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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries.
2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 1 of 2: Knock
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 2 of 2: Low-Speed Preignition
2015-04-22
WIP Standard
J285
This SAE recommended practice provided standard dimensions for liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts and a system for differentiating between nozzels that dispense liquid fuel into vehicles with Spark Ignition (SI) Engines and compression Ignition (CI) Engines for land vehicles. Current legal definitions only distinguish between "UNLEADED Fuel" and "All Other Types of Fuel." These definitions are no longer valid. This document establishes a new set of definitions that have practical application to current automobile liquid fuel inlets and liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
Abstract As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1076
Tak W. Chan
Abstract This study reported black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle on splash blended E10 and iB16 fuels over the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles at standard and cold ambient temperatures. For the FTP-75 drive cycle, the GDI vehicle had lower solid particle number and BC mass emissions from E10 (5.1×1012 particles/mile; 4.2 mg/mile) and iB16 (5.2×1012 particles/mile; 3.9 mg/mile) compared to E0 (7.2×1012 particles/mile; 7.0 mg/mi). Most of the reductions were attributed to the statistically significant reductions during the phases 1 and 2 of the FTP-75 drive cycle. iB16 was also observed to have statistically significant reduction on BC emissions when compared to E0 at cold ambient temperature but E10 did not show such BC reduction. For the PFI vehicle, most of the solid particle number and BC mass emissions were emitted primarily during phase 1 of the FTP-75 drive cycle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1622
Nicolo Cavina, Andrea Businaro, Giorgio Mancini, Matteo De Cesare, Federico Covassin, Stefano Sgatti
Abstract In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0942
Vikram Singh, Anshul Koli
Abstract This research presents the simulation of the jet behavior of gasoline ethanol blends in a quiescent chamber using the Lattice Boltzmann method. The fuel is taken as different mixtures of gasoline and ethanol, and the properties, such as density, viscosity and surface tension, are varied accordingly in the Lattice Boltzmann model. The variations in jet structure and instabilities are modeled according to the velocity of fuel injection, the composition of the gasoline-ethanol blend and the property of the surrounding mixture. The model implemented for the interaction of the two fluids; air and fuel, is the Shan Chen model. The accuracy of the model is confirmed using a static drop test at different curvatures for the two fluids as well as observing the evolution of merging droplets. This is the first time that the study of different fuels in done using the Shan Chen model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0924
Joseph Camm, Richard Stone, Martin Davy, David Richardson
Abstract A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0762
Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito, Tetsuya Nagai, Nobuyuki Iwai, Ryoji Hiraoka
Abstract Attempts were made to measure knocking phenomenon by an optical method, which is free from influences of mechanical noises and is allowing an easy installation to an engine. Using a newly developed high durability optical probe, the light intensity of hydroxyl radical component, which is diffracted from the emitted light from combustion, was measured. The intensity of this emission component was measured at each crank angle and the maximum intensity in a cycle was identified. After that, the angular range in which the measured intensity exceeded 85% of this maximum intensity was defined as “CA85”. When a knocking was purposely induced by changing the conditions of the engine operation, there appeared the engine cycles that included CA85 less than a crank angle of 4 degrees. The frequency of occurrence of CA85 equal to or less than 4 degrees within a predetermined number of engine cycles, which can be interpreted as a knocking occurrence ratio, was denoted as “CA85-4”.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0764
Seokwon Cho, Namho Kim, Jongwon Chung, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Ethanol is becoming more popular as a fuel component for spark-ignited engines. Ethanol can be used either as an octane enhancer of low RON gasoline or splash-blended with gasoline if a single injector is used for fuel injection. If two separate injectors are used, it is possible to inject gasoline and ethanol separately and the addition of ethanol can be varied on demand. In this study, the effect of the ethanol injection strategy on knock suppression was observed using a single cylinder engine equipped with two port fuel injectors dedicated to each side of the intake port and one direct injector. If the fuel is injected to only one side of the intake port, it is possible to form a stratified charge. The experiment was conducted under a compression ratio of 12.2 for various injection strategies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0767
Richard Stradling, David Rickeard, Heather Hamje, John Williams, Peter Zemroch
Abstract The performance aspect of gasoline combustion has traditionally been measured using Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance, while also helping refiners in the production of gasoline. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. It has also been suggested that there could be fuel efficiency benefits (on a tank to wheels basis) for specially adapted engines, for example, operating at higher compression ratio, on very high RON (100+). Other workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both RON and MON to give an indication of octane quality.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0833
