Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 4333
2015-04-23
Event
Aging mobility is important to the automotive industry for the following reasons: • 37% of the population is over age 50 • 52% of vehicles sold in 2012 were to > 55 years of age consumers. • A 65 year old is 4x more likely to buy a new car than a 25 year old. This group will have unique issues associated with it that will need to be addressed by the automotive industry as they design vehicles for this ever growing population. Papers and presentations on these topics are welcome in this session.
2015-04-21
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2015-04-21
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2015-04-21
Event
Designing vehicles with good ergonomics is one of the many factors needed to achieve high customer satisfaction. A basic source for comfort (or discomfort) lies in the vehicle’s seats. To design for seat comfort requires knowledge of the size of the driver, the structure of the seat, the position of the seat in the vehicle and the trip duration. Papers offers in this session could include topics such as seat back angle, vehicle packaging and trip duration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1396
Xiangjie Meng, Xin Tao, Wenjun Wang, Chaofei Zhang, Bo Cheng, Bo Wang, Chengpeng Zhou, Xiaoping Jin, Chao Zeng, John Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen
: Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to be a causative factor associated with low back pain; however, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. It is hypothesized that vibration causes vibration in the muscles at resonant frequencies, leading to increased muscle activity and muscle fatigue during prolonged driving. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
An analysis was performed utilizing the results from seven emergency steering studies and four routine lane change studies. Closed course and naturalistic research were included. These studies showed that in a routine lane change, Drivers reached peak lateral acceleration approximately one-second after steering after which lateral acceleration decreases linearly. These results were consistent with those from forward and backing acceleration research published elsewhere. Though, when drivers steered in response to an emergency situation, again, peak lateral acceleration occurred near one-second after steering onset, but average lateral acceleration decreased non-linearly. This non-linear decrease between onset of steering and completion of the maneuver was indicative of counter-steering, or reduced subsequent steering (straightening). The results show that the average lateral acceleration could be modeled with a power function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Abstract Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
C Sreelakshmi, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans' mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is an easy task for human beings. However, when it comes to Human Computer Interface (HCI), it is a developing research field that enables humans' to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures. Communication through expression in HCI is still a challenge. In addition, there are a variety of fields such as automotive, biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression recognition system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed fr facial expression recognition, but most of them work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to recognize expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency region in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require number of sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time, which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and ignore the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in a scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The proposed method aims to model this behavior of human visual system in computer vision/image processing applications for eliminating non salient objects from an image. A region is said to be salient, if its appearance is unique. In our method, the saliency in still images is computed by local color contrast difference between the regions in Lab space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0979
Chih Feng Lee, Per Öberg
Abstract This paper investigates classifications of road type and driving style based on on-board diagnostic data, which is commonly accessible in modern vehicles. The outcomes of these classifications can be utilized in, for example, supporting the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for enhancing safety and drivability, and online adaptation of engine controller for improving performance and fuel consumption. Furthermore, the classifications offer valuable information for fleet operators to consider when making decision on procurement plans, maintenance schedules and assisting fleet drivers in choosing suitable vehicles. To this end, a velocity-based road type classification method is evaluated on measurements collected from real driving conditions and compared to an open-sourced map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0147
Matthew J. Pitts, Elvir Hasedžić, Lee Skrypchuk, Alex Attridge, Mark Williams
Abstract The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract This paper proposes an approach to determine driver's driving behavior, style or habit during vehicle handling maneuvers and heavy traction and braking events in real-time. It utilizes intelligence inferred from driver's control inputs, vehicle dynamics states, measured signals, and variables processed inside existing control modules such as those of anti-lock braking, traction control, and electronic stability control systems. The algorithm developed for the proposed approach has been experimentally validated and shows the effectiveness in characterizing driver's handling behavior. Such driver behavior can be used for personalizing vehicle electronic controls, driver assistant and active safety systems, and the other vehicle control features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0281
Yang Zheng, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract In-vehicle signal processing plays an increasingly important role in driving behavior and traffic modeling. Maneuvers, influenced by the driver's choice and traffic/road conditions, are useful in understanding variations in driving performance and to help rebuild the intended route. Since different maneuvers are executed in varied lengths of time, having a fixed time window for analysis could either miss part of maneuver or include consecutive maneuvers in it evaluation. This results in reduced accuracies in maneuver analysis. Therefore, with access to continuous real-time in-vehicles signals, a suitable framing strategy should be adopted for maneuver recognition. In this paper, a non-uniform time window analysis is presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0418
Vijitashwa Pandey, Megan Conrad
Abstract This paper develops a design paradigm for universal products. Universal design is term used for designing products and systems that are equally accessible to and usable by people with and without disabilities. Two common challenges for research in this area are that (1) There is a continuum of disabilities making it hard to optimize product features, and (2) There is no effective benchmark for evaluating such products. To exacerbate these issues, data regarding customer disabilities and their preferences is hard to come by. We propose a copula-based approach for modeling market coverage of a portfolio of universal products. The multiattribute preference of customers to purchase a product is modeled as Frank's Archimedean Copula. The inputs from various disparate sources can be collected and incorporated into a decision system.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4333

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: