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Book
2014-06-09
Paul E. Geck
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are a family of steels that are stronger than most steels and have better formability than today’s conventional high-strength steels. New U.S. safety and fuel economy regulations have intensified pressure on OEMs to reduce vehicle weight. These pressures are causing auto companies to rethink alternative material applications and to look for opportunities that steel offers. The purpose of this book is to provide information for engineers who are designing the next generation of lighter vehicles. The material in the book is presented to help them make informed decisions on what basic materials to use and how to optimize those materials to achieve cost-effective weight reduction. The emphasis is on steels in general and AHSS in particular. However, there is much information on comparisons of steel with alternative materials for different subsystems of the vehicle. To support the latest automotive challenges in terms of weight reduction, this book lays out the opportunities for alternative material use in automobiles and offers the most up-to-date design guidance in efficient architectures that use AHSS.
WIP Standard
2014-04-11
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, mechanical tubing, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.

These products have been used typically for parts, 0.750 inch (19.05 mm) and under in section thickness at time of heat treatment, requiring a through-hardening steel capable of developing hardness as high as 50 HRC when properly hardened and tempered and also parts of greater thickness but requiring proportionately lower hardness, but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of seamless tubing.

This tubing has been used typically for thin wall-thickness sections where minimum tensile strength up to 160 ksi (1103 MPa) is required and where parts may be welded during fabrication, but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers a free-machining, low-alloy steel in the form of round bars 3.50 inches (88.9 mm) and under in nominal diameter.

These bars have been used typically for parts, such as shafts, axles, pins, fasteners, gears, and screw machine parts, which are normally used at hardness of 30 to 36 HRC and which do not require a high degree of ductility, but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, and forging stock.
WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers a low-alloy steel in the form of welding wire.

This wire has been used typically as filler metal for gas-tungsten-arc and gas-metal-arc welding of low-alloy steels where the joint is capable of being heat treated to a minimum tensile strength up to 180 ksi (1241 MPa), but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers a low-alloy steel in the form of welding wire.

This wire has been used typically for use as filler metal for gas-tungsten-arc and gas-metal-arc welding of low-alloy steels of similar composition where the weld area is required to have strength comparable to that of the parent metal, but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This specification covers a low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.

These products have been used typically for bearing component requiring a through-hardening steel usually with hardness of approximately 60 HRC and section thickness under 0.50 in. (12.7 mm).

Event
2014-04-09
This symposium provides a forum for researchers and application engineers to disseminate the knowledge and information gained in the area of advanced high-strength and press-hardening steel development and applications in automotive structures, enabling light-weight and durable vehicles with improved safety.
Event
2014-04-08
The ability to create structural materials of high yield strength and yet high ductility has been a dream for materials scientists for a long time. The study of the mechanical behavior of the surface nanostructured materials using SMAT (Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment) shows significant enhancements in mechanical properties of the nanostructured surface layer in different materials. We summarize our recent works on the advanced metallic nanomaterials with exceptional dual mechanical properties using multiscale metallurgical structure-driven design combined with advanced mechanical simulation. The effect of surface nanostructures on the mechanical behavior and on the failure mechanism of metallic material shows the possibility to develop a new strength gradient composite. The results show three key mechanisms for the enhancement and the extraordinary properties of layered and nanostructured metallic stainless steel sheet. The computational models and experimental results successfully provide valuable information about the nanomaterials properties as a function nanostructure configuration (nanograins and nanotwins).
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of work-strengthened bars and wire 1-1/4 inches (31.8 mm) and under in nominal diameter of least distance between parallel sides.

