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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries.
2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1659
Peter A. Dennis, Michael J. Brear, Harry C. Watson, Pedro J. Orbaiz, Payman Abbasi Atibeh
This paper presents results obtained using a combined experimental and numerical method developed for analysing energy flows within a spark ignition, internal combustion engine. Data from engine dynamometer testing is combined with an in-cylinder convection model and a model of the thermal impedances of the engine to permit closure of the First Law of Thermodynamics over the entire engine system. Notably, the charge, coolant and metal temperatures are not assumed constant with respect to the engine operating point. A six-cylinder, hydrogen-fueled engine operating from near stoichiometric conditions to 500% excess air was used to test the model over a wide range of thermal conditions. The model was also used to investigate the effects of compression ratio and combustion chamber geometry on in-cylinder heat transfer and the performance of hydrogen-fueled engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0775
Ahmad Omari, Michael Shapiro, Leonid Tartakovsky
Utilizing heat of exhaust gases for on-board alcohol reforming process (thermo-chemical recuperation – TCR) is a promising way of internal combustion engine (ICE) efficiency increase and emissions mitigation. Knowledge of the laminar burning velocity of alcohol reforming products is necessary for simulating performance of internal combustion engine with TCR. Various alcohol reforming processes may contribute to different compositions of the produced reformates. Among the parameters that determine this composition are: alcohol type, water-alcohol ratio, reforming temperature and catalyst selectivity. Different compositions of the reforming products have different combustion properties. High hydrogen containing mixtures normally have wider flammability limits; higher burning velocity and burning velocity acceleration due to cellularity, but are less energy dense.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0802
Claudio Marcio Santana
A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gas, the combustion speed and time delay ignition of fuel air mixture. The automotive industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in simulations and numerical modeling in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance, control emissions and in formulating new fuels. This work aimed at general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring the fuel ignition delay time. Specific objectives determined the reaction raté and delay time of ignition Diesel S25, ethanol with 5 % additive enhancer cetane number, B100 biodiesel and Diesel reference. The results were correlatéd with the number of cetane fuels and compared with the times of known delays ignition of Diesel and biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0862
David Roger Hillstrom, Fabio Chiara, James Durand PhD, Giorgio Rizzoni, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
The recent shale gas plays in the United States by the oil industry have revealed an abundance of domestic natural gas reserves. This large domestic capacity has spurred interest in the fuel as a catalyst for facilitating US energy independence. Specifically, natural gas is a desirable fuel source for the transportation sector as its adoption could potentially reduce domestic need for foreign petroleum imports while simultaneously allowing for significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In the pursuit of expanding publicly accessible knowledge regarding the potential adoption of natural gas as a transportation fuel, the research discussed herein seeks to conduct the performance and emissions characterization of a production natural gas engine with extremely limited modifications to the vehicle platform. All instrumentation is installed in the vehicle, a 2012 Honda Civic Natural Gas, without modifying ECU controls or removing parasitic loads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0863
Hideyuki Ogawa, Peilong Zhao, Taiki Kato, Gen Shibata
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas from an intake manifold as the main fuel and a small quantity of directly injected diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, super-charged, direct injection diesel engine with common rail fuel injection and low pressure loop cooled EGR. This type of combustion poses problems including large unburned emissions at low engine load conditions and limitations on the maximum load due to excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, the equivalence ratio of the natural gas, and the intake oxygen concentrations changed with cooled EGR on the combustion and emissions in the dual fuel operation was systematically investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1242
Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
Ethanol has demonstrated strong, anti-knock performance in spark ignition (SI) engines, and this is one important reason for its increasing use around the world. Ethanol’s high octane rating is attributed to both its low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling capability. Further, whilst detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms have been developed for gasoline surrogates and ethanol, little work has been done to investigate whether autoignition in modern, SI engines with ethanol/gasoline blends can be reproduced by these mechanisms, in particular for cases with direct fuel injection. This paper therefore presents a numerical study of the trace knocking of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results of these numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained in a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0865
Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Ken Mann, Jian Huang, Ashish Singh, Bronson Patychuk, Sandeep Munshi
Direct injection of natural gas near the end of the compression stroke offers a diesel-like non-premixed combustion event using a generally cleaner and lower-cost fuel. Westport’s high pressure direct injection (HPDI) fuelling system uses a diesel pilot injection to ignite a subsequent injection of natural gas in an otherwise unmodified diesel engine. To date, maximum injection pressures for the natural gas typically do not exceed approximately 300 bar. The diesel industry has demonstrated the benefit of greatly increased pressures, but a large part of this is attributed to the liquid injection. Whether these benefits would also apply to direct injection of natural gas were not clear. This paper reports the results of what is, to our knowledge, the first study to evaluate the benefits of natural gas direct injection pressures up to 600 bar.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0864
Bronson Patychuk, Ning Wu, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Philip Hill, Sandeep Munshi
Natural gas high pressure direct injection (HPDI) engines represent a technology with the potential for lower engine-out emissions and reduced fuel costs over a diesel engine. This combustion process uses an injection of natural gas, near top dead center, into the combustion chamber of a high compression ratio engine to maintain diesel engine performance. As natural gas will not auto-ignite at typical engine temperatures and pressures, a small quantity of diesel pilot fuel is used to initiate the combustion event (~5% of the total energy). A natural gas HPDI engine replaces the diesel fuel system with a twin-fuel common rail system. The base diesel’s air handling and exhaust aftertreatment systems are typically retained. These engines still must meet stringent emission regulations with the added restriction of minimizing engine-out CH¬4¬ emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0838
Zhiqin Jia, Ingemar Denbratt
Studies have shown that premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI can achieve high efficiencies meanwhile maintain low NOx and soot emissions. The RCCI concept (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) use blending of port injected high-octane fuel and early direct injected high-cetane fuel to control auto-ignition. In this study, CNG and Diesel were used as the high-octane and high-cetane fuels respectively. The test was conducted on a heavy-duty single cylinder engine. The influence of Diesel injection timing and quantity was examined at 9 bar BMEP and1200 rpm. Moreover, engine performance and emissions comparison were conducted with two different compression ratios, 14 and 17 respectively, under different loads and engine speeds. Results show both low NOx and almost zero soot emissions can be achieved but at the expense of increased hydrocarbon emissions which however can be taken care by the catalytic aftertreatment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1244
Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza
It is well known that the downsizing allows to improve the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at part load operations for the spark ignition engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high/full load operations because of the knock occurrence and of some limitations for the turbine inlet temperature. In fact, these drawbacks obligate to adopt a late phasing of the combustion process and an enrichment of air/fuel mixture, with a substantial detriment of the fuel economy. In this work, a downsized twin-cylinders turbocharged engine is analyzed by means of a 1D numerical approach. In a first stage, the 1D engine model is tuned against the experimental data at full load operations. A refined knock model is proposed, that is based on a detailed description of the chemical kinetics in the “end gas”. The model is validated through the identification of the knock-limited spark advance, denoting a very satisfactory agreement with the experimentally-identified spark timing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1245
Darko Kozarac, Rudolf Tomic lng, Ivan Taritas, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Robert W. Dibble
Development of SI engines and further increase of engine efficiency is strongly affected by the occurrence of knock. Knock has been widely investigated over the years and the main promoting parameters have been identified as load (temperature and pressure), mixture composition, engine speed, characteristic of the fuel, combustion chamber design, etc. On the other hand recent engine developments heavily depend on engine modeling that ranges from detail modeling for fundamental insights to much simpler modeling that can be used in the optimization of engine operating conditions. In this paper the new model for predicting knock in 0-D environment is presented. The model is based on the well known approach of using a Livengood and Wu knock integral. Ignition delay data that are supplied to the knock integral are for specific fuel calculated by detail chemical kinetics and are comprised of low temperature heat release ignition delay and high temperature heat release ignition delay.
