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2017-06-26 ...
  • June 26-28, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Fuel composition has had to change with the advent of more stringent emission regulations. Reformulated gasoline (RFG), for example, is vastly different from gasoline of even ten years ago. Tightening regulations on diesel emissions will dramatically change both diesel fuel and engine design. This three-day seminar will review the fundamentals of motor fuels, combustion and motor power generation. The primary content of the course provides a basic introduction to the technology, performance, evaluation, and specifications of current gasoline, diesel, and turbine fuels.
2017-04-06
Event
Mixed modes with both flame propagation and slow auto ignition. Distinct from SI knock: autoignition is desired and will not ruin the engine. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, and SACI mode change are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL 110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0740
Yu Zhang, Yuanjiang Pei, Nayan Engineer, Kukwon Cho, David Cleary
Partially-premixed combustion (PPC) enabled through gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) shows a promising potential to achieve high fuel efficiency with low engine-out oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, it faces technical barriers to meet the need for simultaneously mitigating combustion efficiency loss at low load as well as containing maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) and soot at high load. In addition, GCI typically requires high EGR rate at medium-to-high load and therefore poses challenges on the air system development and transient engine operation. The current study aims to utilize 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion analysis to guide the development of a viable full-load range combustion strategy using a higher reactivity gasoline that has a research octane number (RON) of 70. RON70 was selected as it has the potential to offer a good balance between low load and high load GCI operation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0665
Hassan vafamehr, Alasdair Cairns, Mohammadmohsen Moslemin Koupaie
The experimental work was concerned with improving understanding of the effects of latent heat of vaporisation of different ethanol blends during heaving knocking combustion in modern spark ignition engines. The unique single cylinder engine employed included full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding unusually high in-cylinder pressures. Heavy knock was deliberately induced under moderate loads using inlet air heating and a primary reference fuel blend of reduced octane rating. High-speed chemiluminescence imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement were used to evaluate the combustion events. Under normal operation the engine was operated under port fuel injection with a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture. Multiple centred auto-ignition events were regularly observed, with knock intensities of up to ~40bar. Additional excess fuel was then introduced directly into the end-gas in short transient bursts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0931
Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Joseph Ulrey
While not commonly in production today, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are likely to see widespread deployment to meet stringent EU6.2 and China particulate number (PN) standards. In many ways the operating conditions for GPFs are orthogonal to those of their diesel counterparts, and this leads to different and interesting requirements for the control strategy. We will present some generic system architectures for exhaust systems containing a GPF and will lay out an architecture for the GPF control strategy components which include: regeneration assist feature, soot estimation algorithm, GPF protection. Lastly, we will show validation data of the control strategy under different operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1042
Eric J. Passow, Paras Sethi, Max Maschewske, Jason Bieneman, Kimm Karrip, Paul Truckel
Current market demands in conjunction with increased emission legislation's, have OEM’s striving to improve fuel economy and reduce CO2 emissions. One way to meet these demands, is through engine downsizing. Engine downsizing allows for reduced pumping and frictional losses. However, to maintain drivability, specifically in trucks and SUV's, power density increase through the addition of either a turbocharger or supercharger is necessary. Furthermore, engine efficiencies have been improved through reduced engine speed, paired with high gear count transmissions, providing an opportunity for manufactures to achieve desired drivability (strong acceleration coupled with fuel efficient high gears for cruising). With these advancements taken to improve engine/vehicle efficiency, gasoline turbo charge direct injected (GTDI) engines operate at low engine speeds with high torque output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0661
Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Carrie Hall
Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel which has attracted a lot of attention recently, in particular in the US due to shale gas availability. The higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, compared to gasoline, allows for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG allows increasing the efficiency at high engine loads compared to fuels with lower knock resistance. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC) resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state engine tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline (E10) port-fuel injection (PFI) and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios (CR), 10.5 and 12.5.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1069
