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2016-10-24 ...
  • October 24-25, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are now commonly used in automotive body structural applications. The high strength of this grade classification is attractive to help reduce mass in the automotive body through reduction in thickness. Strength also supports improvements in safety requirements so that mass increases are minimized. In some specific grades of AHSS, energy absorption is possible in addition to the high strength. This course will review the definition and properties of AHSS and cover several common applications in automotive body structures.
2016-10-06 ...
  • October 6-7, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides a functional understanding of the principles involved in conducting a Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly study. DFM/DFA can support both manual and automated processes resulting in significant cost savings through simpler designs with fewer components. Related topics include workstation layouts, ergonomic considerations and errorproofing. Actual examples from the automotive industry are used to support the lecture and participants complete actual design efficiency using the DFM/DFA worksheet.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
In the last years, Aeronautical Industry has made a significant effort for the automation of different manufacturing tasks. One of the most important is the drilling process of material stacks prior to the installation of rivets, due the great advantages of progressing from manual to automatic operation. In particular, the robotic drilling for manufacturing medium-size subassemblies allows not only to improve productivity and efficiency of the process, but also to reduce repetitive tasks for the operator, usually performed under poorly ergonomic conditions. For this purpose, some solutions based on industrial robots with highly sensorized end-effectors have been already explored. Nevertheless, these proposals are frequently lack of technological maturity or imply an investment difficult to recover.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2095
Agata Suwala, Lucy Agyepong, Andrew Silcox
Reduction of overall drag to improve aircraft performance has always been one of the goals for aircraft manufacturers. One of the key contributors to decreasing drag is achieving laminar flow on a large proportion of the wing. Laminar flow requires parts to be manufactured and assembled within tighter tolerance bands than current build processes allow. Drilling of aircraft wings to the tolerances demanded by laminar flow requires machines with the stiffness and accuracy of a CNC machine while having the flexibility and envelope of an articulated arm. This paper describes the development and evaluation of high accuracy automated processes to enable the assembly of a one-off innovative laminar flow wing concept. This project is a continuation of a previously published SAE paper related to the development of advanced thermally stable and lightweight assembly fixture required to maintain laminar flow tolerances.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2101
Burak Deger, Fazli Melemez, Aykut Kibar lng
A hybrid drilling process of multi material stacks with one shot drilling recently emerge as an economical and time efficient method in aerospace industry. Even though the comprehensive experience and knowledge is available for the cutting parameters of composites and metals alone, significant gap exist for the hybrid drilling parameters. Determination of these parameters such as feed rate, spindle speed and pecking depth has vital importance so as to provide a robust and optimal process to ensure dimensionally high quality, burr and delamination free holes. Main challenge of hybrid drilling operation is to obtain required hole diameter with adequate homogeneity and repeatability. In this study, effect of cutting parameters on dimensional hole quality was investigated. In addition to the hole diameter tolerances, CFRP hole enlargement phenomena which is encountered as a specific drawback of metal-exit stack configurations is also addressed within the scope of this study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2097
Sylvain Laporte, Cosme De Castelbajac, Mathieu Ladonne
The Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process has been implemented in Automated Drilling Units (ADU) on an industrial scale for almost a decade. Today more than 11000 ADUs are equiped with VAD systems and currently used on aircraft assembly lines. As well as drawing up a short report on the use of this new process, the authors make an assessment on new challenges that VAD has to face up. Indeed production rates are increasing and ADU manufacturers improve their technologies, one of the most recent and major development concerning the electrical motorization of the machines. These evolutions are as many opportunities for the VAD provided you have a clever understanding as well as an expert knowledge of the process. Thus the authors propose a new dynamic model of the whole VAD system which integrates the behavior of the part, cutting tool/material pair and the machine. The confrontation of model results and experimental validation tests demonstrates the relevance of the works.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2096
Simon Schnieders, Dirk Eickhorst
Drilling of high-strength titan material and composites in combination creates complex challenges in order to achieve required productivity and quality. Long spiral chips are characteristically for the titan drilling process, which leads to e.g. chip accumulation, high thermomechanical load, surface damages and excessive tool wear. The basic approach is the substitution of today’s peck-drilling as current solution to this problem and the implementation of a vibration assisted drilling, so called micro-peck-drilling-process, to generate a kinematic chip breakage in a significant more efficient way. To meet perfectly the requirements regarding rates, quality and automation level, Broetje-Automation as system integrator has investigated and developed the implementation of different alternative high-performance systems and methods to approach the optimal oscillation movement of the tool.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. In order to meet this challenge industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) – a European Union funded project with 31 partners – aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention is directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the prospective assembly process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2102
André Baumann
Broetje-Automation has developed a new production organization for the A320neo Pylon assembly. The main goal of this turnkey solution was to reduce the lead time of the assembly phase and the use of lean principles. The assembly line consist of several manual working stations as well as a fully automated drilling cell. The different processes, machines and tools are directly connected to a comprehensive overhead conveyor and a line management system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2104
