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WIP Standard
2014-04-17
Form: This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of an extrusion. Application: This product has been used in aerospace applications requiring a combination of high strength and compressive properties and with good corrosion resistance, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-15
1.1 This specification is used to indicate the resistance to distortion of bare and two-side Alclad, flat sheet aluminum that will be chemically milled (often in the manufacture of aircraft skin panels). 1.2 This specification is intended for bare and two-side Alclad aluminum alloy in the T temper, which is the form of flat sheet having a thickness between 0.032 to 0.249 in. (0.8 to 6.3 mm). 1.3 Product having the capability prescribed by this specification is available in limited quantities and tempers because of the special processing required.
WIP Standard
2014-04-14
This specification would cover an aluminum-lithium alloy in the extruded form. These extrusions are typically used for parts where low density, high mechanical properties and good stress-corrosion resistance are desired but is not limited in usage to such applications.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aledoni Keci, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Abstract The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process. The results verify that water is the most superior form of quenching, i.e. above 1000°C/s, the bead die quench rate is impressive at 525°C/s, and the water-cooled plate quench rate is marginal at 34°C/s.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrey Ilinich, S. George Luckey
Abstract This paper documents the finite element (FE) analysis of a hot stamping process for high strength aluminum sheet. In this process a 7075 blank, heated above its solvus temperature, was simultaneously die quenched and stamped in a room temperature die to form a B-pillar outer reinforcement. Two modeling approaches have been investigated: an isothermal mechanical model and a non-isothermal coupled thermo-mechanical model. The accuracy of each approach was assessed by comparing the predicted strain and thickness distributions to experimental measurements from a formed panel. The coupled thermo-mechanical model provided the most accurate prediction.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Norihiro Hamada, Kiyohiro Suzuki
Abstract ADC12 is one of the common aluminum alloys for automobiles because it has suitable for casting and machining. However, the corrosion resistance of ADC12 is insufficient in comparison with other aluminum alloys. The corrosion depends on chemical composition of aluminum and circumstance around aluminum. It was considered that a crevice such as a seal gap accelerates corrosion rate. Therefore, the corrosion at a sealing gap between ADC12 and rubber gasket was investigated. Salt water corrosion tests were carried out with an o-ring compressed between ADC12 plate and plastic plate. Corrosion depth and corrosion area at sealing surface were measured with a microscope. The corrosion depth at the sealing surface was deeper than that outside it. Since smooth surface of aluminum prevented the sealing surface from corrosion, it was considered that the narrow sealing gap enabled to decrease in the corrosion rate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie
Abstract Aluminum engines have been successfully used to replace heavy gray cast engines to lighten the car's weight and reduce the fuel consumption. To overcome the aluminum alloys' poor wear resistance, cast iron liners and thermal spraying coatings were used as cylinder bore materials for wear protection. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique had also been proposed to produce an oxide coating on aluminum cylinder bore. The oxide coating can have a low coefficient of friction (COF) and minimum wear shown in the lab tests. To conserve more fuel, the stopping and restarting system was introduced when the vehicle was forced to stop immediately for a short time. When the engine was forced to stop and restart, the reciprocating speed of the piston was very slow, and the friction between the piston and the cylinder was high. In this research, a pin-on-disc tribometer was used to investigate tribological behavior of the oxide coating on an aluminum alloy. The rotational velocity of the tribometer was increased stepwise in a low speed range during the tests.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joy H Forsmark
Abstract High ductility cast aluminum alloys are seeing more use in vehicles as a greater effort is made to replace components made from heavier steel and iron alloys with lighter weight alloys such as aluminum. High ductility cast aluminum has significant advantages by allowing for complex shape and considerable consolidation of parts in body structures. However, joining can be a challenge because one popular method for aluminum joining, self-piercing riveting (SPR), requires a ductility of greater than 10%, forcing the common high ductility Al alloys to undergo a T6 heat treatment which adds cost and potential distortion issues to Al component. In this study, friction stir spot welding was investigated as a potential joining technique for this material in the as-cast condition. Samples of as-cast Aural-2™ alloy were joined to Aural-2™, 5754, and 6061 alloys, to determine the manufacturing feasibility, weld strength, and fatigue strength using this joining technique.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vishank Kumar, Dimitry Sediako, Lukas Bichler
