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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2475
2018-06-20 ...
  • June 20-22, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0119
Akira Iijima, Takuya Izako, Takahiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamashita, Shuhei Takahata, Hiroki Kudo, Kento Shimizu, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Hideo Shoji
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0084
Ricardo Gonçalves, Fabio Ferraz
Abstract Currently in Brazilian market we have application of two different fuels in large scale, gasoline with addition of 27% of hydrous ethanol, otherwise known as ethyl alcohol or alcohol and pure hydrous ethanol. These different fuels and their various blends combinations - from 27% (E27) to 100% (E100) of ethanol - make the gases from combustion have different physical characteristics, affecting directly the exhaust system acoustic performance. This study is going to describe the physical differences of the exhaust gases with various blends combination and their respective impact on the exhaust system acoustic performances.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0147
Clayton B. Zabeu, Luana C. X. Camargos, Luiz Rafael Marinsek, Rafael C. R. Berti, Renan L. Nicola, Rafael Serralvo Neto
Abstract The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the automotive sector has demanded an increase in the efficiency of internal combustion engines as well as the use of renewable fuels, with ethanol being one of the most promising fuels. In SI PFI engines, the quality of the air-fuel mixture formed during the injection event is dependent on several factors, such as: physical-chemical properties of the fuel (density, viscosity, surface tension, latent heat of vaporization), interaction between fuel spray and gas flow / pipe walls / back surfaces the intake valves.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0266
Thiago R. V. Silva, José G. C. Baeta, Nilton A. D. Neto, Augusto C. T. Malaquias, Matheus G. F. Carvalho, Fernando R. Filho
Abstract The abnormal combustion, such as pre-ignition and knock, are deviations from the controlled combustion process under certain operating conditions, which can result in performance losses and possible damage to the engine. In the SI engines, a pre-ignition event can take place when the flame front is started by any hot spot into the combustion chamber before ignition by the spark plug. The objective of this work is to investigate the use of the Stratified Combustion for Pre-Ignition Suppression (SCPIS) in order to reduce this undesirable phenomenon, especially under high load operating conditions. The results were obtained through dynamometric tests on a downsized ethanol SIDI engine, and considered satisfactory in terms of maximizing the fuel conversion efficiency.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0357
Karsten Wittek, Frank Geiger, Jakob Andert, Mario Martins, Maurício Oliveira
Abstract The possibility to vary compression ratio offers a new degree of freedom that may enable so far not exploited benefits for the combustion process especially for highly boosted spark ignited engines. Numerous approaches to enable a variable compression ratio (VCR) have been tried and tested in the past. Nevertheless, none of these systems reached series production because of several reasons, ranging from too much complexity and moveable parts to deep modification required on existing engine architectures and manufacturing lines. Instead, the approach of a variable length conrod (VCR conrod) could be the solution for integration in almost any type of engine with minor modifications. It is then considered by several OEMs as a promising candidate for midterm series production. This paper shows, firstly, a discussion of the benefits of a variable compression ratio system.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0073
Jörn Judith, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Markus Klaissle, Darko Kozarac
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in natural gas fueled engines is thought to achieve high efficiency and low NOx emissions. While automotive applications require various load and speed regions, the operation range of stationary cogeneration engines is narrower. Hence, HCCI operation is easier to reach and more applicable to comply with future emission standards. This study presents computationally investigations of the auto-ignition ranges of a stationary natural gas HCCI engine. Starting from a detailed 1D engine cycle simulation model, a reduced engine model was developed and coupled to chemical kinetics using AVL Boost. Compression ratio, air-fuel ratio, internal EGR rate (iEGR) and intake temperature were varied for three different speeds, namely 1200, 1700 and 2200 rpm. Each examination includes a full factorial design study of 375 configurations. In the first step, the combustion was calculated using the GRI-mechanism 3.0 and a single zone combustion model.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0050
Shuhei Takahata, Takahiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamashita, Takuya Izako Hiroki Kudo, Kento Shimizu, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Internal combustion engines have been required to achieve even higher efficiency in recent years in order to address environmental concerns. However, knock induced by abnormal combustion in spark-ignition engines has impeded efforts to attain higher efficiency. Knock characteristics during abnormal combustion were investigated in this study by in-cylinder visualization and spectroscopic measurements using a four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine. The results revealed that knock intensity and the manner in which the autoignited flame propagated in the end gas differed depending on the engine speed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0054
Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo, Phonethip Trichanh, Kevin Ferdyamin, Mega Zulfikar Akbar
This research aims to investigate the effect of ethanol blends with pure gasoline to the rate of fuel consumption and emissions of fuel injection motorcycle 115 cc with automatic transmission which is the population is dominant in Indonesia. Variations of the bioethanol mixture are 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% ethanol. The experiment conducted in two different conditions by using three ways catalytic converter (TWC) in the exhaust pipe and without using TWC in the exhaust pipe. First, all engine setting was originally manufacture setting. Second, the AFR is set in stoichiometry condition (λ = 1) and ignition timing set in MBT timing using modified ECU. The experiment performed on the chassis dynamometer and referred on the standard cycle ECE 15. The results of this experiment showed that increment of ethanol content in the fuel makes the rate of fuel consumption and CO2 emission both increased but CO and HC emissions decreased.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0092
S. Di Iorio, A. Irimescu, S.S. Merola, P. Sementa, B. M. Vaglieco
It is well known that ethanol can be used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as a pure fuel or blended with gasoline. High enthalpy of vaporization of alcohols can affect air-fuel mixture formation prior to ignition and may form thicker liquid films around the intake valves, on the cylinder wall and piston crown. These liquid films can result in mixture non-homogeneities inside the combustion chamber and hence strongly influence the cyclic variability of early combustion stages. Starting from these considerations, the paper reports an experimental study of the initial phases of the combustion process in a single cylinder SI engine fueled with commercial gasoline and anhydrous ethanol, as well as their blend (50%vol alcohol). The engine was optically accessible and equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial power unit for two-wheel applications, with the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0090
Hiroto Tanaka, Tatsuya Sato, Shuntaro Takano, Yuya Motoki, Hyota Hoshino, Yuya Higuchi, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. However, because HCCI engines lack a physical means of initiating ignition, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. Another issue of HCCI engines is that the combustion process causes the cylinder pressure to rise rapidly. The time scale is also important in HCCI combustion because ignition depends on the chemical reactions of the mixture. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the engine speed on autoignition and combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine. A four-stroke single-cylinder engine equipped with a mechanically driven supercharger was used in this study to examine HCCI combustion characteristics under different engine speeds and boost pressures.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0130
V. Bevilacqua, M. Boeger, G. Corvaglia, M. Penzel, K. Fuoss
The continually increasing stringent requirements in terms of emissions and performance lead to the demand for further development of gasoline engines, in order to satisfy the regulations and to be competitive in the market. One of the main limitations in simultaneously improving the efficiency and performance of SI engines is the knock behaviour. This phenomenon limits either the possibility to adopt a higher compression ratio, which would be beneficial for the engine efficiency, or it causes a poor combustion timing which leads to a higher fuel consumption and a lag in performance. As a result, having the possibility to judge the risk of knock during the design phase can be beneficial to increase the potentials of the engine. In this work, a methodology for the prediction of the knock tendency in spark ignition engines using a 3D-CFD software has been developed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0116
Naohiro Hasegawa, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Mitsuru Iwasaki
An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0112
Yasunobu Goto, Dongwon Jung, Toshihisa Ueda, Norimasa Iida
Super lean burn technology is conceived as one of methods for improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines[1][2]. For lean burn, reduction of heat loss and the due to decrease in flame temperature can be expected. However, as the premixed gas dilutes, the combustion speed decreases, so the combustion fluctuation between cycles increases. Also, to improve the thermal efficiency, the ignition timing is advanced to advance the combustion phase. However, when the combustion phase is excessively advanced, knocking occurs, which hinders the improvement of thermal efficiency. Knocking is a phenomenon in which unburned gas in a combustion chamber compressed by a piston and combustion gas suffer compression auto-ignition. It is necessary to avoid knocking because the amplitude of the large pressure wave may cause noise and damage to the engine. Also, knocking is not a steady phenomenon but a phenomenon that fluctuates from cycle to cycle.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2266
Bin Yang, Hu Wang, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Jialin Liu, Naifeng Ma, Qiping Wang, Haien Zha, Peng Chen
Abstract Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2257
Linjun Yu, Yanfei Li, Bowen Li, Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Xin He, Shi-jin Shuai
