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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries.
2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-01-22
Event
Regulatory requirements, including the RFS, Tier 3 emissions standards, California’s LCFS program and CAFE standards are creating incentives to adjust gasoline formulations to enable cleaner, more efficient, and less carbon-intensive vehicles for the future. At the same time, fuel producers must contend with changing feedstocks and attempt to balance product slates in a global marketplace. The emergence of new sources, including natural gas and light, tight oil and increased use of biofuels have also impacted fuel production and the related petrochemical sector. It’s a changing world; will gasoline formulations change in the years ahead? This session will explore issues surrounding the future of gasoline formulation as fuel producers respond to global fuel utilization pressures, changing feedstock properties, regulatory guidance, and consumer expectations.
2015-01-22
Event
2015-01-22
Event
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0213
Christoph Poetsch, Peter Priesching, Henrik Schuemie, Reinhard Tatschl
The operation of spark-ignition engines (SI-engines) is characterized by a non-repeatability of the instantaneous combustion rate of the individual engine cycles at nominally identical engine operating parameters, commonly referred to as cyclic combustion variability (CCV). CCV are responsible for the engine knock behavior and the related engine performance and fuel consumption. In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the analysis of CCV and their impact on engine efficiency and fuel consumption on component, sub-system and system level. On the component level, a 3D-CFD Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is used for the calculation of multiple engine cycles in order to analyze the impact of the flow field and mixture formation on the cycle-resolved flame propagation and hence on the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations.
2014-11-20
Standard
ARP739A
This ARP is intended to promote better understanding of gas system characteristics and operation in order to aid in system selection and design. Various gas systems are classified in a broad sense, component operation is described in moderate detail, pertinent design parameters are discussed, and possible modes for system operation are listed.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0063
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Danilo D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta Panza
Abstract In the present work, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, for knock detection purposes. To the aim of tuning such procedures, the same analysis has been carried out by using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index and an Inverse Kinetic Model (IKM), both applied on the in-cylinder pressure signals. Vibrational and in-cylinder pressure signals have been collected on a four cylinder, four stroke engine, for different engine speeds, load conditions and spark advances. The results of the two vibrational based methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9081
Giuseppe Genchi, Emiliano Pipitone
In the last years new and stricter pollutant emission regulations together with raised cost of conventional fuels resulted in an increased use of gaseous fuels, such as Natural Gas (NG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), for passenger vehicles. Bi-fuel engines represent a transition phase product, allowing to run either with gasoline or with gas, and for this reason are equipped with two separate injection systems. When operating at high loads with gasoline, however, these engines require rich mixtures and retarded combustions in order to prevent from dangerous knocking phenomena: this causes high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions together with high fuel consumption.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9079
Yongming Bao, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes
Abstract The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9080
James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington, Robert A. Stein, William M. Studzinski
Abstract Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws. For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2664
Akira Iijima, Naoya Ito, Takashi Shimada, Masanori Yamada, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Knocking combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a test engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The purpose was to make clear the detailed characteristics of knocking combustion that occurs accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations when a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is operated at high loads. Knocking combustion was intentionally induced by varying the main combustion period and engine speed. Under such conditions, knocking in HCCI combustion was investigated in detail on the basis of cylinder pressure analysis, high-speed photography of the combustion flame and spectroscopic measurement of flame light emissions. The results revealed that locally occurring autoignition took place rapidly at multiple locations in the cylinder when knocking combustion occurred. In that process, the unburned end gas subsequently underwent even more rapid autoignition, giving rise to cylinder pressure oscillations.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2674
Gerardo Valentino, Stefano Iannuzzi