Buyu Wang, Zhi Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with mixtures of gasoline and diesel is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the same fuel mass per cycle. By keeping the same intake pressure and EGR ratio, the influence of different blending ratios in gasoline and diesel mixtures (90vol%, 80vol% and 70vol% gasoline) is investigated. Combustion and emission characteristics are compared by sweeping the first (−95 ∼ −35deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−1 ∼ 9deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 80/20 and an injection pressure of 80MPa. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the gasoline and diesel mixtures can reduce NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency, but the HC and CO emissions are high for the mixtures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0832
Christopher Kolodziej, Janardhan Kodavasal, Stephen Ciatti, Sibendu Som, Neeraj Shidore, Jeremy Delhom
Abstract For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0827
Yan Zhang, Macklini Dalla Nora, Hua Zhao
Abstract Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0763
Gina M. Chupka, Earl Christensen, Lisa Fouts, Teresa L. Alleman, Matthew A. Ratcliff, Robert L. McCormick
Abstract The objective of this work was to measure knock resistance metrics for ethanol-hydrocarbon blends with a primary focus on development of methods to measure the heat of vaporization (HOV). Blends of ethanol at 10 to 50 volume percent were prepared with three gasoline blendstocks and a natural gasoline. Performance properties and composition of the blendstocks and blends were measured, including research octane number (RON), motor octane number (MON), net heating value, density, distillation curve, and vapor pressure. RON increases upon blending ethanol but with diminishing returns above about 30 vol%. Above 30% to 40% ethanol the curves flatten and converge at a RON of about 103 to 105, even for the much lower RON NG blendstock. Octane sensitivity (S = RON - MON) also increases upon ethanol blending. Gasoline blendstocks with nearly identical S can show significantly different sensitivities when blended with ethanol.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0871
James C. Peyton Jones, Jesse Frey
Abstract A new knock threshold optimization method is presented based on minimization of the total misclassification error of knocking / non-knocking engine operating conditions. The procedure can be used in conjunction with any knock-event-based controller, but is illustrated on a classical knock control strategy. Initial simulations suggest that the method delivers significant performance improvements with no changes other than a retuning of the controller. However, it is not possible rigorously to evaluate controller performance based on any individual experiment or simulation time history due to the random nature of the knock process. A recently developed stochastic simulation technique is therefore used to compute and compare the statistical properties of the closed loop steady state and transient response characteristics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0855
Adam B. Dempsey, Scott Curran, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0894
Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Timothy Theiss, James Baustian, Leslie Wolf, Wolf Koch
Abstract The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for a test fuel representing gasoline blended with 10% ethanol. Prior investigations were performed on gasoline fuels containing 25, 50 and 85% ethanol, but the knowledge gap existing from 0 to 25% ethanol precluded accurate compatibility assessment of low level blends, especially for the current E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10% ethanol) used in most filling stations, and the recently accepted E15 fuel blend (gasoline blended with up to15% ethanol). For the majority of the plastic materials evaluated in this study, the wet volume swell (which is the parameter most commonly used to assess compatibility) was higher for fuels containing 25% ethanol, while the volume swell accompanying E10 was much lower.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1011
Kazutake Ogyu, Toyoki Ogasawara, Yuichi Nagatsu, Yuya Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro Higuchi, Kazushige Ohno
Abstract The Particle Number (PN) emission limit is implemented for Direct Injection (DI) gasoline from EU6 regulation in European region. The wall-flow type ceramic filter technology is an essential component for Diesel PN emission control, and will be one potential solution to be investigated for the future Gasoline DI PN emission control demand. Especially the requirement of lower pressure loss with smaller filter volume is very strong for the filter substrate for Gasoline DI compared to DPF, not to lose better fuel economy benefit of Gasoline DI engine. Re-crystallized SiC (R-SiC) has high strength as its own property, and enable for Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) design to make the wall thickness thinner and the porosity higher compared to the other ceramic materials.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0397
Francesco Catapano, Michela Costa, Guido Marseglia, Paolo Sementa, Ugo Sorge, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The present paper deals with a comprehensive analysis of the knocking phenomenon through experiments and numerical simulations. Conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine. The engine exhibits optical accesses to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure-based indicated analyses in a cycle resolved approach.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0744
