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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4484
2016-04-14
Event
Aging mobility is important to the automotive industry for the following reasons: • 37% of the population is over age 50 • 52% of vehicles sold in 2012 were to > 55 years of age consumers. • A 65 year old is 4x more likely to buy a new car than a 25 year old. This group will have unique issues associated with it that will need to be addressed by the automotive industry as they design vehicles for this ever growing population. Papers and presentations on these topics are welcome in this session.
2016-04-13
Event
Visual perception continues to be a critical aspect of overall driver performance. This session welcomes paper offers highlighting new developments designed to provide better support for driver rearward vision, better understanding of how to measure light and its effects on drivers’ eyes, and better understanding of how drivers accomplish the visually difficult task of negotiating intersections.
2016-04-13
Event
Designing vehicles with good ergonomics is one of the many factors needed to achieve high customer satisfaction. A basic source for comfort (or discomfort) lies in the vehicle’s seats. To design for seat comfort requires knowledge of the size of the driver, the structure of the seat, the position of the seat in the vehicle and the trip duration. Papers offers in this session could include topics such as seat back angle, vehicle packaging and trip duration.
2016-04-13
Event
Designing vehicles with good ergonomics is one of the many factors needed to achieve high customer satisfaction. A basic source for comfort (or discomfort) lies in the vehicle’s seats. To design for seat comfort requires knowledge of the size of the driver, the structure of the seat, the position of the seat in the vehicle and the trip duration. Papers offers in this session could include topics such as seat back angle, vehicle packaging and trip duration.
2016-04-12
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2016-04-12
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1423
Richard Young, Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include auditory-vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of auditory-vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure the SAE J2732 (2008) seat-dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated seat-dimension extraction process in the system consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, seatback and cushion angles, (2) identify centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1434
Salvatore Trapanese, Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti
The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car, in the early stages of design process, is still an open issue. Modern instruments like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomics parameters for car drivers through the use of detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car-interiors and by the multi-body approach for evaluating movements and interactions. Nevertheless, it is not enough because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to parameters that are very difficult to be evaluated in the early stage of design and need “hard-prototypes” that, often, are too expensive to be realized. In the latest 30 years, several researchers tried to develop methods to objectivize the comfort performance but most of them are based on questionnaires, marketing researches, physiological and biomechanical analyses, and need devices or interactions that modify the perceived comfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Automation of automobile can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and developed in every countries. Automated driving is introducing according to automated levels from 0 to 5 (0:no automation, 1:driver assistance, 2:partial automation, 3:conditional automation, 4:high automation, 5:full automation). Currently, feasible automation level is considered to be Level 2 or 3, and take-over from automated system to human manual driving is needed when the automated system overs at these levels. In this situation, required time for take-over is an important issue. This study focus on describing driving simulator experimental results of required time for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead when automated driving on the high way and issues take-over request to the driver. The subject driver is under the following driver situations : hands-on or hands-off to the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
The theory of neuroplasticity posits that the brain continues to change as we age. Thus, cognitive or brain training has been offered as a way for seniors to remain cognitively engaged. Recent research has found substantial reductions in crash rates for seniors who underwent particular brain training protocols; however, specific behaviors or performance metrics which may have contributed to these findings were not examined. The current study is the first to document detailed measures of driver behavior that could support an improvement in driving safety following cognitive training. Fifty-five volunteers participated in one of two cognitive training programs (or were part of a control group). One training program was a commercially available computer-based approach. The other was a novel in-vehicle approach developed by Toyota engineers which employed an implicit learning paradigm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
The objective of this research was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Drivers with improper seat position selection may affect their capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, brake pedal, clutch pedal, and gear selector lever as well as impact one’s safety during a crash event. Because of the stature changes that are associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of a gender and age terms. The hypothesized terms would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1433
Gregory Schaupp, Julia Seeanner, Casey Jenkins, Joseph Manganelli, Sarah Hennessy, Constance Truesdail, Lindsay Swift, Paul Venhovens, Johnell Brooks
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users who drive from their driver’s seat and not from their wheelchair. The goal of this study was to identify typical ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of wheelchair users transferring into and out of the driver’s seat. While motion databases exist for the ingress and egress of able-bodied drivers, this study provides insight on drivers with physical disabilities. Twenty-five YouTube videos of wheelchair users who transferred into and out of their own sedans were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging motorcyclists’ use of technologies (i.e., texting, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older motorcyclists (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study sought to provide an overview of the types of technologies that motorcyclists use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, and motorcyclist demographics by surveying a convenience sample of typical motorcyclists in the United States. The sample included 91 riders (78 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (mean= 50.5, SD= 10.8). Surveyed motorcyclists answered questions about riding experience and training, technologies they use while riding, ease and frequency of use of those technologies, issues with the technologies, as well as riding behaviors and habits.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The paper is focused on both the the subjective and the objective ride comfort of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride confort was performed. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective drivers' feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 36 younger drivers (25-50, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 36 middle-aged drivers (25-50 years, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90 years, mean =77). The LDW included yellow "advisory" visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red "imminent" when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver's forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
In china there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. Driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied in this paper. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis. The results show that driver brake parameters under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist obey log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Seating comfort is associated with the various factors and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters such as cushion, spring stiffness, and damping of seat suspension. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept which use double-wall 3D air mat in cushion along with foam cushion. The air-mats base fabrics are interlinked with numerous spacer threads to make a 3D structure. An optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameter for cushion (particularly for double-wall 3D air mat) based on minimizing occupant’s body discomfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1432
Alexander Siefert
A particular challenge in the development of passenger cars is within prognosis of the vibration comfort. The range of requirements is broad as the excitation varies between cobblestones up to California roads. A further demand is the driver expectation which is different for a pickup or for a sports car. There exist several approaches for assessing the vibrations of occupants while driving. On the one side the comfort is evaluated by integral quantities as the SEAT value taking into account a weighting based on the human body sensitivity. Another approach is the dimension of perception, developed by BMW, which is similar to psychoacoustics as the frequency range is separated with respect to appearing vibration phenomena. In the centre of all activities is the seat transmissibility in the frequency range, describing the relation between the input at the seat slides and the output at the interface of human body and trim.
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