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2015-10-29 ...
  • October 29-30, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Preventing future problems and troubleshooting existing problems in today's stamping plants requires greater stamping process knowledge. The link between inputs and outputs isn't as clear as many think, increasing the need for detailed understanding of the variables involved. This course discusses the key inputs and outputs associated with sheet metal stamping, including important elements for controlling the process and making it more robust. The course reviews sheet metal characteristics and their application, especially from a formability standpoint, using many automotive-related examples.
2015-06-23
WIP Standard
AMS4598B
This specification covers a copper-nickel-tin alloy in the form of mechanical tube.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2136
Francisco José Redondo
A system has been designed for the A400M wherein engine air intake ice protection is provided by hot air bled from the engine cooled by air from inside the nacelle with a jet pump. Two variants of the system were developed. The first had an active temperature and pressure control downstream of the jet pump, and the second was without temperature control. Maximum temperature was a constraint for the design of the system since the engine air intake is manufactured in aluminum. In addition, several other constraints appeared during the detailed design of the system; the tight space allocation inside the nacelle limited the length of the jet pump, the low temperature provided by the engine bleed in flight idle limited the secondary flow used to cool the engine bleed, and the complex air distribution needed to supply air to the intake areas.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2188
Zhaohui Sun, Glen Steyer, Chih Hung Chung, Gregory Kopp
Abstract This paper discusses approaches to properly design aluminum axles for optimized NVH characteristics. By effectively using well established and validated FEA and other CAE tools, key factors that are particularly associated with aluminum axles are analyzed and discussed. These key factors include carrier geometry optimization, bearing optimization, gear design and development, and driveline system dynamics design and integration. Examples are provided to illustrate the level of contribution from each main factor as well as their design space and limitations. Results show that an aluminum axle can be properly engineered to achieve robust NVH performances in terms of operating temperature and axle loads.
2015-06-02
Magazine
Balancing GDI fuel economy and emissions Will OEMs have to adopt gasoline particulate filters to comply with stringent new emissions regulations? Top engineers discuss current developments. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Mixing metals Cadillac pursues aluminum/steel mix for new CT6 luxury sedan, leading to advances in body assembly.
2015-05-21
Standard
AMS03_28PT1
This SAE Standard covers the requirements for coatings of high purity aluminum on low alloy steels, high strength steels, corrosion-resisting steels, aluminum alloys and titanium alloys and other materials where appropriate.
2015-05-21
Standard
AMS03_25
This SAE Standard specifies the properties of sulphuric acid anodizing of aluminum and aluminum alloys.
2015-04-30
Standard
AMS03_18
This SAE Standard specifies the properties of chromate conversion coatings on aluminum and aluminum alloys. It details inspection and testing requirements for chromate conversion coatings. Where there are differences in the requirements for the Brushing Grade from the Standard Grade they are highlighted in this Standard.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1754
Wei-Jen Lai, Jwo Pan
Abstract In this paper, the analytical stress intensity factor and J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of two dissimilar sheets based on the beam bending theory are first reviewed. The solutions are then presented in the normalized forms. Next, two-dimensional finite element analyses were selectively conducted to validate the analytical solutions based on the beam bending theory. The interface crack parameters, the stress intensity factor solutions, and the J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of different combinations of steel, aluminum, and magnesium, and the combination of aluminum and copper sheets of different thickness ratios are then presented for convenient fracture and fatigue analyses. The transition thickness ratios for critical crack locations for different combinations of dissimilar materials are then determined from the analytical solutions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
Abstract Historically aluminum was recognized as a valuable material to achieve weight reduction targets in engines, vehicle chassis and suspension. Aluminum needs to be also considered in new areas like vehicle electrification to support the overall weight reduction targets. The use of aluminum helps to improve fuel economy and brings down CO2 emissions by reducing weight. This benefit is an attractive option for the wiring harness to replace heavier copper conductors. In addition to large cross section wires for power cable, where aluminum conductors are already in use, the intermediate aluminum cable cross section of 2.5mm2 to 6.0 mm2 provides a good potential for car implementation to hit weight saving targets. The major implementation roadblocks for aluminum technology are the surface oxides Al2O3 which are an insulator and the potential galvanic corrosion of aluminum in combination with the always present copper terminal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0244
Adrien Laurino
Abstract For tubular terminals and high power junctions, the magnetic pulse crimping (MPC) could be a technical solution to produce aluminum - copper assembly. LEONI has launched a study to evaluate this technology. Besides, the lifetime of vehicle components is an issue that manufacturers should consider during all the development phases from the conception to the validation in service. Consequently, the quality of the interface aluminum-copper obtained by MPC is evaluated in terms of microstructure, of electrical and mechanical properties and to describe the corrosion behavior.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0408
Jeff Conklin, Randy Beals, Zach Brown
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the light weighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper includes details associated with the mass reduction and structural performance of the multi material body in white (BIW) relative to a C/D segment production vehicle. Selected stiffness, durability and crash requirements are assessed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0409
Larry Plourde, Michael Azzouz, Jeff Wallace, Mari Chellman
