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2015-10-29 ...
  • October 29-30, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Preventing future problems and troubleshooting existing problems in today's stamping plants requires greater stamping process knowledge. The link between inputs and outputs isn't as clear as many think, increasing the need for detailed understanding of the variables involved. This course discusses the key inputs and outputs associated with sheet metal stamping, including important elements for controlling the process and making it more robust. The course reviews sheet metal characteristics and their application, especially from a formability standpoint, using many automotive-related examples.
2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are now commonly used in automotive body structural applications. The high strength of this grade classification is attractive to help reduce mass in the automotive body through reduction in thickness. Strength also supports improvements in safety requirements so that mass increases are minimized. In some specific grades of AHSS, energy absorption is possible in addition to the high strength. This course will review the definition and properties of AHSS and cover several common applications in automotive body structures.
2015-04-28
WIP Standard
J1058_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice provides an orderly series for designating the thickness of unocated and coated hot-rolled and cold-rolled sheet and strip. This document also provides methods for specifying thickness tolerances.
2015-04-28
Standard
J126_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice outlines a procedure for selecting the proper specification for carbon steel sheet and strip which are purchased to make an identified part. Specifications considered are: ASTM A109—Steel, Carbon, Cold Rolled Strip. ASTM A569—Steel, Carbon (0.15 maximum percent), Hot Rolled Sheet, Commercial Quality (HRCQ). ASTM A621—Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Hot Rolled, Drawing Quality (HRDQ). ASTM A622—Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Hot Rolled, Drawing Quality, Special Killed (HRDQSK). ASTMA568—Steel, Carbon and High-Strength Low-Alloy Hot Rolled Sheet, and Cold Rolled Sheet, General Requirements. ASTM A366—Steel, Carbon, Cold Rolled Sheet, Commercial Quality (CRCQ). ASTM A619—Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Cold Rolled, Drawing Quality (CRDQ). ASTM A620—Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Cold Rolled, Drawing Quality, Special Killed (CRDQSK). ASTM A749M—Steel, Carbon and High-Strength Low-Alloy, Hot Rolled Strip, General Requirements.
2015-04-28
Standard
J2329_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes mechanical property ranges for low-carbon automotive hot-rolled sheet, cold-rolled sheet, and metallic-coated sheet steels. It also contains information that explains the different nomenclature used with these steels.
2015-04-28
Standard
J863_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice describes methods for determining plastic deformation encountered in the forming or drawing of sheet steel.
2015-04-28
Standard
J1562_201504
Zinc and zinc-alloy coated steel is used to enhance a structure’s protection against corrosion degradation. For the purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice, a galvanized coating is defined as a zinc or zinc-alloy metallic coating. The selection of the optimum galvanized steel sheet product depends on many factors, the most important being: desired corrosion protection, formability, weldability, surface characteristics, and paintability. The trade-offs of these product characteristics are more complex than is the case with uncoated steel sheet products.
2015-04-28
Standard
J2575_201504
These test procedures were developed based upon the knowledge that steel panel dent resistance characteristics are strain rate dependent. The “quasi-static” section of the procedure simulates real world dent phenomena that occur at low indenter velocities such as palm-printing, elbow marks, plant handling, etc. The indenter velocity specified in this section of the procedure is set to minimize material strain rate effects. The dynamic section of the procedure simulates loading conditions that occur at higher indenter velocities, such as hail impact, shopping carts, and door-to-door parking lot impact. Three dent test schedules are addressed in this procedure. Schedule A is for use with a specified laboratory prepared (generic) panel, Schedule B is for use with a formed automotive outer body panel or assembly, and Schedule C addresses end product or full vehicle testing.
2015-04-28
Standard
J2745_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice defines various grades of continuously cast high-strength sheet steels and establishes mechanical property ranges. These sheet steels can be formed, welded, assembled and painted in automotive manufacturing processes. They can be specified as hot-rolled or cold-rolled sheet. Furthermore, they can be coated (hot-dipped galvanized, hot-dipped galvannealed, and electrogalvanized) or uncoated. Not all combinations of strength, dimensions and coatings may be commercially available; consult your steel supplier for details.
2015-04-22
Event
This symposium provides a forum for researchers and application engineers to disseminate the knowledge and information gained in the area of advanced high-strength and press-hardening steel development and applications in automotive structures, enabling light-weight and durable vehicles with improved safety.
2015-04-22
Event
This symposium provides a forum for researchers and application engineers to disseminate the knowledge and information gained in the area of advanced high-strength and press-hardening steel development and applications in automotive structures, enabling light-weight and durable vehicles with improved safety.