Igor Trevas, Adm José baeta, Charles Pimenta, Heder Fernandes, Matheus Carvalho, Raphael Montemor
Variable Valve Actuation system (VVA) is a technology developed for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance mainly by reducing pumping losses. Many automakers have used VVA in their engine projects with excellent results. Usually, VVA systems are built to control the valve events in four different ways: changing the amplitude of the valve lift, the valve open angle, the valve close angle or a combination of those modes. A special attention at the calibration activity is needed to reach the optimum performance of this system, beyond this, it was necessary to develop a different way to calibrate, much more focused in the development of the combustion and the gas exchange process requiring an intense use of a pressure indicating system. This work presents a comparison between different way of actuation in combustion analysis of a VVA system on a spark ignition engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0664
Mohd Asif, Karl Giles, Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, Niall Turner
Engine downsizing, the practice of reducing engine displacement whilst maintaining key drivability characteristics, is a well-established method by which automotive manufacturers improve the fuel economy of their products. This improvement is achieved primarily via reduced pumping and friction losses within the engine, as well as by reducing overall vehicle weight. However, the higher BMEP requirement of downsized engines results in increased peak pressures and temperatures within the cylinder. Subsequently, there is an increased tendency for downsized engines to experience damaging forms of abnormal combustion such as pre-ignition and knock. The causes of knock are well understood but it is important to be able to relate these causes to the effects of controllable engine parameters. This study attempts to quantify the effects of several key engine parameters on the knock behavior of a 60% downsized, DISI engine running at approximately 23 bar BMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0538
Corinna Netzer, Lars Seidel, Michal Pasternak, Christian Klauer, Cathleen Perlman, Frederic Ravet, Fabian Mauss
Engine knock limits the efficiency of spark ignited engines. It is therefore an important phenomenon that needs consideration in gasoline engine development. Beside the engine design and operating mode, the fuel quality has a major impact on engine knock. The fuel quality and composition differs worldwide due to different national regulations and therefore needs to be considered in engine simulations. In these simulations one of the key issues is to predict and evaluate the transition of harmless deflagration induced by auto-ignition in the unburnt zone to undesirable knocking combustion. Hence, it is important to classify the severity of the auto-ignition event. In our method, the auto-ignition and emissions are calculated based on a new reaction scheme for mixtures of iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene and ethanol.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0699
Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
The superior fuel economy and power density of direct injection internal combustion engine (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of high compression ratio to auto ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Convention Direct Injection Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced pre- ignition and sporadic pre- ignition phenomenon. Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combine the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel. One of the main advantages of GDICI engine is the low temperature combustion for low engine out emissions of NOx and Particulates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0686
Mohammed Jaasim Mubarak Ali, Francisco Hernandez Perez, S. Vedharaj, R. Vallinayagam, Robert Dibble, Hong Im
Pre-ignition in SI engine is a critical issue that needs addressing as pre-ignition may lead to engine knocking events that may damage engine catastrophically. It is widely accepted that pre-ignition event emanates from hot spot(s) inside the combustion chamber. The pre-ignition event can be anywhere inside the combustion chamber. The location of pre-ignition is expected to influence the knock intensity that may result from the pre-ignition event. In this study, we vary the location of the hot spot inside the cylinder using numerical simulations. The simulation is performed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (CONVERGETM). We simulate the full 3-D engine cycle coupled with chemistry, turbulence and moving structures (valves, piston). Gasoline direct injection (GDI) spray is represented by Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor spray breakup model with rng k-epsilon turbulence model to describe the internal flow field.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0804
Mohannad Al-Khodaier, Vijai Shankar Bhavani Shankar, Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various base gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and a modified Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine under compression ignition (HCCI) and spark ignition modes (KLSA). These experiments allowed for the screening of DCPD’s auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes. The synergetic blending nature of DCPD was apparent and appeared to be greater than ethanol. The data presented suggests that DCPD is a potential high octane blending component in gasoline which can substitute alkylates, isomerates, reformates, or oxygenates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor, Allen Aradi