Terrence Alger, Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Barrett Mangold
Abstract The use of cooled EGR as a knock suppression tool is gaining more acceptance worldwide. As cooled EGR become more prevalent, some challenges are presented for engine designers. In this study, the impact of cooled EGR on peak cylinder pressure was evaluated. A 1.6 L, 4-cylinder engine was operated with and without cooled EGR at several operating conditions. The impact of adding cooled EGR to the engine on peak cylinder pressure was then evaluated with an attempt to separate the effect due to advanced combustion phasing from the effect of increased manifold pressure. The results show that cooled EGR's impact on peak cylinder pressure is primarily due to the knock suppression effect, with the result that an EGR rate of 25% leads to an almost 50% increase in peak cylinder pressure at a mid-load condition if the combustion phasing is advanced to Knock Limited Spark Advance (KLSA). When combustion phasing was held constant, increasing the EGR rate had almost no effect on PCP.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0750
Shinrak Park, Tetsuji Furukawa
Abstract Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0758
Xuwei Luo, Ho Teng, Tingjun Hu, Ruigang Miao, Liming Cao
Abstract The biggest challenge in developing Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engines may be the abnormal combustion phenomenon occurring at low speeds and high loads, known as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI can trigger severe engine knocks with intensities much greater than those of spark knocks and thus characterized as super knocks. In this study, behavior and patterns of LSPI were investigated experimentally with a highly-boosted 1.5L TGDI engine. It was found that LSPI could occur as an isolated event, a couple of events in sequence, or a trail of events. Although occurring randomly among the engine cylinders, LSPI took place frequently when the engine was operated at low speeds and high loads in the zone where scavenging was employed for boosting engine torques at low speeds, typically < 2500 rpm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0760
Sabino Luisi, Vittorio Doria, Andrea Stroppiana, Federico Millo, Mohsen Mirzaeian
Abstract The application of Miller cycle through Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) or Early Intake Valve Closure (EIVC) for knock mitigation at high load on a turbocharged downsized spark ignition engine was experimentally investigated. By reducing the effective compression ratio due to a shorter compression stroke and hence achieving lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder, significant mitigation of knock tendency could be obtained. As a consequence, the spark advance retard could be substantially decreased and the enrichment of the mixture could significantly be reduced, thus obtaining impressive efficiency improvements. In this research, both EIVC and LIVC strategies have been examined aiming to achieve possible improvements for knock mitigation and after some preliminary investigations confirmed LIVC being more effective than EIVC for this goal, the latter was discarded and the research activities were focused on LIVC only.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0752
Zhi Wang, Yunliang Qi, Hui Liu, Yan Long, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Occurrence of sporadic super-knock is the main obstacle to the development of advanced gasoline engines. One of the possible inducements of super-knock, agglomerated soot particle induced pre-ignition, was studied for high boosted gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The correlation between soot emissions and super-knock frequency was investigated in a four-cylinder gasoline direct injection production engine. The test results indicate that higher in-cylinder soot emission correlate with more pre-ignition and super-knock cycles in a GDI production engine. To study the soot/carbon particles trigger super-knock, a single-cylinder research engine for super-knock study was developed. The carbon particles with different temperatures and sizes were introduced into the combustion chamber to trigger pre-ignition and super-knock.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0848
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The aim of the paper is the comparison of the performance, gaseous and particle emissions from different injection configurations and fuels. The engine was operated in port fuel injection (PFI), direct injection (DI) and dual fuel (DF). For DF, ethanol DI-gasoline PFI and gasoline DI-gasoline PFI strategies were performed to discern the effect of injection strategy from the effect of the fuel. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. The gaseous and particle emissions were measured at the exhaust by means of a gas analyzer and a smoke meter.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1244
Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza
Abstract It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high/full load operation because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while TIT control requires enrichment of the Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio, with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, a promising technique, consisting of the introduction of a low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, is analyzed by means of a 1D numerical approach with reference to a downsized turbocharged SI engine. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the combustion process, turbulence phenomenon and the knock occurrence.
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