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2015-09-24 ...
  • September 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Rapid advances have been made in the range of available designs and operational parameters as well as in the fundamental understanding of compact heat exchangers (CHEs). Since the majority of modern heat exchangers used for heating and cooling systems for vehicular applications are CHEs, keeping up to date with these advances is essential. This seminar will help you understand and be able to apply comprehensive information about the intricacies of CHE design, performance, operating problems and state-of-the-art-technology for car and truck applications.
2015-03-23 ...
  • March 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components. Specifically, the course will cover heat transfer design considerations related to the following:...
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0044
Simone Vezzù, Carlo Cavallini, Silvano Rech, Enrico Vedelago, Alessandro Giorgetti
Abstract The deposition of thick, pore-free, high-performance copper alloy matrix composite coatings is a topic of interest for several industrial applications, including friction materials, high-strength electrical contacts, and welding electrodes, among others. This study investigates the use of cold spray to deposit CuCrZr/Al2O3 cermet coatings on aluminum alloy 6060. The objective is to integrate copper-based materials with aluminum-based materials, ensuring a high degree of mechanical and thermal contact, using a low temperature process that does not adversely affect the properties of the base materials. This technique can be used to produce integral coolers and aluminum-based bearings for automotive and motorcycle applications. Fused and crushed alumina and gas-atomized CuCrZr powder blends have been used as initial feedstocks, with compositional weight ratios of 65/35 and 80/20 (ceramic/metal). The coatings have been characterized in terms of microstructure and morphology, coating microindentation hardness, cohesion strength, and adhesion strength to the aluminum alloy substrate.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0080
Jens Steinmill, Ralf Struzyna
Abstract At a micro-CHP unit the target size of the engine controller is not mechanical torque but thermal and mechanical power. Accordingly, these demands must be implemented by the engine controller. This means that on the one hand a mechanical demand is answered under the boundary condition of the highest actual efficiency and that on the other hand thermal demands have to be processed. Since the thermal- and mechanical power output is coupled with the actual efficiency, exceeding the nominal load of the thermal power, the actual efficiency can be regulated in order to answer the demand. This can be done in consideration of the maximum achievable actual efficiency. Limits are set by the combustion stability and thermal protection functions. The functions are modelled with Matlab/Simulink and the ECU code for a rapid control prototyping system is generated. A dynamic engine test bed for internal combustion engines up to 12 kW was built to verify the motor control functions. The measurement technology for all standard measurements of combustion engines has been selected accordingly to the expected measurement range of small engines.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0108
Sejun Lee, Kyohei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0. To study the effect of D-EGR ratio, the number of engine cylinders was considered from 3 to 6, same meaning with D-EGR ratio 0.5-0.2.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9129
Filip Nielsen, Åsa Uddheim, Jan-Olof Dalenbäck
Abstract Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation. It was found that a separation of the sources and sink was possible and increased the understanding of the energy usage.