Robert Flynn, Kevin Payton-Stewart, Patrick Brewer, Ryan W. Davidge
The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included the material handling system, developing capable positioners and implementing an automated metrology system. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks and also present a logistics challenge as cranes become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches. A unique lifting system (ATLAS) based on in-floor rails was developed to offer a solution that provides highly controlled, low risk and accurate moves that allow workers and tools to remain in the assembly area.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2125
Henry Hameister
This paper presents an approach to how existing production systems can benefit from Industry 4.0 driven concepts. This attempt is based on a communication gateway and a cloud-based system, that hosts all algorithms and models to calculate a prediction of the tool wear. Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding is a sub-section of friction welding, where a rotating tool that consists out of three parts is used to heat up material to a dough-like state. Since Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding produces a selective dot-shaped connection of overlapping materials, the production requirements are similar to riveting or resistance spot welding. In contrast to other bonding techniques, Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding can be integrated within the production process without major interferences or changes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2114
Matthias Meyer
Carbon composites have been on an odyssey within the past 15 years. Starting on the highest expectations regarding the performance, reality was hitting a lot of programs hard. Carbon composites were introduced on a very high technical level and industry has shown of being capable to handle those processes in general. In particular, production never sleeps and processes undergo a continuous change. Within these changes costs remain the most critical driver. As products are improving during their lifetime, they usually increase the degree of complexity, too. According to the normal cost improvement, this has drastic consequences for production. When setting up the first generation of composite production, the part being produced has been in the centre of attention.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Brotje-Automation have been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2077
Fatih Burak Sahin, Hans-Juergen Borchers, Cagatay Ucar
Owing to high strength to weight ratio CFRP composite materials has been widely use in aerospace industries. However drilling CFRP laminates is difficult owing to the highly abrasive nature of the carbon fibers and low thermal conductivity of CFRP. Therefore for the manufacturers it is a challenge to drill CFRP materials without causing any delamination within the high quality requirements while also considering the costs of the process. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a seven axis drilling robot. All components required for drilling are integrated in the drill end-effector. The pressure foot is extended in order to clamp the work piece, and then holes are drilled. The drilling process has four steps as moving to fast approach level, controlled drill feed, countersink depth reached and lift the drill. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a Robot.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2080
Carter L. Boad, Kevin Brandenstein
The newest generation of automated fastening machines require a feed system that is smaller, more flexible, and faster than any currently available. The feed system must be compact enough to fit on a robot base, yet have a capacity large enough to support unmanned production for hours. A large variety of fasteners must be supported and the entire system must be reloaded or reconfigured in minutes to match the next work piece being assembled by the machine. When requested by the part program, the correct fastener must be released directly and immediately into the feed tube to minimize cycle time. This paper describes a new “plate cartridge” feed system developed to meet these needs.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2079
Alexander Janssen
The industry wide requirement of new highly flexible automated fastening systems in aircraft production has created the need for developing new fastening systems. This paper will focus on the development of the Frame Riveting Assembly Cell (FRAC) by BROETJE-Automation to meet this need. The new FRAC machine configuration is built for automated drilling and fastening of different aircraft type panels. It is highly flexible with a high speed positioning system mounted outer end effector. System travel is limited only by installed track length. The FRAC integrates well with conventional and reconfigurable automated fastening work holding tools.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2086
Yinglin Ke, Weidong Zhu
Fastener selection and feeding for Automated Riveting Machines was always a challenge from the very beginning of this assembly technology. It was found appropriate to feed fasteners in air tubes from remote selection systems to process endeffectors. But fasteners are sometimes small, light weight aluminium parts, sometimes heavy titanium „bullets“. How to deal with large varieties of fastener dimension and mass? This paper will investigate the physics behind the air tube feeding process. By understanding the physical model it will become easy to predict the velocity and energy of a fastener at the end of its journey to the process endeffector. Feeding too fast will result in potential damage of aluminium fasteners at the endeffector pickup while heavy titanium fastener tend to damage the pickup system itself. State of the art seems to be trial and error to determine the optimum settings between speed and damage prevention and adjustment to fastener type.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2085
Kyle Pritz, Brent Etzel, Zheng Wei
The automation takt time of wing assembly can be shortened with the use of single-sided temporary fasteners by providing temporary part clamping and doweling during panel drilling. Feeding these fasteners poses problems due to their complexity in design and overall heavy weight. In the past, Electroimpact has remotely fed these fasteners by blowing them through pneumatic tubing. This technique has resulted in occasional damage to fasteners during delivery and a complex feed system that requires frequent maintenance. Due to these issues, Electroimpact has developed a new fully automated single-sided temporary fastening system for installation of the LISI Clampberry fasteners in wing panels for the C919 wing factory in Yanliang, China. The feed system stores fasteners in gravity-fed cartridges on the end effector near the point of installation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2088
Eric Barton
The following case study details a new wing riveting solution designed with automation technology for high performance electric slug riveting capability. The “Rosie” wing riveting machine was engineered for GEMCOR’s patented squeeze-squeeze process to automatically install slug fasteners within Airbus wing panels.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2087