Abstract This study compared the combustion and emission characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) modes in a boosted and high compression ratio (17) engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/diesel blend (80% gasoline by volume, denoted as G80). The injection strategy was adjusted to achieve the highest thermal efficiency at different intake pressures. The results showed that Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) was not observed in gasoline HCCI. However, 20% additional diesel could lower down the octane number and improve the autoignition reactivity of G80, which contributed to a weak LTHR, accounting for approximately 5% of total released heat. The combustion efficiency in gasoline DICI was higher than those in gasoline HCCI and G80 HCCI, while the exhaust loss and heat transfer loss in DICI mode were higher than those in HCCI mode.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2263
S. Vedharaj, R Vallinayagam, Yanzhao An, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Junseok Chang, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Low temperature combustion concepts are studied recently to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions. Optical studies are performed to study gasoline PPC in CI engines to investigate in-cylinder combustion and stratification. It is imperative to perform emission measurements and interpret the results with combustion images. In this work, we attempt to investigate this during the transition from CI to HCCI mode for FACE I gasoline (RON = 70) and its surrogate, PRF70. The experiments are performed in a single cylinder optical engine that runs at a speed of 1200 rpm. Considering the safety of engine, testing was done at lower IMEP (3 bar) and combustion is visualized using a high-speed camera through a window in the bottom of the bowl. From the engine experiments, it is clear that intake air temperature requirement is different at various combustion modes to maintain the same combustion phasing.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2264
Hyun Woo Won, Alexandre Bouet, Joseph Kermani, Florence Duffour, Simon Dosda
Abstract Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low research octane number (RON) gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different cetane number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2247
Wenbin Zhang, Haichun ding, Shijin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song ZHAN, Yunping Pu
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2233
Gautam Kalghatgi, Kai Morganti, Ibrahim Algunaibet
Knock in spark ignition engines is stochastic in nature. It is caused by autoignition in hot spots in the unburned end-gas ahead of the expanding flame front. Knock onset in an engine cycle can be predicted using the Livengood-Wu integral if the variation of ignition delay with pressure and temperature as well as the pressure and temperature variation with crank angle are known. However, knock intensity (KI) is determined by the evolution of the pressure wave following knock onset. In an earlier paper (SAE 2017-01-0689) we showed that KI can be approximated by KI = Z (∂T/∂x)-2 at a fixed operating condition, where Z is a function of Pko, the pressure, and (∂T/∂x) is the temperature gradient in the hot spot at knock onset. Then, from experimental measurements of KI and Pko, using five different fuels, with the engine operating at boosted conditions, a probability density function for (∂T/∂x) was established.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2231
Yongquan Chen, Liguang Li, Qing Zhang, Jun Deng, Wei Xie, Erbao Zhang, Sunyu Tong
Abstract Pre-ignition may lead to an extreme knock (super-knock or mega-knock) which will impose a severe negative influence on the engine performance and service life, thus limiting the development of downsizing gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. More and more studies reveal that the auto-ignition of lubricants is the potential source for pre-ignition. However, pre-ignition is complicated to study on the engine test bench. In this paper, a convenient test method is applied to investigate the influence of lubricants metal-additives on pre-ignition. 8 groups of lubricants are injected into a hot co-flow atmosphere which generated by a burner. A single-hole nozzle injector with a diameter of 0.2 mm at 20 MPa injection pressure is utilized for lubricants' injection and spray atomization.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2236
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Fabien Vidal-Naquet, Thomas Leroy
Abstract In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel engine which leverages a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s research octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gas concentrations due to valve overlap, and also affect the compression pressure and temperature by altering the effective compression ratio (eCR). In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. At 2000 rpm and 6 bar IMEP, the fuel RON requirement ranges from 80 to 90 as a function of the intake valve timing, and the valve timing can change the RON requirement from 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar IMEP.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2234
David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg
Abstract Fundamental engine research is primarily conducted under steady-state conditions, in order to better describe boundary conditions which influence the studied phenomena. However, light-duty automobiles are operated, and tested, under heavily transient conditions. This mismatch between studied conditions and in-use conditions is deemed acceptable due to the fundamental knowledge gained from steady-state experiments. Nonetheless, it is useful to characterize the conditions encountered during transient operation and determine if the governing phenomena are unduly influenced by the differences between steady-state and transient operation, and further, whether transient behavior can be reasonably extrapolated from steady-state behavior. The transient operation mode used in this study consists of 20 fired cycles followed by 80 motored cycles, operating on a continuous basis.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2235
