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2017-09-28 ...
  • September 28, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Ft. Worth, Texas
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The challenges associated with using composites as a replacement for aluminum reside primarily in the complex manufacturing processes and technologies for fabricating composite parts. The high cost of composites material and its manufacturing complexity have been inhibitors to the wide transfer of this technology to the non-aerospace market. The search for solutions to high manufacturing costs and efficient manufacturing processes have resulted in intense research by government, aerospace industry companies, and space agencies worldwide.
2017-07-26 ...
  • July 26-27, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 4-5, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Puyallup, Washington
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The requirements for producing an FAA approved replacement part can be daunting. Understanding the steps required in the FAA Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) process can greatly streamline the approval life-cycle and reduce unnecessary costs and delays, thereby shortening the time and cost to market. This course is designed for those organizations and individuals interested in designing and manufacturing replacement parts for civil aviation aircraft. This two-day course covers the crucial subjects and steps of the FAA-PMA approval process.
2017-04-04
Event
This technical session focuses on fundamental and applied research that lowers frictional energy losses and enhances reliability and durability of automotive components. The topics include, but not limited to engine and drivetrain tribology, seals, bearing and gear lubrication, materials tribology, surface engineering, lubricants and additives, computer-aided tribology, tribotesting, as well as friction, wear and lubrication fundamentals.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1025
Qinghe Luo, Baigang Sun, Xi Wang
Hydrogen is the most promising way for energy carrier because it has fast combustion velocity, the wide range of sources and the cleaning of combustion products. The hydrogen internal combustion engine (HICE) with turbocharger has been used to solve the contradiction of the power density and controlling NOx. However, the selection of the compressor for HICE with turbocharger is very different from the traditional engines because of the gas fuel. Hydrogen as the gas fuel takes the cylinder volume, which will increase the pressure and reduce the mass flow rate of air in the cylinder. Thus, this paper put forward a new method for the HICE with turbocharger taking into account of the effect of hydrogen in the cylinder. This method can calculate the turbocharging pressure ratio and the mass flow rate of air through the target power and the general parameters such as the displacement of cylinder, the intake temperature of hydrogen and the equivalence ratio of the mixture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0693
Seungwoo Kang, Wonkyu Cho, Choongsik Bae, Youngho Kim
This paper investigated the influence of injector nozzle hole number on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engine. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine which is modified from an 1.6L four-cylinder automotive diesel engine. The fuel injection equipment were operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with identical hydraulic flow rate with various combinations of the nozzle hole number(8, 9, and 10) and diameter(105 μm, 100 μm, 95 μm) were compared. The indicated specific fuel consumption and NOx emission of three injectors were on same level because of the identical fuel flow rates and similar in-cylinder pressure traces. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission were lower with larger nozzle hole number. However, the NOx-PM trade-off were similar at low oxygen concentration with high EGR rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1075
Wen Chen, Reda Adimi, Xingfu Chen, Todd Brewer, Ling Shi
In CAE analysis of cylinder bore distortion, valve seat distortion, valve guide-to-seat misalignment and cam bore misalignment, nodal displacements on the cylinder bore inner surface and on the gage lines of valve seats, valve guides and cam bores are typically output. Best fit cylinders, best fit circles and best fit lines are computed by utilizing the output displacements of the deformed configuration. Based on the information of the best fit geometry, distortions and misalignments are assessed. Some commercial and in-house software is available to compute the best fit cylinders, best fit circles and best fit lines. However, they suffer from the drawback that only one best-fit geometry can be computed at a time. For example, in the valve seat distortion analysis of a typical 4-cylinder, 4-valve engine, 16 best fit circles are needed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0323
Rosa Radovanovic, Samuel J. Tomlinson
Press-in-place gasket stability is required to maintain consistent and predictive sealing compression in a sealing joint utilizing a housing groove and a mating component sealing surface. Without proper balance between height of the groove and height of the gasket, the sealing joint can be compromised. It is industry standard to balance design variables with the desire to achieve long term sealability and gasket stability. The percent of gasket out of groove was varied to study the interactions of the design control and the resultant deviation of gasket centerline to the groove centerline. Finally, an optimal percentage of gasket out of groove is recommended.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0250
Jizhou Zhang, Jianhua Zhou, Mian LI, Min Xu
To improve the system performance, precision manufacturing is required for production of the internal combustion engines (ICEs), a typical complex nonlinear system. Previous studies show that tolerances of critical dimensions have significant impacts on the engine performance. Among many critical factors, friction loss is one of the most important ones that affect the output performance of ICEs. It is necessary to recognize and control the tolerances which affect the friction loss. Of all the friction pairs for the engine, it is observed that the piston-cylinder friction pair and the bearing system take up nearly 70% of the total friction loss. In this work a novel multi-objective tolerance design optimization problem considering two friction systems mentioned above is proposed and solved. First two separated simulation models, the piston-cylinder and the bearing are built using AVL Excite Piston & Ring® and AVL Excite Power Unit®, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0543
Oliver Hofmann, Shijin Han, Daniel Rixen
This study discusses model-based injection rate estimation in common rail diesel injectors exhibiting aging phenomena. Since they result in unexpected injection behavior, aging effects like coking or cavitation may impair combustion performance, which justifies the need for new modeling and estimation approaches. To predict injection characteristics, a simulation model for the bottom section of the injector is introduced, with a main focus on modeling the hydraulic components. Using rail pressure and control piston lift as inputs, a reduced model is then derived in state-space representation, which may be used for the application of an observer in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environments. Both models are compared and validated with experimental data, with which they show good agreement. Aging efects and nozzle wear, which result in model uncertainties, are considered using a fault model in combination with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) observer scheme.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0244