Hunter O'Folan, Peter B. Zieve
There is an ever present risk of the lower ram of a riveting machine crashing into and damaging stringers and clips. The risk becomes greater as the parts get deeper and fasteners move closer to the web. In designing a riveting machine for the Lockheed C-130 we were concerned about the long lower anvil working in a challenging environment. We wanted the lower ram to drop down without causing damage even if the upset ram is offset and wrapped around a part. But we also wanted the lower tool to crash from the side without causing damage. Once this is achieved we have crash protection from five of six sides. A competing requirement is the need to strip collars. At Electroimpact we prefer to use the up-down action in the lower ram to do the stripping. We checked for the most difficult collar to strip and found that a 3/8 GP collar can take up to 3000 pounds of force to strip. Therefore we had a target that the magnetic pull-down on the lower anvil should exceed 3000 pounds.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2082
Ralf Schomaker, Björn Knickrehm, Juergen Langediers
In a commercial aircraft there are in general two pressurised zones: the cabin and the cargo hold. In the event of rapid decompression in one zone, air pressure equilibrium must be realised quickly in order to prevent severe structural damage since the airframe is typically not designed to sustain pressure difference loads across these zones and may collapse. The state of the art response to this problem in the commercial aircraft world are so called blow-in/blow-out panels in the cargo hold ceiling and partition walls to ensure the equalisation of air pressure between passenger and cargo area in case of abovementioned event. However, there are a number of drawbacks with this design such as manufacturing complexity, weight and cost of the panels and cargo & cabin substructure. In the frame of incremental product improvement, AIRBUS has developed and implemented a new innovative decompression concept that can be acquired by Airliners.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2081
Rodrigo Pinheiro, Robert Gurrola
The installation of common threaded aerospace fasteners by the application of a tightening torque to a nut or deformable locking collar is made possible by an internal wrenching element or recess feature adapted to the threaded end of a pin which accepts a mating anti-rotation key designed to partially balance or counter the applied torque. In highly-demanding applications such as the mechanical joining of composite structures accomplished by wet clearance fit installations of permanent fasteners, high nut or collar seating torques not adequately opposed by frictional resistance at the contact surfaces of the fastener and joint members effectively shift a greater proportion of the torque reaction requirement onto the recess and mating anti-rotation key which in turn can experience high torsional stresses exceeding their design capability and result in frequent service failures.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes, Donald Peterson
Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at D2 (the exit of the skin) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at D4 (exit of the stringer). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft. The application of a special coating on the tail side die dramatically reduces D4 interference, which in some instances resulted in a reduction of more than 30%. This allowed an increase in forming force to increase D2 interference and made for a much more robust process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2083
Steven P. Smith
This paper traces the development of a single sided blind fastener at Airbus’ Broughton’s plant, commencing with the initial identification of the need for the A380XWB programme, through various prototypes testing early production trials. These requirements were further refined for A350XWB, resulting in a new contending fastener design, further evaluation and testing before pre-production trials and selection for A350XWB programme. Experience gained has led to further design development by the supplier leading to its current applications which are explained and the next steps of our Journey.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2098
Christophe Vandaele, Benoit Legrand, Etienne Gueydon
With more than 10 000 aircrafts in their order backlog, automated assembly is of critical importance to the progress for aircraft manufacturers. Moreover to obtain maximum benefit from automation, it is necessary to achieve not only an integrated fastener cell, but also a real breakthrough in fasteners technology. The optimum solution, known as "One Side Assembly", performs the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure using an accurate robot arm equipped with a Multi function End effector and high performances fasteners. This configuration provides an efficient and flexible automated installation process, superior to current solutions which are typically, large scale, capital intensive, systems, which still require operators to complete or control the fastener installation. The search for a technological breakthrough in this domain has been targeted for more than 15 years by the majors aircrafts manufacturers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2093
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Ortwin Mailahn
Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2089
Jose Guerra cEng, Miguel Angel Castillo
During the year 2003 Aernnova decided to invest in automated machines procuring and installing a Broetje automatic machine (known in Aernnova as CIMPA) in Aernnova Berantevilla facility in order to perform operations such as drilling, countersinking or riveting in aircraft structures during its assembly. Due to the high load of work at that time in Aernnova mainly due to work packages from Embraer and Sikorsky, a solution was needed in order to assemble all the products required by our customer and deliver them on properly in terms of time and good quality. Several ideas came to our engineering team always having in mind the idea of reducing time being more competitive specially in repetitive operations and at the same time keeping good quality. Finally after a depth search, the option selected was an automated machine from Broetje that after some adjustments and customizations regarding our purposes could provide us the best solution.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach the required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC), which will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2103
Eric Barton
With commercial aircraft rates continuing to climb and factory floor space running out, GEMCOR was challenged to deliver a CNC automatic fastening solution that would accurately and reliably perform under high-speed conditions without a foundation. The primary design goal was to define an optimized CNC positioner configuration that could be installed on a typical 8.0” concrete factory floor without a foundation being required.
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