Reducing engine-out particulates is one of the main issues of direct injection gasoline engines and further efforts are still needed to comply with near-future emission regulations. However, engine-out particulate emission characteristics strongly depend on fuel properties associated with the combustion design and/or calibration, due to the complicated mechanisms of particulate formation, including both physical and chemical processes. For these reasons, the purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0690
Maziar Khosravi, Helmut Ruhland, Thomas Lorenz, Carsten Weber
The performance of boosted gasoline engines is limited at high loads by knock, stochastic Low Speed Pre-Ignition, and Megaknock. An investigation has been carried out on the occurrence of abnormal combustion and megaknock in a 1.6 L GTDI engine with the aim to determine the causes of such phenomena. A classification of abnormal combustion events and causes is presented in order to facilitate a consistent terminology. The experiments specifically focus on the effects of exhaust residual gas on occurrence of megaknock in multi-cylinder engines. The results showed that while a misfire will not lead to megaknock, a very late combustion in one cycle, in one cylinder may lead to megaknock in the following cycle in the same or adjacent cylinder. Additionally, a recently developed multi-zone model was used to analyze the role of residual gas on auto-ignition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1288
Noriko Shisa, Shinsuke Ishihara, Yougui Huang, Mikio Asai, Katsuhiko Ariga
Despite methanol is toxic to human health and causes serious damage to automobile engine and components in fuel system, there are increasing distribution of methanol-containing gasoline in some area. Methanol demonstrates similar chemical properties to ethanol (which is established as an additive to gasoline), so that it is challenging to identify methanol-containing gasoline without performing proper chemical analysis (e.g., GC-MS). In this study, we aim to develop low-cost, portable, and easy-operation sensor that selectively changes its color (from red purple to blue purple) in response to methanol-containing gasoline. The colorimetric sensor will be useful for automobile users to avoid unexpected refueling of methanol-containing gasolines. Our methanol sensor is a thin film of clay mineral (layered double hydroxide, LDH) embedded with dye molecules (oxoporphyrinogen, OxP).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0546
Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Fabrizio D'Orrico, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola, Nicola Giovannoni
Conventional fossil fuels are more and more regulated in terms of both engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, oil price and political instabilities in oil-producer countries are pushing towards the use of alternative fuels compatible with the existing units. N-butanol is an attractive candidate as conventional gasoline replacement, given its ease of production from bio-mass and key physico-chemical properties similar to their gasoline counterpart. The compared combustion behavior of gasoline and n-butanol is tested on a single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) unit with optically accessible flat piston. The analysis is carried out at stoichiometric undiluted condition, lean-diluted and EGR-diluted mixture for both pure fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1004
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Norbert Heeb, Andreas Mayer, Volker Hensel
Abstract In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from five DI gasoline cars are represented. The measurements were performed at vehicle tailpipe and in CVS-tunnel. Moreover, five variants of “vehicle - GPF” were investigated. These results originate from the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates), which focused on metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars with different engine technologies. The PN-emission level of the investigated GDI cars in WLTC without GPF is in the same range of magnitude very near to the actual limit value of 6.0 × 1012 #/km. With the GPF’s with better filtration quality, it is possible to lower the emissions below the future limit value of 6.0 × 1011 #/km. There is no visible nuclei mode and the ultrafine particle concentrations below 10mm are insignificant. Some of the vehicles show at constant speed operation a periodical fluctuation of the NP-emissions, as an effect of the electronic control.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0551
Alessandro D'Adamo, Sebastiano Breda, Salvatore Iaccarino, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Barbara Zardin, Massimo Borghi, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola
Engine knock is one of the most limiting factors for modern SI engines to achieve higher efficiency targets. The stochastic nature of knock in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines hinders the predictive capability of RANS knock models which are based on ensemble averaged quantities. To this aim, a statistically grounded knock model was recently developed in the RANS formalism and improvements are introduced in this study. The model is able to infer a presumed log-normal distribution of knocking cycles from a single RANS simulations by transport equations for variances and turbulence-derived probability density functions (PDFs) for physical quantities. As a main advantage, the model is able to estimate the earliest knock severity experienced when moving the operating condition into the knocking regime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0776
Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Lorenz, Christian Hofmann, Helmut Ruhland, Rolf Klein, Carsten Weber
Because of new extraction methods and therefore expanded availability, compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently been discussed as a serious alternative to petroleum fuels. CNG is a promising future fuel and could be a game changer in the future fuel market, since it is widely available, very affordable and it significantly reduces tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions due to its favorable H/C-ratio. Further it can be blended up to 100% with sustainable methane (bio-methane and also power-to-gas-methane) and thus is a potential energy carrier for the future. Furthermore Downsizing of SI engines is a mega trend in the automotive industry aiming at reduc-tion of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption while providing fun to drive at attractive cost of owner-ship. Downsizing offers increased efficiency potential when combined with alternative fuels like compressed natural gas (CNG), since CNG basically can be a very knock resistant fuel, when not diluted with knock sensitive components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0861
Balasubramanian N., Karthick Durairaj, Jayabalan Sethuraman
In spark ignited engines, the gasoline fuel is generally introduced into the engine by port fuel injection (PFI) or gasoline direct injection (GDI), though carburetion is still widely used in developing countries. China and India have more than 50 % and 20% of the global two wheeler population respectively. Currently majority of these two wheelers are fueled by carburetors owing to their low cost and ease of maintenance. As these nations try to adopt emission norms similar to that of Euro 6 in a few years from now, they will be migrating to an injection system like port fuel injection (PFI) as it offers good control over emissions by using closed loop corrections based on exhaust lambda feedback. Stanadyne has developed an innovative injection system that can be applied for such port fuel injection in two-wheelers. In this innovative design, the pump and injector are integrated into a single unit, making the system simple, compact and less expensive.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1281
Rajesh Kumar, Olivier Laget, Guillaume Pilla, Guillaume Bourhis, Roland Dauphin, Loic de Francqueville, Jean-Pascal Solari
Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. The aim of the current research program (OOD: Octane On Demand) is to use the octane number as a tuning parameter to simultaneously make the engine more efficient and reduce CO2 emissions. The idea is to prevent knock occurrence by adapting the fuel RON injected in the combustion chamber. Thus, the engine cycle efficiency is increased by keeping combustion phasing at its optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON base fuel (Naphtha or Low RON cost effective fuel) and a high-RON octane booster (ethanol). The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted at each engine cycle to fit the RON requirement as a function of engine operating conditions. A first part of the project, described in SAE paper 2016-01-2164, was dedicated to the understanding of mixture preparation resulting from different dual-fuel injection strategies.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0519
Maziar Khosravi, Aadinath Harihar, Heinz Pitsch, Carsten Weber
The performance of modern boosted gasoline engines is limited at high loads by knock, stochastic Low Speed Pre-Ignition as well as Megaknock. The main objective of the present work is to develop a predictive combustion model to investigate auto-ignition and megaknock events at high load conditions in gasoline engines. A quasi one-dimensional combustion simulation tool has been developed to model abnormal combustion events in gasoline engines using detailed chemical kinetics and a multi zone wall heat transfer model. The model features six boundary layers representing specific geometrical features such as liner and piston with individual wall temperatures and chemistry to accurately track the individual zone’s thermodynamic properties. The accuracy of the utilized auto-ignition and one-dimensional spark ignition combustion models was demonstrated by validating against experimental data.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0641
Stephen J. Charlton, Charles E. Price, Jeff Rogers, James W.G. Turner, Roshan S. Wijetunge, William Anderson
The paper describes a completely new approach to fully variable valve actuation (FVVA), which allows almost unlimited continuously variable control of intake and exhaust valve opening and closing events, and duration without the use of a camshaft. This approach replaces conventional poppet valves with horizontally actuated valves located directly above the combustion deck of the cylinder head, which open and close a number of slots connecting the cylinder with the intake and exhaust ports. The stroke of the valves to provide the full flow area is approximately 25% of the stroke of the equivalent poppet valve, thus allowing direct electrical actuation with very low power consumption. This design arrangement avoids the risk of poppet to piston collision, or the need for cut-outs in the piston crown, since the valves do not open into the cylinder.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0662
