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2015-04-20 ...
  • April 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 29-30, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Preventing future problems and troubleshooting existing problems in today's stamping plants requires greater stamping process knowledge. The link between inputs and outputs isn't as clear as many think, increasing the need for detailed understanding of the variables involved.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
The benefits of aluminum as a conductor material are the reduction of mass, to minimize CO2 consumption in combination with low material cost. The intermediate aluminum cable cross section 2.5mm² - 6.0mm² cover a good potential for car implementation to hit this goal. The presentation describes the technical solutions for an aluminum wiring harness equipped with aluminum cable in the cross section of 2.5mm² - 6.0mm². Next to the connection technologies ultra-sonic welding and crimp technology, the presentation informs about the new SMC - technology for corrosion protection. SMC is the abbreviation for selective metal coating. This technology based on a material optimization for the crimp design of the terminal. It offers for the designer a modular approach of corrosion protection specific to its used compartment within the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens system are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that no edge thinning limit reduction observed in three levels’ pre-strain coupon tests and the pre-straining does not affect the edge thinning limit. Basic theory of DIC, experimental setup, test plan and experimental results are shown in detail in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0244
Adrien Laurino
Considering the rarefaction of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in addition the copper price, OEM’s are looking for innovative solutions to reduce both the cost and weight of wiring harnesses. One promising solution is the substitution of copper with aluminum alloys, which are currently used for high power electrical applications. In this context, LEONI launched a global project to supply automotive harnesses with aluminum wires. LEONI have already developed solutions using aluminum wires assembled to copper terminals by ultrasonic welding, these solutions are already in mass production. This assembly process is adapted for the junction of aluminum wires thanks to flat welding flat. For tubular terminals and high power junctions, other process must be investigated. One of the targeted processes is the magnetic pulse crimping (MPC) and tests are performed by LEONI using the equipment of the firm BMAX.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0513
Deukkyu Hwang, Keeyang Lee, Yong Chun, Minjoong Kim, Jaemin Jang
Abstract The inter-metallic compound layers at the interface in copper/aluminum clad metal sheet were investigated. In this study, three ply clad sheets, comprised of copper (C1100), aluminum (A1050) and copper (C1100) were fabricated by means of hot-rolling process and heat treatment was carried out at 500 °C. The phase analysis of compound layers was carried out and the change of hardness at the Cu and Al interface was investigated by nano-indentation. The thickness of the compound layers was measured at heat treatment time form 10min to 90min, and the electric resistance, tension and adhesion tests on the clad sheets were carried out. The correlation between the compound layers of clad metal sheet and the mechanical properties by time variation of heat temperature were studied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1340
Yoichi Toyooka, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
Warping the exteriors of outer panels happens during the application of heat for hardening structural adhesives. Using aluminum and resin promote warping. Simulation of warping at the design stage and evaluating warping during mass-production require us to quantify the degree of warping to evaluate absolute values. These analytic values correspond to values from warping in panels, and display a correlation with visual examinations. Degree of displacement was an evaluative indicator for the quantification of warping. However, warping will not always be recognized due to gradual change in areas of the panel and cases where it will be recognized due to sudden change, despite that the absolute value of the degree of displacement might be the same. This research considered a warping simulation and evaluation using curvature as the evaluative indicator. Curvature is the gradient of change of the curved surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1370
Mehran Ebrahimi, Kamran Behdinan
Energy consumption is one of the most significant challenges in the world today, and has been the source of many struggles in international level. The future of human’s generations is in serious danger because of energy related issues such as resources shortage and global warming. Hence, responsible governments have codified some policies to reduce fuel consumption in energy-dependent industries and their products. Automobile industries as the manufacturers of fuel consumer products are not exempt from these rules, and are always looking for more lightweight industrial designs. In order to achieve more lightweight solutions, changing the material of an available part to a lower density one is the first option in many applications, and aluminum as an accessible material with acceptable mechanical properties can be a suitable replacement for steel in the majority of industrial demands.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1754
Wei-Jen Lai, Jwo Pan
The analytical stress intensity factor and J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of two dissimilar sheets are presented in the normalized forms. The analytical solutions were selectively validated by two-dimensional finite element analyses. The interface crack parameters, the stress intensity factor solutions, and the J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of different combinations of steel, aluminum, and magnesium, and the combination of aluminum and copper sheets of different thickness ratios are then presented for convenient fracture and fatigue analyses. The transition thickness ratios for critical crack locations for different combinations of dissimilar materials are then determined from the analytical solutions. The transition weld widths for applicable ranges of the weld widths for the analytical solutions based on the beam bending theory are also presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0237
Nick Smith
Abstract The architecture of vehicle electrical systems is changing rapidly. Electric and hybrid vehicles are driving mixed voltage systems, and cost pressures are making conductor materials like aluminum an increasingly viable competitor to copper. The challenge of assessing the impact of these technologies on vehicle safety and of understanding cost/weight trade-offs is a critical design activity. This session will discuss and demonstrate tradeoff studies at the vehicle level, show how to automatically generate an electrical Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) report, and optimize wire sizes for both copper and aluminum at the platform level.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0088
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Naveen Sukumar, Sunil Endugu, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to replace existing Gear Shift Fork from FC Iron (Ferro Cast Iron) to ADC (Aluminum Die Casting) without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road load cases and severe environmental conditions. ADC has good mechanical and thermal properties compared to FC Iron. Feasible design has been Optimized within the given design space with an extra supporting pad for load distribution. Optimization, Stiffness, Contact pattern has been done using OptiStruct, Nastran & Ansys for CAE evaluation. A 6-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation and validation of the optimized design. Advanced linear topology optimization methods have been addressed as the most promising techniques for light weighting and performance design of Powertrain structures.