These products have been used typically for parts, such as fasteners, requiring room-temperature minimum tensile strength of 200 ksi (1379 MPa) after precipitation heat treatment for use up to 1000 °F (538 °C) and having oxidation resistance up to 1200 °F (649 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welding wire. This wire has been used typically as filler metal for gas-metal-arc or gas-tungsten-arc welding of steels of similar composition requiring joints with strength and corrosion resistance comparable to those of the basis metal, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of flat wire. This wire has been used typically for retaining rings requiring corrosion and heat resistance up to 900 °F (482 °C) and which may require moderate to severe forming and bending, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate. These products have been used typically for deep and shallow formed parts, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, extrusions, mechanical tubing, flash welded rings, and stock for forging, extruding, or flash welded rings. These products have been used typically for parts requiring wear, galling, and corrosion resistance up to 950 °F (510 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications. Welding, brazing, or other exposure to temperatures over 950 °F (510 °C) during fabrication may impair corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bharatesh Adappa Danawade, Ravindra Rachappa Malagi
Abstract The combination of wood and steel together gives better properties than individual materials used alone. The advantage associated with this type of hybridization is composite systems are better than that of non-composite system of same size because the system is stiffer. The purpose of utilization of steel with timber members is mainly for stiffness and strength. Steel adds ductility to composite system. The paper presents the experimental results of the work carried out to study the behavior of specimens prepared in solid teakwood, hollow sectioned steel tube and teakwood filled hollow sectioned steel tube under compression. The circular, rectangular and squared sections were used for study. The interfacial bond between wood and steel is obtained by interference fit and by suitable adhesive for wood-steel composite system. Experimental results showed that Hollow sectioned square steel tube and solid sectioned square teakwood specimens showed highest compressive strength and compressive strength of circular cross sections were lowest.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
G. Magendran, Dineshbabu Pandi
Abstract This study on optimum magnification at which Retained austenite to be evaluated by comparing the difference in determining the retained austenite in low carbon carburizing alloy steel using the optical metallurgical micrographic method and X-ray diffraction method. The retained austenite phase will be in surface and color is white in nature also its presented in between the martensite needles. It can be distinguished as separate micro-constituents by using image analyzing software. In another method the RA measurements were carried out on the surface by PROTO iXRD Retained austenite measuring system using Cr K radiation. The (211) and (200) reflections of Martensite and (220) and (200) reflections of Austenite were made for this estimation. However, the calculated values of retained austenite by metallurgical microscope in different magnifications are not identical. In this paper, Chemical composition, sample preparation for metallographic and XRD analysis, correlation of metallographic and X ray radiography results were discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiaoming Chen, Ching-Kuo Hsiung, Ken Schmid, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Chris Roman
Abstract Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
K.S. Raghavan, R.J. Comstock, B.M. Hance
Abstract An indirect method to determine friction coefficient under punch stretching conditions has been developed. The methodology involves correlation of experimental draw-in measurements to FEA predictions for a range of assumed friction coefficients. Initial evaluation with a ferritic stainless steel (SS 439) shows that the proposed indirect method to determine the effective friction coefficient during punch stretching is feasible. Friction coefficient (μ) estimate based on the indirect method was 0.15 for the sample with residual mill oil (dry), 0.12 with excess mill oil (wet), and 0.03 with polyethylene sheets between the sample blank and tooling. The importance of prescribing accurate material hardening behavior beyond uniform elongation to obtain good correlation between simulation and experimental punch loads and to better tune the model is highlighted in the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Seiji Furusako, Kodama Shinji, Yasunobu Miyazaki, Tetsuro Nose, Yoshiaki Akiniwa
To achieve improvement of crashworthiness and weight reduction of car bodies, the application of high strength steel sheets to car bodies is expanding [1, 2]. However cross tension strength of spot welded joints decreases as material strength increases in the range of material strength exceeding 780MPa grade. Therefore arc spot welding was attempted to enhance the joint strength in a high strength steel sheet of 980MPa in tensile strength. Consequently, the following experimental results were obtained: 1) cross tension strength (CTS) of the arc spot welded joints doubled compared with CTS of spot welded joints when appropriate welding conditions such as heat input and hole diameter of the sheet were selected and 2) height of excess weld decay in addition to the diameter of weld metal for the arc spot welded joints played an important role in improving CTS.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ali Seyed Yaghoubi, Paul Begeman, Golam Newaz, Derek Board, Yijung Chen, Omar Faruque
Abstract The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples. A linear potentiometer was installed next to each crush-can to directly measure crush length of the can.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ali H. Ashara, Qian Zou
Abstract Nitridng usually improves wear resistance and can be accomplished using a gas or plasma method; it's necessary to find if there is any difference in surface roughness, wear and/or wear mechanism when choosing between methods for nitriding. In this study, Ball-on-disk wear test was compared on coupons nitrided with five different nitriding cycles that processed at temperatures of 500-570°C, with a processing time of 8 - 80 hrs. Different compound layer thicknesses were formed, (5-8μm), and a minimum of 0.38 mm case depth was produced. Nitrided samples were also compared to nitrocarburized and the nitrided coupons with a “0” compound layer in a ball-on-disk test. Few selected coupons were post-polished and wear test on ball-on-disk test was compared with the coupons without post polishing. Optical surface roughness using White Light Interferometry (WLIM) and metallurgical testing was performed. It was found that plasma nitrided coupons with post polishing had the highest wear resistance in comparison to the untreated coupons.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Peter J. Ulintz
Abstract The application of advanced high-strength steels with ultimate tensile strengths of approximately 800 MPa is now well established within the automotive stamping industry. Current trends point to growth in higher strength applications with tensile strengths exceeding 1200 MPa. Due to their higher strength and greater springback after forming, producing high-strength steel stampings and their tools requires special attention. Effective processing methods are required that address problems specific to these materials, including: selection of an optimum stamping process and related equipment, solving formability problems, controlling springback, and selecting appropriate die steels and coatings for optimal tool life. As automakers strive to meet 2025 CAFÉ requirements of 54.5 miles per gallon, the demand for higher strength steel stampings will increase among lower tier automotive suppliers. These companies tend to be contract manufacturers and tool & die shops that are well established and experienced with mild steel and high strength low alloy materials.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James Nelsen
Abstract This paper examines the opportunities and challenges posed by applying heat treated spring steel to body functional components for weight reduction. Applications examined include static applications (mounting brackets or other fixing hardware for body functional components), moving sub-components (static structural parts included as sub-components to machine part assemblies), and fully functional flexible assemblies (replacement of the functions of a machine part possessing multiple moving components with a single part or sub-part using the inherent strength and flexibility of the material).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andre Sereno Lopes, Marco Colosio, Jose Castillo
Abstract This paper presents a technological comparison of weldability and mechanical properties between a dual phase steel (DP) and an advanced high strength low alloy steel (AHSLA) used for automotive structural parts in order to demonstrate some unclear characteristics of each. Samples were spot welded and had their hardness and microstructure analyzed, also a shear test was applied on the weld button area. The edge stretchability was analyzed using hole expansion tests and tensile tests to determine the tensile and yield strength, anisotropic coefficients and total elongation. Data were used to estimate crash energy absorption. The results showed an AHSLA steel with higher than typical ductility. Finally, while DP showed improved stretchability, it was also concluded that such AHSLA could perform better bendability, drawability, flangeability and weldability.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6610

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