectors can be characterised in detail to understand their origins and formation. While there have been extensive studies on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons adsorbed on particulates, in comparison, the characterisation of the aromatic structure that constitutes the bulk of the organic matter in particulates has received less attention. A number of methods provide significant insight into the degree of condensation of the aromatic structure and the alignment of the aromatic structure, notably solid state 13C NMR, Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
2016-10-27
Event
Today’s modern diesel engines are designed with efficiency and low emissions in mind. To achieve these objectives, fuel injection system pressures have moved up in excess of 2,000 BAR. These higher pressures drive the need for fuel cleanliness levels never seen before in order to “keep running and achieve more”, i.e. meet injector life and maintenance interval expectations. In order to achieve the levels of cleanliness now required, a two-step approach to filtration is needed. Onboard filtration alone will be challenged to meet the expected levels of efficiency and life due to limitations in dirt holding capacity and compromised performance in harsh on-engine environments. This presentation will explain why bulk fuel filtration, or filtering the fuel prior to being put into use on the equipment, should be an integral part of every operation’s contamination control strategy.
2016-10-27
Event
Episodes of severe and rapid corrosion have been sporadically reported in underground storage tanks (USTs) storing ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) since shortly after its introduction into the market place around 2009. Since then, several studies investigating this phenomenon have been conducted. The latest report was published in July 2016, by US EPA on an investigation done at 42 existing underground storage tank sites. The corrosion phenomenon being experienced is unique and continues to be a significant concern to the steel fabrication industry. It has caused problems not only for our storage tank equipment, but also potentially for the vehicles the stored fuel is used in. In many instances, both the acid level and the NACE corrosion levels are unacceptable, as would be expected with the level of corrosion observed. Corrosion by-products have been known to cause filters to clog and other equipment to become inoperable in UST systems.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2478

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