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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4323
2015-04-23
Event
Aging mobility is important to the automotive industry for the following reasons: • 37% of the population is over age 50 • 52% of vehicles sold in 2012 were to > 55 years of age consumers. • A 65 year old is 4x more likely to buy a new car than a 25 year old. This group will have unique issues associated with it that will need to be addressed by the automotive industry as they design vehicles for this ever growing population. Papers and presentations on these topics are welcome in this session.
2015-04-21
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2015-04-21
Event
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. This session will address those issues.
2015-04-21
Event
Designing vehicles with good ergonomics is one of the many factors needed to achieve high customer satisfaction. A basic source for comfort (or discomfort) lies in the vehicle’s seats. To design for seat comfort requires knowledge of the size of the driver, the structure of the seat, the position of the seat in the vehicle and the trip duration. Papers offers in this session could include topics such as seat back angle, vehicle packaging and trip duration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1120
Siddhartha Singh, Sudha Ramaswamy
Driving comfort is very important selling factor in today’s automobile market. Manual Transmission Clutch systems has to balance between driving control given to the driver and driver comfort.If ergonomics of ABC pedals are not taken care, driving stress will increase. The increase in engine torque because of change in technologies like turbocharging and pressure injection has also increased the release load for actuating clutch which in turn increases pedal load. There are many assistance mechanisms integrated with pedal to reduce the load like over-center spring, double torsion spring, each with its own limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the "sleep hormone" is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum affect the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photo-biology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photo-biology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customer into engineering languages. In other wards, transfer the wants of the customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire sample for customer wants is processed, combining KANO model with QFD, to calculate the importance of customers wants. Simultaneously, the attribute of the property is distinguished. Due to the information gained is uncertain and questionnaire sample size might be small, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced to solve the correlation of the wants of customers and the technical characteristics. Then, TRIZ and QFD are combined to get invention principles of conflicting technical characteristics. Finally, the evaluation information of expert language is analyzed by the free mixed-language approach to obtain the final importance weights of technical characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1394
Alessandro Naddeo, Marco Apicella, Davide Galluzzi
General comfort may be defined as the “level of well-being” perceived by humans in a working environment. The state-of-the-art about evaluation of comfort/discomfort shows the need for an objective method to evaluate the “effect in the internal body” and “perceived effects” in main systems of comfort perception. Some medical studies show that each human joint has its own natural Rest Posture (RP); in this Rest Posture human muscles are completely relaxed or at minimum strain level: when it happens the geometrical configuration corresponds to the natural position of resting Arms/Legs/Neck etc.. From this starting point, authors developed and build, through a wide experimental campaign, the postural-comfort curves for each DOF of human upper limbs joints; the obtained comfort curves are regular and don’t show any kind of discontinuity. A software named Ca-Man has been developed in order to analyze a general posture and calculate a postural comfort index for the entire upper body.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop Parameswaraiah
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0979
Chih Feng Lee, Per Öberg
This paper investigates classifications of road type and driving style based on on-board diagnostic data, which is commonly accessible in modern vehicles. The outcomes of these classifications can be utilized in, for example, supporting the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for enhancing safety and drivability, and online adaptation of engine controller for improving performance and fuel consumption. Furthermore, the classifications offer valuable information for fleet operators to consider when making decision on procurement plans, maintenance schedules and assisting fleet drivers in choosing suitable vehicles. To this end, a velocity-based road type classification method is evaluated on measurements collected from real driving conditions and compared to an open-sourced map. To produce representative results, two most commonly adopted driving style classification methods, i.e. acceleration and jerk-based methods are evaluated and compared on the same set of measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1396
Xiangjie Meng, Xin Tao, Wenjun Wang, Chaofei Zhang, Bo Cheng, Bo Wang, Chengpeng Zhou, Xiaoping Jin, Chao Zeng, John Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen
: Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to be a causative factor associated with low back pain; however, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. It is hypothesized that vibration causes vibration in the muscles at resonant frequencies, leading to increased muscle activity and muscle fatigue during prolonged driving. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1161
Lei Feng, Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
This paper studies predictive control method for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy under aggressive driving. Aggressive driving not only causes car crashes but also greatly impacts the overall efficiency of HEVs. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV under aggressive driving scenarios. A dedicated stochastic model predictive control method is developed and it adopts Markov chain to predict driver’s acceleration pedal and brake pedal inputs in the future based on past information. The power output from the engine and motor will be adjusted to match driver’s power request at the end of the prediction window while avoiding transient peaks of engine power output.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4323

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