The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline). The effect of chill condition on the variation of residual strain in the casting was investigated using neutron diffraction approach.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Anthony Lombardi, Dimitry Sediako, C. (Ravi) Ravindran, Robert Mackay
The development of an optimized heat treatment schedule, with the aim of maximizing strength and relieving tensile residual stress, is important to prevent in-service cylinder distortion in Al alloy engine blocks containing cast-in gray iron liners. However, to effectively optimize the engine block heat treatment schedule, the current solutionizing parameters must be analyzed and compared to the as-cast condition to establish a baseline for residual stress relief. In this study, neutron diffraction was carried out to measure the residual stress along the aluminum cylinder bridge following solution heat treatment. The stresses were measured in the hoop, radial and axial orientations and compared to a previous measured as-cast (TSR) engine block. The results suggest that solution heat treatment using the current production parameters partially relieved tensile residual stress in the Al cylinder bridge, with stress relief being more effective near the bottom of the cylinder.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
This work demonstrates the feasibility of hot stamping a B-pillar outer panel from aluminum alloy 7075. AA7075 is characterized by a high strength to weight ratio with yield strengths comparable to those of DP and TRIP advanced high strength steels. Applications using AA7075 have typically been limited to the aerospace industry due to the high variable cost associated with forming and joining of these materials. A primary key to implementation in the automotive industry is the development of metal forming methods that produce non-compromised stamped parts at automotive manufacturing volumes and costs. This work explores the feasibility of die quenching a hot blank within a cold die as a means of delivering high strength aluminum sheet parts. A die made from kirksite was used to evaluate the hot stamping process for a B-pillar outer. After the forming/quenching operation, the parts were subjected to an artificial aging process to regain the properties of the T6-temper. The results show that hot stamping, followed by an adequate artificial aging treatment, produces a high strength component with material properties equivalent to the as-received T6 properties delivered by the material sheet supplier.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Qigui Wang, Guoqiu He, Yucong Wang
Fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys under multiaxial loading was investigated with both cast aluminum A356-T6 and wrought alloy 6063-T6. The dominant multiaxial fatigue crack preferentially nucleates from flaws like porosity and oxide films located near the free surface of the material. In the absence of the flaws, the cracking/debonding of the second phase particles dominates the crack initiation and propagation. The number of cracked/debonded particles increases with the number of cycles, but the damage rate depends on loading paths. Among various loading paths studied, the circle loading path shows the shortest fatigue life due to the development of complex dislocation substructures and severe stress concentration near grain/cell boundaries and second phase particles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Akihiro Kose, Motohiko Koushima, Tomohiro Ukai, Yuki Kawashima, Kouji Zushi
Abstract With increased awareness of environmental issues and regulations, developments for recent automotive engines are progressing towards engines with low fuel consumption. Due to these changes, automotive engine bearings are increasingly used in harsher environments, with higher loading. These operating conditions require bearings with both conformability and fatigue resistance. From the above background, various aluminum alloy bearings have previously been developed, including materials with solid solution treatment to improve their properties, and alloys which can be used with or without an overlay [1, 2, 3]. These materials are known to have good conformability and fatigue resistance. However, while conventional Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings display excellent sliding properties, due to the unceasing trend for engine downsizing, more conformability is required. In this study, by optimizing dispersion of the soft tin phase in Al-Sn-Si alloys, a bearing material with equal fatigue resistance and further improved conformability was developed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jianghui Mao, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Xuming Su, Scott Kenningley
In this paper, the cyclic deformation behavior of an Al-Si-Cu alloy is studied under strain-controlled thermo-mechanical loading. Tests are carried out at temperatures from 20 °C to 440 °C. The effect of strain rate, hold time at temperature and loading sequence are investigated at each temperature. The results show that temperature has a significant effect on the cyclic deformation of Al-Si-Cu alloys. With increasing temperature, the effect of strain rate and hold time become more significant, while load sequence effects remain negligible within the investigated temperature range. Thus, an elasto-viscoplastic model is required for modeling the alloy's behavior at high temperature. This study provides an insight into the necessary information required for modeling of automotive engine components operating at elevated temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Klaus Greven, Manikandan Loganathan