Ting Liu, Fuyuan Zhang, Yuedong Chao, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Abstract In order to investigate the impacts of recirculated exhaust gas temperature on gasoline engine combustion and emissions, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged PFI gasoline engine. The engine was equipped with a high pressure cooled EGR system, in which different EGR temperatures were realized by using different EGR coolants. The engine ran at 2000 r/min and 3000 r/min, and the BMEP varied from 0.2MPa to 1.0MPa with the step of 0.2MPa. At each case, there were three conditions: 0% EGR, 10% LT-EGR, 10% HT-EGR. The results indicated that LT-EGR had a longer combustion duration compared with HT-EGR. When BMEP was 1.0 MPa, CA50 of HT-EGR advanced about 5oCA. However, CA50 of LT-EGR could still keep steady and in appropriate range, which guaranteed good combustion efficiency. Besides, LT-EGR had lower exhaust gas temperature, which could help to suppress knock. And its lower exhaust gas temperature could reduce heat loss.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2186
Lukas Urban, Michael Grill, Sebastian Hann, Michael Bargende
Abstract Engine Knock is a stochastic phenomenon that occurs during the regular combustion of spark ignition (SI) engines and limits its efficiency. Knock is triggered by an autoignition of local “hot spots” in the unburned zone, ahead of the flame front. Regarding chemical kinetics, the temperature and pressure history as well as the knock resistance of the fuel are the main driver for the autoignition process. In this paper, a new knock modeling approach for natural gas blends is presented. It is based on a kinetic fit for the ignition delay times that has been derived from chemical kinetics simulations. The knock model is coupled with an enhanced burn rate model that was modified for Methane-based fuels. The two newly developed models are incorporated in a predictive 0D/1D simulation tool that provides a cost-effective method for the development of natural gas powered SI engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2366
Wenzheng Xia, Yi Zheng, Xiaokun He, Dongxia Yang, Huifang Shao, Joesph Remias, Joseph Roos, Yinhui Wang
Abstract Because of the increased use of gasoline direct engine (GDI) in the automobile industry, there is a significant need to control particulates from GDI engines based on emission regulations. One potential technical approach is the utilization of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The successful adoption of this emission control technology needs to take many aspects into consideration and requires a system approach for optimization. This study conducted research to investigate the impact of vehicle driving cycles, fuel properties and catalyst coating on the performance of GPF. It was found that driving cycle has significant impact on particulate emission. Fuel quality still plays a role in particulate emissions, and can affect the GPF performance. Catalyzed GPF is preferred for soot regeneration, especially for the case that the vehicle operation is dominated by congested city driving condition, i.e. low operating temperatures.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2378
Takayuki Ogata, Mikio Makino, Takashi Aoki, Takehide Shimoda, Kyohei Kato, Takahiko Nakatani, Koji Nagata, Claus Dieter Vogt, Yoshitaka Ito, Dominic Thier
Abstract In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
Abstract The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2396
Fushui Liu, Yang Hua, Han Wu, Xu He, Ning Kang
Abstract Soot emission, known as PM (particulate matter), is becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being increasingly stricter. It is found that ethanol, as an oxygenated bio-fuel, can reduce the soot emission when added to gasoline. In order to fully understand the effect of ethanol on soot reducing, the soot characteristics of ethanol/gasoline blends were studied on laminar diffusion flames. In this experiment, the blending ratio of ethanol/gasoline was set as E0/20/40/60/80. Considering the carbon content decreasing due to ethanol addition, carbon mass flow rate was remained constant. The two-dimensional distributions of soot volume fraction were measured quantitatively by using two-color laser induced incandescence technique. The results showed that ethanol is able to decrease the soot significantly, but the effect of ethanol on soot reduction is weakened with the increasing ethanol ratio.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2407
Michael Bardon, Greg Pucher, David Gardiner, Javier Ariztegui, Roger Cracknell, Heather Hamje, Leonardo Pellegrini, David Rickeard
Abstract Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this, but a practical concern is the flammability of the headspace vapours in the vehicle fuel tank. Gasoline is much more volatile than diesel so, at most ambient temperatures, the headspace vapours in the tank are too rich to burn. A gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank therefore can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model is presented that predicts the flammability of the headspace vapours in a tank containing mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel. Fourteen hydrocarbons and ethanol represent the volatile components. Heavier components are treated as non-volatile diluents in the liquid phase.
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