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2015-05-06 ...
  • May 6-8, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • November 3-5, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Although many have an idea of what the term “driver distraction” means, there is no common definition within the research community. Additionally, there are many studies that have investigated the topic, but with varying and sometimes conflicting results. What should be made of these discrepancies? This four-hour web seminar will provide an overview of driver distraction (predominantly electronic devices): the problem; how to define it; the current state of research and how to critically evaluate that research to make informed decisions; and the effectiveness of state laws and fleet policies to reduce it.
2015-04-22
Event
Aging mobility is important to the automotive industry for the following reasons: • 37% of the population is over age 50 • 52% of vehicles sold in 2012 were to > 55 years of age consumers. • A 65 year old is 4x more likely to buy a new car than a 25 year old. This group will have unique issues associated with it that will need to be addressed by the automotive industry as they design vehicles for this ever growing population. Papers and presentations on these topics are welcome in this session.
2015-04-21
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2015-04-21
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • November 9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. The automotive industry faces unprecedented growth in vehicle technologies and features that can dramatically affect the vehicle user experience.
2015-04-21
Event
Designing vehicles with good ergonomics is one of the many factors needed to achieve high customer satisfaction. A basic source for comfort (or discomfort) lies in the vehicle’s seats. To design for seat comfort requires knowledge of the size of the driver, the structure of the seat, the position of the seat in the vehicle and the trip duration. Papers offers in this session could include topics such as seat back angle, vehicle packaging and trip duration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1120
Siddhartha Singh, Sudha Ramaswamy
Driving comfort is very important selling factor in today’s automobile market. Manual Transmission Clutch systems has to balance between driving control given to the driver and driver comfort.If ergonomics of ABC pedals are not taken care, driving stress will increase. The increase in engine torque because of change in technologies like turbocharging and pressure injection has also increased the release load for actuating clutch which in turn increases pedal load. There are many assistance mechanisms integrated with pedal to reduce the load like over-center spring, double torsion spring, each with its own limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0281
Yang Zheng, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
In order to address vehicular and occupant safety, it is beneficial to understand how drivers drive as well as identify any variations in their driving performance. In-vehicle signal processing plays an increasingly important role in driving behavior and traffic modeling. A driver’s control actions directly impact the vehicle dynamic performance. Meanwhile, in-vehicle signals such as the steering wheel angle, vehicle speed and other signals from multiple sensors typically included in the CAN-Bus can be used to reflect the driver’s intention. Maneuvers, influenced by the driver’s choice and traffic/road conditions, are important in understanding variations in driving performance and to help rebuild the intended route. With access to continuous real-time in-vehicles signals, a suitable framing strategy should be adopted for maneuver recognition. One classical approach is to use fixed time frames to partition incoming data for time series analysis of maneuvers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the "sleep hormone" is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum affect the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photo-biology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photo-biology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customer into engineering languages. In other wards, transfer the wants of the customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire sample for customer wants is processed, combining KANO model with QFD, to calculate the importance of customers wants. Simultaneously, the attribute of the property is distinguished. Due to the information gained is uncertain and questionnaire sample size might be small, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced to solve the correlation of the wants of customers and the technical characteristics. Then, TRIZ and QFD are combined to get invention principles of conflicting technical characteristics. Finally, the evaluation information of expert language is analyzed by the free mixed-language approach to obtain the final importance weights of technical characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1394
Alessandro Naddeo, Marco Apicella, Davide Galluzzi
General comfort may be defined as the “level of well-being” perceived by humans in a working environment. The state-of-the-art about evaluation of comfort/discomfort shows the need for an objective method to evaluate the “effect in the internal body” and “perceived effects” in main systems of comfort perception. Some medical studies show that each human joint has its own natural Rest Posture (RP); in this Rest Posture human muscles are completely relaxed or at minimum strain level: when it happens the geometrical configuration corresponds to the natural position of resting Arms/Legs/Neck etc.. From this starting point, authors developed and build, through a wide experimental campaign, the postural-comfort curves for each DOF of human upper limbs joints; the obtained comfort curves are regular and don’t show any kind of discontinuity. A software named Ca-Man has been developed in order to analyze a general posture and calculate a postural comfort index for the entire upper body.
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