Abstract The Counter Pressure Casting (CPC) process is particularly suited for the production of aluminum suspension components like wheel carriers or steering knuckles. Using a typical AlSi7Mg alloy such as A356 or EN AC-42100, yield strength above 260 MPa and elongation rates above 8% are possible in a high volume production. Although these are very good values for aluminum castings, the yield strength has to be improved to increase the light weight potential of such components. The present work shows how this goal can be achieved by the development of a new aluminum casting alloy. Besides the modification of Si and Mg content, the addition of Cr leads to an additional dispersion hardening effect. In this way, yield strength above 310 MPa combined with an elongation of 7% can be assured in the CPC process after a T6 heat treatment. Fundamental microstructural investigations are shown as well as the results of tensile tests, high temperature strength, corrosion behavior and static and dynamic component testing.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Daeyong Kim, Hyeon Park, Ji Hoon Kim, Youngseon Lee, Myoung-Gyu Lee
Abstract In this study, numerical simulations of electromagnetic forming (EmF) for automotive sheet metals with flat spiral coil were performed in order to analyze electromagnetic, mechanical behaviors in EmF process. Two automotive sheets which are 5J32 aluminum alloy sheet and DP780 high strength steel sheet having thickness of 1.0mm were utilized. Numerical simulations were conducted with the commercial software LS-Dyna, which is able to fully couple with electromagnetic and mechanical as well as thermal natures in three dimensional spaces. From numerical analysis, electromagnetic quantities such as Lorentz force and mechanical quantities such as deformed shape of sheet metals were examined. At low charge voltage, the simulations of the deformed shape for two workpiece blanks have a good agreement with the experiments.
Standard
2014-03-17
This standard establishes the physical item marking requirements for identificationpurposes for copper and copper-base alloy mill products procured and issued for government activities. Shipment and inspection accpetance markings are not within the scope of this standard.
Standard
2014-03-06
This specification covers the specific requirements for 7075 aluminum alloy alclad one side plate and sheet; the general requirements are covered in AMS-QQ-A-250. The plate and sheet covered by this specification shall be an integral composite product consisting of a heat-treatable aluminum alloy (7075) core with a thin layer of an aluminum alloy (7072) anodic to the core bonded to one surface.
Standard
2014-03-06
This specification covers the specific requirements for 2014 aluminum alloy alclad plate and sheet; the general requirements are covered in AMS-QQ-A-250. The plate and sheet covered by this specification shall be an integral composite product consisting of a heat-treatable aluminum alloy (2014) core with thin layers of an aluminum alloy (6003) anodic to the core and of approximately equal thickness bonded to both surfaces.
Standard
2014-03-04
This specification covers the specific requirements for aluminum alloy 2014 bar, rod, shapes, tube, and wire produced by extrusion.
WIP Standard
2014-03-03
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of coiled sheet supplied in the –T4 temper.
WIP Standard
2014-02-27
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sheet and plate.
WIP Standard
2014-02-27
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of alclad sheet and plate supplied in the -T861 temper.
Standard
2014-02-26
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of die forgings, hand forgings, and forging stock.
Standard
2014-02-26
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of sand castings.
Standard
2014-02-26
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of sand castings. These products have been used typically for parts operating in service up to 300 degrees F (149 degrees C) but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-02-16
This specification covers a dilute aluminum/TiB2 metal matrix composite in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-02-14
This specification covers the specific requirements for 7178 aluminum alloy plate and sheet material; the general requirements are covered in AMS-QQ-A-250.
Standard
2014-02-14
This specification covers the specific requirements for 7178 aluminum alloy alclad plate and sheet; the general requirements are covered in AMS-QQ-A-250. The plate and sheet covered by this specification shall be an integral composite product consisting of a heat-treatable aluminum alloy (7178) core with thin layers of an aluminum alloy (7072) anodic to the core and of approximately equal thickness bonded to both surfaces.
Standard
2014-02-14
This specification covers the specific requirements for improved exfoliation-resistant aluminum alloy, 7178-T76 sheet and 7178-T7651 plate.
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