2014-10-20
Event
This session focuses on fundamental numerical (1D and 3D CFD) and experimental research in the areas of heat and mass transfer and fluid flow that impacts engine and vehicle performance and design. Subject areas include convection, conduction, radiation, porous media, phase change including boiling, condensation, melting and freezing. Application areas include, combustion, emissions, cooling, lubrication, exhaust, intake, fuel delivery, external air flow, under hood and under body. Fundamental papers describing unique thermodynamic processes or physical chemistry relevant to engine combustion and fuels are also welcome. Papers focused on waste heat recovery technologies should be submitted to HX102/103.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2596
Bo Hu, Colin Copeland, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Alessandro Romagnoli, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, J.W.G Turner
Abstract Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft. It is anticipated that such a concept has benefits for knock resistance and energy recovery despite suffering higher pumping losses.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2594
Xinyu Wang, Yadong Deng
Abstract Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), which effectively converts exhaust thermal energy into electrical energy, can gradually improve the utilization efficiency of energy. The heat exchanger of TEG is one of the most important components for heat transfer, so as to realize energy saving and emission reduction. Hence, its configuration and thermal performance should be intensively studied. In this paper, a new configuration of heat exchanger, whose heat transfer area is regular octagon, is designed in comparison with the pervious rectangle one. In order to improve average temperature and thermal distribution uniformity, typical CFD software named FLUENT is used to simulate the multi-coupling of temperature - fluid - solid, and the temperature distribution on heat transfer area is gained. Moreover, the temperature distribution will be analyzed to evaluate the merits and weaknesses of configuration and thermal performance. By adopting different guiding fins, setting various height and thickness parameters of guiding fins, varieties of heat exchangers are modeled and simulated.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2600
Le-zhong Fu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Xiao Yu
Abstract The present work discusses a novel oxyfuel combustion method named internal combustion rankine cycle (ICRC) used in reciprocating engines. Water is heated up through heat exchanger by exhaust gas and engine cooling system, and then injected into the cylinder near top dead center to control the combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise rate, meanwhile to enhance the thermo efficiency and work of the combustion cycle. That is because injected water increases the mass of the working fluid inside the cylinder, and can make use of the combustion heat more effectively. Waste heat carried away by engine coolant and exhaust gas can be recovered and utilized in this way. This study investigates the effect of water injection temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of an ICRC engine based on self-designed test bench. The results indicate that both indicated work and thermal efficiency increase significantly due to water injection process. The increase of water injection temperature results in higher peak in-cylinder pressure and improves MEP.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2857
Jose Serrano, Pablo Olmeda, Francisco Arnau, Artem Dombrovsky
Abstract These days many research efforts on internal combustion engines are centred on optimising turbocharger matching and performance on the engine. In the last years a number of studies have pointed out the strong effect on turbocharger behaviour of heat transfer phenomena. The main difficulty for taking into account these phenomena comes from the little information provided by turbocharger manufacturers. In this background, Original Engine Manufacturers (OEM) need general engineering tools able to provide reasonably precise results in predicting the mentioned heat transfer phenomena. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to provide a procedure, applicable to small automotive turbochargers, able to predict the heat transfer characteristics that can be used in a lumped 1D turbocharger heat transfer model. This model must be suitable to work coupled to whole-engine simulation codes (such as GT-Power or Ricardo WAVE) for being used in global engine models by the OEM. Moreover, the procedure must be capable to predict heat transfer effects using available data as external geometrical parameters of the turbocharger.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2592
Dhaminda Hewavitarane, Sadami Yoshiyama, Hisashi Wadahama, Xin Li
Abstract High temperature liquids held in a subcooled state are capable of storing large amounts of energy and then explosively releasing this energy when depressurized in a phase change process known as “Flashing”. The rapid volume expansion that results from this flashing has been harnessed to drive an expansion engine working on a cycle called “The Superheated Liquid Flash, Boiling” (S.L.F.B) cycle. The first stage showed that multiphase convective boiling of the unflashed water off the heated walls of the expansion unit supplemented the Flash work output. Furthermore, Flashing was seen to improve the effectiveness of convective boiling off the walls. The results were shown to be repeatable in a modified piston engine. Convective boiling was again shown to be able to supplement the power output under specific conditions. Engine power was seen to be directly related to the peak In-Cylinder pressure, which in turn was directly related to the mass and temperature of the injected subcooled water.