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper reviews the mass reduction and structural performance of aluminum, magnesium, and steel components for a lightweight multi material door design for a C/D segment passenger vehicle. Stiffness, durability, and crash requirements are assessed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0725
Mohamed Eghfaier, Nassif E. Rayess
Abstract Cellular materials in general and metal foams in particular are becoming more accessible to the automotive industry as technologies get further developed and the supply chain expands. Among the recognized properties of metal foams are high plastic deformation energy and light weight, which is a combination that could be leveraged advantageously in impact and crash applications. In this study, cylindrical shells with aluminum foam cores were crushed in the longitudinal direction, an embodiment that approximates those found in vehicle crumple zones and roof pillars. The cores were made of Duocel®, which is an aluminum foam of the open cell variety. The foam is made of 6101 T6 aluminum and has a 10 % relative density (90% of the volume is air) and a linear pore density of 20 pores per inch. The materials investigated for the shell were aluminum and carbon fiber composite.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1340
Yoichi Toyooka, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
Abstract Automotive outer panels may be distorted during heat treatments for curing of structural adhesives and mastic sealers. Distortion occurs due to residual stress between the adhesive and the panel following the curing process of the adhesive. The research discussed in this paper therefore considered a simulation technique of distortion and measuring method using curvature as the evaluative indicator. Curvature refers to the change of gradient of the curved surface, and the difference in curvature between the standard shape of the panel and the distortion section closely resembles the results of visual evaluations. Test panels were manufactured and measurements of their curvature were conducted. A study of the correlation of measurement results with the results of visual evaluations showed a good match.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1370
Mehran Ebrahimi, Kamran Behdinan
Abstract Nowadays, moving toward more lightweight designs is the key goal of all major automotive industries, and they are always looking for more mass saving replacements. In this study, a new methodology for the design and optimization of cross-car beam (CCB) assemblies is proposed to obtain a more lightweight aluminum design as a substitution for the steel counterpart considering targeted performances. For this purpose, first, topology optimization on a solid aluminum geometry encompassing the entire design space should be carried out to obtain the element density distribution within the model. Reinforcing locations with high element density and eliminating those with density lower than the threshold value result in the conceptual design of the CCB. To attain the final conceptual design, the process of topology optimization and removal of unnecessary elements should be addressed in several steps.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1364
Tao Wang, LIangmo Wang, Yuanlong Wang, Xiaojun Zou, Fuxiang Guo
Abstract The design of aluminum foam reinforced thin-walled tubes has garnered much interest recently due to the high energy absorption capacity of these tubes. As a new kind of engineering composite material, aluminum foam can hugely increase the crashworthiness capacity without sacrificing too much weight. In this paper, axisymmetric thin-walled hollow tubes with four different kinds of cross-sections (circular, square, hexagonal and octagonal) are studied to assess their performance for crashworthiness problems. It is found that the tube with square cross-section has the best crashworthiness performance under axial impact. To seek optimal designs of square aluminum foam reinforced thin-walled tubes, a surrogate modeling technique coupled with a multi-criteria particle swarm optimization algorithm has been developed, to maximize specific energy absorption (SEA) and minimize peak crash force (PCF).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1319
Eitaro Koya, Yukihide Fukuda, Shinya Kitagawa, Mitsunori Murakami, Atsushi Kawauchi, Sadanori Furue
Abstract When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
2015-04-03
WIP Standard
AMS4223E
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of castings.
2015-04-03
WIP Standard
AMS4242C
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of castings.
2015-04-03
WIP Standard
AMS4229G
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sand, permanent mold, and composite mold castings.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0088
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Naveen Sukumar, Sunil Endugu, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to replace existing Gear Shift Fork from FC Iron (Ferro Cast Iron) to ADC (Aluminum Die Casting) without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road load cases and severe environmental conditions. ADC has good mechanical and thermal properties compared to FC Iron. Feasible design has been Optimized within the given design space with an extra supporting pad for load distribution. Optimization, Stiffness, Contact pattern has been done using OptiStruct, Nastran & Ansys for CAE evaluation. A 6-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation and validation of the optimized design. Advanced linear topology optimization methods have been addressed as the most promising techniques for light weighting and performance design of Powertrain structures.
2015-03-25
Standard
AMS3604
This specification establishes requirements for a heat resistant aluminized organic coating with sufficient corrosion and erosion resistance for the finished substrate.
2015-03-25
WIP Standard
AMS4004E
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of foil. This foil has been used typically for corrugated or expanded honeycomb core material for use in sandwich construction, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2015-03-25
WIP Standard
AMS4071N
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of drawn, round seamless tubing. This tubing has been used typically for parts, such as hydraulic systems and fuel and oil lines, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2015-03-25
WIP Standard
AMS4068F
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of drawn seamless tubing 0.029 to 0.500 inch (0.74 to 12.70 mm) in nominal wall thickness. This tubing has been used primarily for structures requiring good fusion weldability and a combination of good strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking after precipitation heat treatment, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2015-03-25
WIP Standard
AMS4077H
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sheet and plate. This product has been used typically for structural components, including machine tapered parts, but usage is not limited to such applications.
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