2015-04-16
WIP Standard
AMS6444M
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2015-04-16
WIP Standard
AMS6440S
This specification covers a low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2015-04-16
WIP Standard
AMS6479D
This specification covers a special aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0728
Ravindra Rachappa Malagi, Bharatesh Adappa Danawade
Abstract The behavior of composite material is a result of integrated contribution of fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. Applied load to members must effectively get transferred from matrix to fibers via interface. It is extremely important to study and understand the nature of the interface of any given composite system. The flexural behavior of wood filled steel tubes is largely dependent on interactions at wood/steel interface. The objective of this paper is to present the work carried out to study the behavior and determine the interfacial shear stress in wood filled steel tubes. Interfacial shear stress is studied considering simple mechanical bonding by interference fit and adhesive bonding by structural epoxy adhesive. The experimental results obtained indicate that the interfacial shearing strength is higher in the case of adhesively bonded wood/steel interface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0584
HaiYan Yu, JiaYi Shen, Gang He
Abstract The yield locus of a cold-rolled transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP780) steel sheet was investigated using a biaxial tensile test on a cruciform specimen. The effect of the key dimensions of the cruciform specimen on the calculation error and stress inhomogeneity was analyzed in detail using an orthogonal test combined with a finite element analysis. Scanning electron metallography (SEM) observations of the TRIP780 steel were performed. The yield curve of the TRIP780 steel was also calculated using the Von Mises, Hill '48, Hill '93, Barlat '89, Gotoh and Hosford yield criteria. The experimental results indicate that none of the selected yield criteria completely agree with the experimental curve. The Hill '48 and Hosford yield criteria have the largest error while the Hill '93 and Gotoh yield criteria have the smallest error.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0570
Horst Lanzerath, Markus Tuerk
Abstract Hot-formed steels, also called “Boron steels” or Ultra-High Strength Steels-UHSS, offer a great weight saving potential versus conventional cold-formed high strength steels used for crash relevant structural parts. Boron steels allow complex shaped parts due to the hot-forming process. In the hot forming process first the sheet metal with initial yield strength of around σy=400 MPa is blanked and then heated in an oven up to ∼950° Celsius. In the next step the “hot” sheet metal is stamped and at the same time rapidly cooled down and quench hardened in the stamping die. During this process the yield and ultimate tensile strength increase up to approximately σy>1100 MPa and UTS∼1500 MPa in the final stamped part. The enormous strength and the very good dimensional tolerances with nearly no springback result in the use of more and more hot-formed parts in the body, especially for crash relevant parts like structural reinforcements.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0567
Kenji Takada, Kentaro Sato, Ninshu Ma
Abstract In order to reduce automobile body weight and improve crashworthiness, the use of high-strength steels has increased greatly in recent years. An optimal combination of both crash safety performance and lightweight structure has been a major challenge in automobile body engineering. In this study, the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion was applied to predict the fracture of high-strength steels. Marciniak-type biaxial stretching tests for high-strength steels were performed to measure the material constant of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Furthermore, in order to improve the simulation accuracy, local anisotropic parameters based on the plastic strain (strain dependent model of anisotropy) were measured using the digital image grid method and were incorporated into Hill's anisotropic yield condition by the authors. In order to confirm the validity of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion, uniaxial tensile tests were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0554
Rafaa Esmaael, Vernon Fernandez
An accurate prediction of elasto-plastic cyclic deformation becomes extremely important in design optimization. It also leads to more accurate fatigue life prediction and hence weight savings. In paper presents a two-stage notch root prediction method. This is based on a correction expression to Neuber's rule notch strain amplitude as the first stage, and a linear interpolation scheme as the second stage. The accuracy of this method is assessed by comparing the predicted results with the results obtained from elasto-plastic finite element analysis. Various types of steels with different yield strengths were used in this study. Notch deformation behavior under cyclic variable amplitude loading conditions was monitored for a double notched flat plate and a circumference notched round bar to cover plain stress and plain strain conditions. Elastic as well as elasto-plastic finite element analyses are performed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0605
Guoyu Yang, Scott Kish
Strength and fatigue life prediction is very difficult for stamped structural steel parts because the manufacturing process alters the localized material properties. Traditional tensile tests cannot be used to obtain material properties due to size limitations. Because of this, FEA predictions are most often “directional” at best. In this paper an improved prediction methodology is suggested. With a material library developed from standard homogenous test specimens, or even textbook material property tables, localized strength and plastic strain numbers can be inferred from localized hardness tests(1). The new method, using standard ABAQUS static analysis (not commercial fatigue analysis software with many unknowns), is shown to be very accurate. This paper compares the new process FEA strength and fatigue life predictions to laboratory test results using statistical confidence intervals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1722
Edmond Ilia, Giorgio Lanni, Kevin Tutton, Doug Sinclair
The advent of more efficient direct injection turbocharged engines has increased the need for higher performance connecting rods, able to withstand in particular higher compressive loads in operation. In this respect, new high strength materials for powder forged connecting rods were developed and introduced in production with excellent results. Among them, HS170M is currently used to manufacture connecting rods for several high performance engines, which not only have higher strength, but have less variation in their mechanical properties. The results of numerous benchmark studies have shown that powder forged connecting rods manufactured with HS170M are stronger than their steel forged counterparts manufactured with microalloyed steels, are easier to machine and fracture split, and represent a cost effective way to manufacture this important high reliability automotive component.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1723
Dieter Gabriel, Thomas Hettich
Abstract Fuel economy legislation is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston material change from aluminum to steel is enabling advancements in both demands. Furthermore, steel material properties lead to increased piston strength, robustness and durability. All this can be achieved at a lower compression height compared to an aluminum reference piston. Therefore, piston mass can be reduced despite the increase in material density. Since steel pistons require cooling of the combustion bowl region and the ring belt just like the aluminum counterpart, MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The TopWeld® concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0601
Madhavan Manivannan, Vesselin Stoilov, Derek O. Northwood
Abstract Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer and diffusion zone containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ′ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness to predict distortion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1482
Bisheshwar Haorongbam, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Abstract Hat-sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components. These components play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during vehicle crashes thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. However, with the need for higher fuel economy and for compliance to stringent emission norms, auto manufacturers are looking for means to continually reduce vehicle body weight either by employing lighter materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics, or by using higher strength steel with reduced gages, or by combinations of these approaches. Unlike steel hat-sections which have been extensively reported in published literature, the axial crushing behavior of hat-sections made of fiber-reinforced composites may not have been adequately probed.
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