2015-01-22
Event
Regulatory requirements, including the RFS, Tier 3 emissions standards, California’s LCFS program and CAFE standards are creating incentives to adjust gasoline formulations to enable cleaner, more efficient, and less carbon-intensive vehicles for the future. At the same time, fuel producers must contend with changing feedstocks and attempt to balance product slates in a global marketplace. The emergence of new sources, including natural gas and light, tight oil and increased use of biofuels have also impacted fuel production and the related petrochemical sector. It’s a changing world; will gasoline formulations change in the years ahead? This session will explore issues surrounding the future of gasoline formulation as fuel producers respond to global fuel utilization pressures, changing feedstock properties, regulatory guidance, and consumer expectations.
2015-01-22
Event
2015-01-22
Event
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0213
Christoph Poetsch, Peter Priesching, Henrik Schuemie, Reinhard Tatschl
Abstract In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the assessment of the impact of SI-engine cycle-to-cycle combustion variations on fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions on three different levels of modeling depth: in-cylinder, steady-state engine and transient engine and vehicle simulation. On the detailed engine combustion chamber level, a 3D-CFD approach is used to study the impact of the turbulent in-cylinder flow on the cycle-resolved flame propagation characteristics. On engine level, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations are assessed regarding their impact on indicated mean effective pressure, aiming at estimating the possible fuel consumption savings when cyclic variations are minimized. Finally, on the vehicle system level, a combined real-time engine approach with crank-angle resolved cylinder is used to assess the potential fuel consumption savings for different vehicle drivecycle conditions.
2014-11-20
Standard
ARP739A
This ARP is intended to promote better understanding of gas system characteristics and operation in order to aid in system selection and design. Various gas systems are classified in a broad sense, component operation is described in moderate detail, pertinent design parameters are discussed, and possible modes for system operation are listed.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0063
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Danilo D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta Panza
Abstract In the present work, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, for knock detection purposes. To the aim of tuning such procedures, the same analysis has been carried out by using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index and an Inverse Kinetic Model (IKM), both applied on the in-cylinder pressure signals. Vibrational and in-cylinder pressure signals have been collected on a four cylinder, four stroke engine, for different engine speeds, load conditions and spark advances. The results of the two vibrational based methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9079
Yongming Bao, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes
Abstract The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9080
James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington, Robert A. Stein, William M. Studzinski
Abstract Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws. For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9081
Giuseppe Genchi, Emiliano Pipitone
In the last years new and stricter pollutant emission regulations together with raised cost of conventional fuels resulted in an increased use of gaseous fuels, such as Natural Gas (NG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), for passenger vehicles. Bi-fuel engines represent a transition phase product, allowing to run either with gasoline or with gas, and for this reason are equipped with two separate injection systems. When operating at high loads with gasoline, however, these engines require rich mixtures and retarded combustions in order to prevent from dangerous knocking phenomena: this causes high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions together with high fuel consumption.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2608
Zhengyang Ling, Alexey Burluka, Ulugbek Azimov
Abstract Replacing the conventional fossil fuel totally or partially with alcohols or ethers in spark-ignition (SI) engine is a promising way to reduce pollutant emissions. A large number of studies on alcohol-containing blends in SI engines could be found in the literature. Nonetheless, investigations of ether-containing blends are by far much less numerous, especially for modern boosted engines. Blending with ether compounds might change the burning rate at high pressure, which consequently changes the anti-knock properties of these fuels and leads to a deterioration in the vehicle drivability. This work reports experiments carried out in two one-cylinder engines: one is a naturally aspirated, variable compression ratio engine, and the other is a strongly charged optical engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2573
Zhi Wang, Fang Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract This paper studied the knock combustion process in gasoline HCCI engines. The complex chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code with LES (Large eddy simulation) to study the origin of the knock phenomena in HCCI combustion process. The model was validated using the experimental data from the cylinder pressure measurement. 3D-CFD with LES method gives detailed turbulence, species, temperature and pressure distribution during the gasoline HCCI combustion process. The simulation results indicate that HCCI engine knock originates from the random multipoint auto-ignition in the combustion chamber due to the slight inhomogeneity. It is induced by the significantly different heat release rate of high temperature oxidation (HTO) and low temperature oxidation (LTO) and their interactions.
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