The use of biodiesel or oxygenated fuels from renewable sources in diesel engines is of particular interest because of the low environmental impact that can be achieved. The present paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a light duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, gasoline and butanol mixed, at different volume fractions, with mineral diesel. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged DI four cylinder diesel engine for automotive applications equipped with a common rail injection system. Engine tests were carried out at 2500 rpm, 0.8 MPa of brake mean effective pressure selecting a single injection strategy and performing a parametric analysis on the effect of combustion phasing and oxygen concentration at intake on engine performance and exhaust emissions. The experiments demonstrated that the fuel properties have a strong impact on soot emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2673
Amine Labreche, Fabrice Foucher, Christine Rousselle
Abstract In this work, the first injection of gasoline was maintained at 30 CAD Before TDC and the second one was swept between 10 CAD Before TDC to 5 CAD After TDC, in order to demonstrate the ideal positioning of the second injection. The results showed that when it was placed near TDC, low emissions, acceptable noise and acceptable efficiencies could be obtained. The effect of EGR, simulated by N2 addition, was also studied. As expected, globally the effect of the EGR rate was to delay the combustion phasing and to decrease NOx emissions. The optimal EGR dilution rate was found to be 30% with respect to the cycle-to-cycle variation criterion (< 5%). Increasing the dilution rate increased HC, CO and PM emissions, due to a considerable delay in combustion phasing caused by the reduction in the fuel reaction rate and the in-cylinder lack of oxygen when the EGR rate reached 30%. The impact of the fuel mass distribution between the two injections was also considered.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2682
Yong Qian, Lifeng Zhu, Zhen Huang, Xing-cai Lu
Abstract An experimental study was conducted on the combustion and emissions characteristics of duel fuel sequential combustion (DFSC) mode on a single-cylinder engine, applying port injection of n-heptane combined with in-cylinder direct injection of commercial gasoline, ethanol and n-butyl alcohol, respectively. Three-stage combustion, which consists of low- and high-temperature combustion of premixed n-heptane and high temperature combustion of directly injected gasoline-like fuels were observed. The effects of the premixed ratio and overall heating values per cycle on the combustion characteristics and emissions were investigated. The experimental results show that: with the increasing of premixed ratio and overall heating values per-cycle, the ignition timing of the directly injected fuels advances and the maximum pressure and maximum mass-averaged temperature increase.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2694
Jay Anderson, Scott Miers, Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
Abstract Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2690
Werner E. Holly, Thomas Lauer, Henrik Schuemie, Shinsuke Murakami
Abstract The combustion efficiency of large gas engines is limited by knocking combustion. Due to fact that the quality of the fuel gas has a high impact on the self-ignition of the mixture, it is the aim of this work to model the knocking combustion for fuel gases with different composition using detailed chemistry. A cycle-resolved knock simulation of the fast burning cycles was carried out in order to assume realistic temperatures and pressures in the unburned mixture Therefore, an empirical model that predicts the cyclic variations on the basis of turbulent and chemical time scales was derived from measured burn rates and implemented in a 1D simulation model. Based on the simulation of the fast burning engine cycles the self-ignition process of the unburned zone was calculated with a stochastic reactor model and correlated to measurements from the engines test bench. A good agreement of the knock onset could be achieved with this approach.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2686
Fan Zhang, Soheil Zeraati Rezaei, Hongming Xu, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract Combustion behaviour and emissions characteristics of different blending ratios of diesel and gasoline fuels (Dieseline) were investigated in a light-duty 4-cylinder compression-ignition (CI) engine operating on partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. Experiments show that increasing volatility and reducing cetane number of fuels can help promote PPCI and consequently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduction depends on the engine load. Three different blends, 0% (G0), 20% (G20) and 50% (G50) of gasoline mixed with diesel by volume, were studied and results were compared to the diesel-baseline with the same combustion phasing for all experiments. Engine speed was fixed at 1800rpm, while the engine load was varied from 1.38 to 7.85 bar BMEP with the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) application.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2654
Mohsen Salem Radwan, Osayed Sayed Mohamed Abu-Elyazeed, Y. A. Attai, M. E. Morsy
Abstract Jojoba bio-diesel is one of the most promising bio-fuels to replace gas oil in diesel engines. Therefore, the main object of the present work was to measure and correlate the pressure rise ignition delay of jojoba bio-diesel and its blends with gas oil behind incident shock waves in a shock tube. For this purpose, a shock tube test set up was designed and manufactured. It was fully instrumented for delay measurement with two piezo-electric pressure transducers, dual mode charge amplifier, data acquisition card and a computer with suitable LabVIEW software. The test variables included the type of fuel (percentage of Jojoba bio-diesel in the blend with gas oil), equivalence ratio, ignition temperature and ignition pressure. It was found that jojoba bio-diesel exhibited a lower ignition delay in comparison with that of gas oil. Rich or lean mixtures produce long delays, whilst the minimum delay occurred near the stoichiometric mixture.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2695