2015-03-04
WIP Standard
AMS4824E
This specification covers bearings of a leaded bronze cast on one or both faces of a steel backing with a layer of babbitt metal cast on the leaded bronze.
2015-03-03
WIP Standard
AMSQQA200/8A
This specification covers the specific requirements for aluminum alloy 6061 bar, rod, shapes, tube, and wire produced by extrusion.
2015-02-17
WIP Standard
AMS2355L
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of wrought aluminum alloy and wrought magnesium alloy mill products (except forging stock), and includes quality assurance and testing procedures for rolled, forged, and flash welded rings (See 8.3). Requirements are specified in inch/pound units.
2015-02-06
WIP Standard
D15AA
This specification is a proposed draft of a new temper (T852) which covers aluminum-lithium alloy 2050
2015-02-04
WIP Standard
AS6507
1.1 This specification is used to indicate the resistance to distortion of bare and two-side Alclad, flat sheet aluminum that will be chemically milled (often in the manufacture of aircraft skin panels). 1.2 This specification is intended for bare and two-side Alclad aluminum alloy in the T temper, which is the form of flat sheet having a thickness between 0.032 to 0.249 in. (0.8 to 6.3 mm). 1.3 Product having the capability prescribed by this specification is available in limited quantities and tempers because of the special processing required.
2015-02-03
WIP Standard
AMS2770M
This specification specifies the engineering requirements for heat treatment, by part fabricators (users) or their vendors or subcontractors, of parts (See 8.8.1). It also covers heat treatment by warehouses or distributors converting raw material from one temper to another temper (See 1.3 and 8.5). It covers the following aluminum alloys: 1100, 2004, 2014, 2017, 2024, 2098, 2117, 2124, 2219, 2224, 3003, 5052, 6013, 6061, 6063, 6066, 6951, 7049, 7050, 7075, 7149, 7178, 7249, 7475
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0068
Muthuraj Ramasamy, Vignesh E, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan
Abstract A “WHEEL” is one of those auto component in a vehicle which necessitates equal attention from safety, ergonomics and aesthetic perspectives. A conventional tube type wheel for commercial vehicles is made of steel with steel side rings (multi-piece construction). In course as headway in wheel design the single piece wheels were developed which used the tubeless tires. These wheels were made available in both steel and aluminum versions. Wherein the aluminum wheels were lighter in weight than steel, aesthetically more appealing and had other significant advantages. Despite the advantages of these tubeless tire wheels, the end user had to invest for both wheels and tubeless tires to replace conventional tube type steel wheels. The retro-fitment calls for higher exchange cost of wheel and tire and this process stands to be more capitalistic to the end user wherein the payback period was longer.
2014-12-21
WIP Standard
AMS4371B
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of rolled plate. This product has been used typically for parts requiring a combination of light weight, high yield strength up to 480 °F (250 °C), relatively high corrosion resistance, and good flammability resistance for magnesium alloys,but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-12-06
WIP Standard
AS7220A
This procurement specification covers rivets fabricated from an aluminum alloy designated as 1100-H14, strain hardened. Primarily for joining aluminum parts where a low shear strength is adequate.
2014-11-04
Magazine
2015 engines ride a technology tidal wave Powertrain engineers are diving deeper to find new ways to make light-duty power units more efficient without compromising performance. Connectivity for comfort Seat suppliers such as Continental, Johnson Controls, and Faurecia pursue 'networked' seats to enhance safety, personalization, and comfort. Assembling aluminum vehicles in volume Ford's 2015 F-150 pickup pioneers high-volume mass-production of lightweight aluminum car and truck structures.
2014-10-17
WIP Standard
AMS4236D
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sand, investment, permanent mold, and composite mold castings.
2014-10-17
WIP Standard
AMS4235C
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sand, permanent mold, and composite mold castings.
2014-10-17
WIP Standard
AMS2771F
This specification covers the engineering requirements for heat treatment of aluminum alloy castings and for parts machined from castings.
2014-10-16
Video
Chrysler engineers need to make the next Jeep Wrangler, due in 2017, much lighter for better fuel economy. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Automotive Engineering Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at Jeep's history with aluminum and unibody construction.
2014-09-24
WIP Standard
AMS4822G
This specification has been declared "CANCELLED " by the Aerospace Materials Division, SAE, as of January 2009. By this action, this document will remain listed in the Numerical Section of the Index of Aerospace Material Specifications indicating that it has been "CANCELLED ".
2014-09-24
WIP Standard
AMS4156L
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubing.

These extrusions have been used typically for parts requiring good surface finish and for hollow, partially enclosed, intricate profiles for which an alloy having good extruding characteristics is required, but usage is not limited to such applications.

2014-09-24
WIP Standard
AMS4304C
This specification covers discontinuously reinforced aluminum alloy (DRA) metal matrix composites (MMC) in the form of sheet. This sheet has been used typically for structural applications requiring high static strength, moderate fatigue strength, and high elastic modulus, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-09-24
WIP Standard
AMS4286G
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of permanent mold castings. These castings have been used typically for components requiring moderate strength up to 450 °F (230 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications.
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