2014-10-01
Magazine
Propulsion: Energy Sources Flying on vegetation Avionics/Electronics Avionics heat up, in a good way Unmanned Vehicles Reaching the benchmark in secure unmanned vehicle software Thermal Management Submersion and directed flow cooling technology for military applications RF & Microwave Technology Airborne antenna considerations for C-Band telemetry systems Software-designed system improves wireless test speed and coverage
2014-09-30
WIP Standard
J2377
This SAE Recommended Practice (RP) provides test procedures for air braked trucks and truck-tractors used to tow single and multiple trailer combinations on highways. This RP is not intended for off-highway applications.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2406
Marco Carriglio, Alberto Clarich, Rosario Russo, Enrico Nobile, Paola Ranut
Abstract The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element. This is followed by the definition of a Response Surface (meta-model) covering all the possible range of parameters' combination, the definition of a “bridge”, e.g. low-fidelity - standard or macroscopic - models to extend the behavior of the liquid and air HE cellular elements to a real scale HE, and an optimization process to obtain the optimal HE design for any proposed application and requirements.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2395
Gurunathan Varun Kumar, Meer Reshma Sheerin, Vedachalam Saravana Prabu, Kallikadan Jean, Chaitanya Rajguru, Murugesan Dinesh, Andrew Croft
Abstract Automotive climate control systems are evolving at a rapid pace to meet the overall vehicle requirements and the user expectations for comfort and convenience. This poses a challenge in the product development life cycle of multi-platform vehicle systems with respect to development time and optimal performance in the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. This paper proposes rapid HVAC plant model design and development using simplified one-dimensional (1D) simulation models for fast simulations. The specific accuracy limitations of such a simplified model are overcome using limited three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modelling. User-level control strategy is developed in an integrated simulation environment that includes a reference 1D model and a control algorithm simulator. The simulation data is used to study and analyse the temperature and airflow distribution in the system. Based on these results, simpler models for the HVAC system are derived.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2341
Salvador Sermeno, Eric Bideaux, Tessa Morgan, Duc Nguyen
Abstract Vehicle thermal management covers the engineering field of solutions that maintain the complete vehicle in acceptable operating conditions regarding component and fluid temperatures in an engine. The maximum efficiency rating of a Diesel engine reaches up to 45%. In order to improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle one can reduce the losses generated by the cooling system. Ideally, the full motive force of the engine should be used for propulsion and new and more efficient energy sources have to be explored to power the secondary systems (cooling, compressed air…). This paper introduces a dynamic programming algorithm which is used to determine the maximum gains during operation for a given architecture of the cooling system of a Heavy Duty Truck. The algorithm, based in Bellman principle, will determine the best control trajectory for the pump and the fan according to energetic and control goals (fuel economy, regulation of temperature…). For this purpose, a reduced model of the cooling system based on energy balance equations has been determined and validated through simulations.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2343
Manfei Bai, Gangfeng Tan, Yadong Deng, Wenying Wang, Hui Yan
Abstract To make full use of engine exhaust heat and further improve the utilization of the energy efficiency of the heavy truck, thermoelectric module is used to contribute to thermoelectric power generation. The hot-end temperature of the module varies with the engine operating condition because it is connected with the exhaust pipe. The cold-end of the thermoelectric module is mainly cooled by engine cooling system. Increasing the temperature difference between the hot-end and cold-end of the thermoelectric module is a good way to improve the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. For the poor controllability of the hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module, this study puts forward by lowering the cold-end temperature of the thermoelectric module so as to ensure the improvement of the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. The cooling circle for the cold-end of the thermoelectric module which is independent of the engine cooling system is built. The nucleate boiling flow is adopted to strengthen the heat transfer from the thermoelectric module cold side to the cooling water.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2325
Michael Franke, Shirish Bhide, Jack Liang, Michael Neitz, Thomas Hamm
Abstract Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine. This paper describes options and potentials to improve the base engine for future commercial and industrial engines.
2014-09-26
WIP Standard
AIR4766/2A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: - Airborne contaminant gases, vapors, and aerosols. - Identified potential sources. - Comfort, health and safety issues. - Airborne chemical measurement. - Regulations and standards. - Operating conditions and equipment that may cause aircraft cabin contamination by airborne chemicals (including Failure Conditions and normal Commercial Practices). - Airborne chemical control systems. It does not deal with airflow requirements.
2014-09-25
Event
The need for energy-efficient thermal management (TM) provides a challenge for designers of vehicle systems. Papers are being solicited for efficient TM spanning the range from component concepts (phase change materials, electronics cooling, spray cooling, heat pipes/loop heat pipes, materials research, etc.) through system-level TM integration (integrated vapor cycle/air cycle hybridization, system-level impacts of single-phase vs. two-phase heat transport, etc.).
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