Amrit Singh, David Anderson, Mark Hoffman, Zoran Filipi, Robert Prucka
Abstract The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2718
Sarah Remmert, Steven Campbell, Roger Cracknell, Andrea Schuetze, Andrew Lewis, Karl Giles, Sam Akehurst, James Turner, Andrew Popplewell, Rishin Patel
Market demand for high performance gasoline vehicles and increasingly strict government emissions regulations are driving the development of highly downsized, boosted direct injection engines. The in-cylinder temperatures and pressures of these emerging technologies tend to no longer adhere to the test conditions defining the RON and MON octane rating scales. This divergence between fuel knock rating methods and fuel performance in modern engines has previously led to the development of an engine and operating condition dependent scaling factor, K, which allows for extrapolation of RON and MON values. Downsized, boosted DISI engines have been generally shown to have negative K-values when knock limited, indicating a preference for fuels of higher sensitivity and challenging the relevance of a lower limit to the MON specification.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2547
Daniela Siano, Maria Antonietta Panza, Danilo D'Agostino
Abstract The easiest way to identify knock conditions during the operation of a SI engine is represented by the knowledge of the in-cylinder pressure. Traditional techniques like MAPO (Maximum Amplitude Pressure Oscillation) based method rely on the frequency domain processing of the pressure data. This technique may present uncertainties due to the correct specification of some model parameters, like the band-pass frequency range and the crank angle window of interest. In this paper two innovative techniques for knock detection, which make use of the in-cylinder pressure, are explained in detail, and the results are compared with those coming from the MAPO method. The first procedure is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive (AR) technique, while the second technique makes use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The data useful for the analysis have been acquired on a high compression ratio four cylinder, spark ignition engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2554
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Siano
Abstract Control of knock phenomenon is becoming more and more important in modern SI engine, due to the tendency to develop high boosted turbocharged engines (downsizing). To this aim, improved modeling and experimental techniques are required to precisely define the maximum allowable spark advance. On the experimental side, the knock limit is identified based on some indices derived by the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure traces or of the cylinder block vibrations. The threshold levels of the knock indices are usually defined following an heuristic approach. On the modeling side, in the 1D codes, the knock is usually described by simple correlation of the auto-ignition time of the unburned gas zone within the cylinders. In addition, the latter methodology commonly refers to ensemble-averaged pressure cycles and, for this reason, does not take into account the cycle-by-cycle variations.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2573
Zhi Wang, Fang Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract This paper studied the knock combustion process in gasoline HCCI engines. The complex chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code with LES (Large eddy simulation) to study the origin of the knock phenomena in HCCI combustion process. The model was validated using the experimental data from the cylinder pressure measurement. 3D-CFD with LES method gives detailed turbulence, species, temperature and pressure distribution during the gasoline HCCI combustion process. The simulation results indicate that HCCI engine knock originates from the random multipoint auto-ignition in the combustion chamber due to the slight inhomogeneity. It is induced by the significantly different heat release rate of high temperature oxidation (HTO) and low temperature oxidation (LTO) and their interactions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2620
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The growing concerns over the pollutant emissions as well as the depletion of fossil fuel led to the research of advanced combustion mode and alternative fuels for the reduction both of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The dual-fuel injection system can be used to improve the engine performance and reduce the fossil fuel consumption performing simultaneously a direct-injection (DI) and a port-fuel-injection (PFI) of different fuels. Ethanol is one of the most promising alternative fuels for SI engines. It offers high anti-knock quality because of the high octane number; moreover, being an oxygenated fuel is very effective in particle emissions reduction. On the other hand, it is characterized by lower energy density mainly because of the low lower heating value (LHV). The aim of the paper is the investigation of the ethanol-gasoline dual fuel combustion on engine performance and emissions.
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