Joshua Lyon, Junheung Park, Yakov Fradkin, Jeff Tornabene
This paper describes a tool developed by Ford Motor Company to help business analysts revise sourcing plans when business conditions change. A common scenario is demand increasing beyond installed capacity – how should the business respond? Likewise, how should production change when demand is lower than expected? Sometimes the company can move production to different locations or outsource parts in order to reduce costs. This paper focuses on making such decisions for stamped sheet-metal parts. We describe an optimization tool used to periodically reassess where to stamp parts. The tool uses mathematical optimization to balance logistic and outsourcing costs. An important component is the user interface, which allows stamping experts to adjust the model in real time to reflect different constraints and competing objectives. This allows the algorithm to efficiently seek alternative solutions while the business expert guides for nuances that may be hard to represent mathematically.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0366
Xingyu Liang, Yuesen Wang, Shuhe Huang, Guichun Yang, Lin Tang, Guoqi Cui
Due to the mechanical forces under high temperature and pressure conditions, the engine cylinders cross section will not be a round circle any more once they are installed. Therefore, both static and dynamic conditions can change the geometry of the cylinders. On the other hand, deformation of engine cylinder causes increasing lubricating oil consumption and abnormal wear, resulting of worse fuel economy and emissions. However, prediction of deformation on a liner has not been made because of the complication of conditions and structure. In this study, a V6 engine body model was built and meshed with Hypermesh suit software. Also, cylinder deformation under static condition has been simulated and analyzed. Basically, few parameters like pre-tightened force, structure and distribution of bolts have been investigated to figure out how the cylinder bore deformation behaves via finite element analysis. Also, a simple Matlab program had been developed to process the data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0387
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Shanmugam Mathaiya, V Srinivasa Chandra
In today's commercial vehicle scenario, designing and developing a component which will never fail throughout its lifespan is next to impossible. For a long time especially in the field of automotive, any crack initiation shall deem the component as failed and the design requires further modification. This paper deals with studying the failure of one such component and understanding the effect the crack has on the overall life of the component i.e. understanding the remnant life of the component. The component under study was gear shift lever bracket and is mounted on the engine exhaust manifold. It experiences two types of loads: inertial load due to the engine vibration and gear shift load. Frequent failures were observed in the field and in order to simulate it at lab, an accelerated test approach was adopted. The engine operating speed was used to identify the possible excitation frequency which the component might experience.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1709
Zhigang Wei, Sarat Das, Ryan Barr, Greg Rohrs, Robert Rebandt, Xiao Wu, HongTae Kang
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0860
PengBo Dong, Jun Yamauchi, Keiya Nishida, Youichi Ogata
With the aim of improving engine performance, recent trend of fuel injection nozzle design followed by engineers and researchers is focusing on more efficient fuel break up, atomization, and fuel evaporation. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize the effect of nozzle geometric design on fuel internal flow dynamics and the consequent fuel-air mixture properties. In this study, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by the practical multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles with different nozzle hole length and hole diameter were investigated in conjunction with a series of computational and experimental methods. Specifically, the CFD commercial code was used to predict the internal flow variation inside different nozzle configurations, and the high-speed video observation method was applied to visualize the spray evolution processes under non-evaporating conditions. Moreover, the Laser Absorption Scattering method was implemented to explore the spray evaporation characteristics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving mechanisms and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which, as a result, impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity of the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via bus bars that are electrically welded, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1240
Koki Matsushita
Demands for improving fuel economy and reducing carbon dioxide emmision in automobiles have been increasing rapidly. Since the ratio of alternator loss to entire loss of automobile is high, reducing the alternator loss is effective for fuel economy improvement. The alternator loss consists of three main losses; copper loss, iron loss and rectification loss. Above all, the ratio of rectification loss to the alternator loss, which is approximately 30%, is relatively high. DENSO has developed “MOS rectifier” to reduce the rectification loss. The MOS rectifier is a commutating device which has MOSFETs as rectifying devices instead of diodes. The MOS rectifier contributes to fuel economy improvement of automobiles by reducing rectification loss with low On-Resistance(Ron) MOSFET. Since the MOS rectifier is exposed to severe temperature environment from -40 °C to 120 °C, temperature stress on solder and Aluminium wire is large.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0188
Yoichiro Higuchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Zhiwei Shan, Mikiharu Kuwahara, Yoshiharu Endo, Yuha Nakajima
As vehicle emission regulations become increasingly rigorous, the automotive industry is accelerating the development of electrified vehicle platforms such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Since the available waste heat from these vehicles is limited, additional heat sources such as electric heaters are needed for cabin heating operation. However, using electric heaters for winter heating may consume more than 50% of vehicle’s total energy usage which results in less available energy for driving and significant reduction of the driving range of electric vehicles. Use of a heat pump is a solution to improve EV driving range at cold ambient. However prior-art heat pump systems still need the assistance of electric heaters at very cold ambient conditions and for dehumidification operations, which increases system cost and reduces the benefits of heat pump systems.
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