David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg
Spark-ignition (SI) engine efficiency is typically limited by fuel auto-ignition resistance, which is in practice described by the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON). This paper assesses the auto-ignition resistance (as measured in a modern directly injected spark ignition (DISI) engine) of three compositionally dissimilar gasoline-like fuels with identical RON values and varying or non-varying MON values. The three gasolines are an alkylate blend (RON=98, MON=97), a blend with high aromatic content (RON=98, MON=88), and a blend of 30% ethanol by volume with gasoline (RON=97, MON=87). The goal of this work is to assess whether fuel properties, in this case RON and MON ratings coupled with a fuel’s heat of vaporization, are sufficient to describe the anti-knock behavior of varying gasoline formulations in modern engines.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0801
Keith Vertin, Brent Schuchmann, William Studzinski, Richard S. Davis, Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson, Asim Iqbal
Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities, to improve vehicle fuel economy while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane ratings. Knock can lead to engine component damage and excessive exhaust gas temperatures that may cause thermal deactivation of catalytic convertors. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (anti-knock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the country, 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude conditions (1660m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at momentary and stabilized full power operation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0689
Gautam Kalghatgi, Ibrahim Algunaibet, Kai Morganti
Most studies on knock focus on the onset of knock which is determined by chemical kinetics and also ignore the stochastic nature of knock. This paper focuses on knock intensity (KI) which is determined by the evolution of the pressure wave following knock onset in a hot spot and highlights the stochastic processes involved. KI is defined in this study as the maximum peak-to-peak pressure fluctuation that follows the onset of knock. It depends on ξ=(a/u_a ) where u_ais the speed of the autoignition front and α is the speed of sound. KI can be related to the product of a parameter Z, which depends on, Pko, the pressure at knock onset and the square of (∂x/∂T), which is the inverse of the gradient of temperature with distance in the hot spot. Both Z and (∂x/∂T) were calculated using measured KI and Pko for hundreds of individual knocking cycles for different fuels. Both Z and (∂x/∂T) are affected by stochastic processes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0747
John Storey, Samuel Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Raynella Connatser, Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Kukwon Cho, Matthew Lorey, Mark Sellnau
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited primarily by the fuel properties. High reactivity gasoline fuels have been reported to help achieve partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) at light-to-medium load conditions. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON91 E10) and a high reactivity gasoline (RON80), were compared on a Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEP) to a medium load condition (1500 rpm/6 bar IMEP and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEP). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet located in-between.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0743
Kukwon Cho, Eric Latimer, Matthew Lorey, David J. Cleary, Mark Sellnau
Fuel efficiency and emission performance sensitivity to fuel reactivity was examined in a fuels assessment of Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The study was designed to compare a US market gasoline (RON 91 E10) to a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80) at four operating conditions ranging from light load of 800 rpm, 2 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) to medium load of 2000 rpm, 10 bar IMEP. The experimental assessment indicated that both gasolines could achieve the performance and Tier 3 emission targets at each of the four operating conditions. Relative to the RON 91 E10 gasoline, the engine performance benefits associated with the RON 80 gasoline were consistent with our previously reported single-cylinder engine research [1].
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0930
Christine K. Lambert, Timothy Chanko, Mark Jagner, Jon Hangas, Xin Liu, James Pakko, Carl Justin Kamp
To meet future particle mass and particle number standards, gasoline vehicles may require particle control, either by way of an exhaust gas filter and/or engine modifications. Soot levels for gasoline engines are much lower than diesel engines; however, non-combustible material (ash) will be collected that can potentially cause increased backpressure, reduced power, and lower fuel economy. The purpose of this work was to examine the ash loading of gasoline particle filters (GPFs) during rapid aging cycles and at real time low mileages, and compare the filter performances to both fresh and very high mileage filters. Current rapid aging cycles for gasoline exhaust systems are designed to degrade the three-way washcoat both hydrothermally and chemically to represent full useful life catalysts. The ash generated during rapid aging is low in quantity although similar in quality to real time ash. Filters were also examined after a low mileage break-in of approximately 3000 km.
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