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2017-12-04 ...
  • December 4-6, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Starting with a look at the transmission's primary function -- to couple the engine to the driveline and provide torque ratios between the two -- this updated and expanded seminar covers the latest transmission systems designed to achieve the most efficient engine operation. Current designs, the components and sub-systems used, their functional modes, how they operate, and the inter-relationships will be discussed. A manual transmission display will be used to explain ratios and how they function within the driveline.
2017-11-01
Event
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2358
Michael P Gahagan
The automotive transmission market has seen an increase in the number of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and forecasts predict additional growth. In HEVs, the hybrid drivetrain hardware can combine electric motor, clutches, gearbox, electro-hydraulics and the control unit. In HEV hardware the transmission fluid can be designed to be in contact with an integrated electric motor. One transmission type well-suited to such hybridization is the increasingly utilized dual clutch transmission (DCT), where a lubricating fluid is in contact with the complete motor assembly as well as the DCT driveline architecture. This includes its electrics, and therefore raises questions around the suitability of standard transmission fluids in such an application. This therefore drives the need for further understanding of fluid electrical properties in addition to the more usually studied engineering hardware electrical properties.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2355
Yungwan Kwak, Christopher Cleveland
Due to its simplicity and fuel economy benefit, continuously variable transmission (CVT) technology has gained a lot of attention in recent years. Market penetration of CVT technology is increasing rapidly compared to step-type automatic transmission technology. OEMs, Tier 1 suppliers, and lubricant suppliers are working to further improve the fuel economy benefit of CVTs. As a lubricant supplier, Afton Chemical Corporation has dedicated significant resources to understand the effects of fluid properties on CVT fuel economy. We have formulated fluids that had KV100 ranges from 3 cSt to 8 cSt with various types and viscosities of base oils. Wide ranges of viscosity indexes, steel-on-steel friction, and other properties were tested. Full vehicle fuel economy tests revealed that there was more than 3% overall variation compared to a reference fluid. Tests were performed in a temperature controlled environment with a robotic driver.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2441
Zhao Ding, Li Chen, Chengliang Yin, Jian Yao, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie
Rotating clutch play an important role in automatic transmission (AT), dual-clutch transmission (DCT) and hybrid transmission. Actuator simplification, cost reduction and control effects improvement is very important to improve the competitiveness of a transmission. An alternative concept of electrical motor driven actuation using a wedge mechanism, a wedge clutch, demonstrates potential benefits. This wedge clutch has the characteristics of good mechanical advantage, self-reinforcement, and faster and more precise controllability using electrical motor. In this paper, a new rotating wedge clutch is proposed. It presents a challenge since motor actuator has to be stationary while the clutch piston is rotating. A new mechanism to connect the motor to the wedge piston, including dual-plane bearings and two mechanical ramp linkages, is studied. The design and verification of the physical structure of the actuator are discussed in detail in the paper.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2435
Jian Ji, BoZhou He, Lei Yuan
It is well-known that, compared with automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmission (CVT) shows advantages in fuel saving due to its continuous shift manner, since this feature enables the engine to operate in the efficiency-optimized region. However, as the AT gear number increases and the ratio gap narrows, this advantage of CVT is challenged. In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy for a CVT based vehicle and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based vehicle is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT based vehicles are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy, respectively. For the 9-speed AT, an optimal gear shift map is constructed. With this gear shift map, the optimal gear is selected as vehicle velocity and driving condition vary.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2439
Srinivasan Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
Poor clutch life is a major issue for some light commercial vehicle models. Clutch overheating is the primary cause for clutch failure. Some of the reasons include inappropriate gear selection by the driver, poor low-end dynamic torque availability from an engine, heavy stop and go traffic, vehicle overloading resulting in excessive clutch slippage especially in gradients, riding of the clutch pedal by the customer etc. These situations lead to a high thermal energy dissipation at the clutch, increasing clutch wear and in extreme conditions leading to not only poor shift quality but also eventual clutch failure. Unfortunately, it is not practical to monitor clutch temperature in a production vehicle due to high costs or technical challenges involved. This paper describes 1-D thermal modeling of single plate dry clutch typically used in passenger car/truck and bus applications. The objective of simulation is to estimate the temperature rise on the clutch facing and clutch housing.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2443
Ziwang Lu, Hongxu Chen, Lijun Wang, Guangyu Tian
During the engaging process of sleeve and teeth ring in mechanical transmissions, their rotational speed and position differences cause multiple engaging ways and trajectories, and casual impacts between them will delay the engaging process and cause a long power off time for a gear shift. In order to reveal the engaging mechanism of the sleeve and the teeth ring, it is essential to build a high-fidelity model to cover all of their engaging ways and capture their speed changes for an impact. In this work, our contribution is that their impact process is modeled as a precise, continuous and nonlinear damping model, and then a hybrid automaton model is built to connect the system dynamics in different mechanical coupling relationships.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2205
Velmurugan M A, MahendraMohan Rajagopal
Agricultural tractors are often subjected to various applications like front end loading work, cultivation work, where frequent forward and reverse gears are needed. Most of Indian agricultural tractors are equipped with mechanical transmission system which demands repeated clutching and de-clutching operation for such applications resulting in increased operator fatigue and lesser productivity. Also need of electronics in Indian agricultural industry for better farm mechanization is growing high. This research work depicts development of electronic bi-directional shifting (power shuttle) control design and calibration for farm vehicle fitted with wet clutch transmission.This research also reduces operator fatigue via frequent directional shift through electronic transmission. The control system is designed without any electronic interfacing with engine and also provides clutch-less gear shifting and auto-launch which offers ease to drive even for novice driver.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2437
Renjith S, Vinod Kumar Srinivasa, Umesh Venkateshaiah
The jet lubrication method is extensively used in the constant mesh high performance transmission system operating at range of speeds though it affects mechanical efficiency through spin power loss. The lubrication jet has a key role to maintain the meshing gears at non-fatal thermal equilibrium by effectively dissipating the heat generated to the surrounding. Heat Transfer coefficient (HTC) is the indicator of the thermal behavior of the system, which provides great insight of efficient lubrication system that needs to be employed for prescribed type of transmission. 1D and 3D simulations are of countless value in optimizing the automotive power train transmission system performance parameters. Thermal performance prediction of the jet lubricated transmission system through 3D CFD analysis is quite comprehensive task compared to 1D analysis. Both 1D and 3D methods complement each other to great extent in design process and one such exercise is demonstrated in the current activity.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2434
Srinivasan Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2445
Santosh Deshmane, Onkar P. Gurav, Vipul Sahu
Today's automotive industry is facing cut throat competition, especially in passenger vehicle business. Manufacturers around the globe are developing innovative and new products keeping focus on end customer; thus customer's opinion and perception about the product has become a factor of prime importance. Customer touch points such as gear shift lever, clutch, brakes, steering etc. are thus gaining more and more importance. Car companies are trying to induce more and more luxuries in these touch points so that they impress customer and create a positive opinion about the product. On the other hand manufacturers are also trying to manage profits. Companies thus need to find the best fit solution for improvising customer touch points with optimized costs. The performance of these touch points is driven by subsystems of mechanical components like mechanical linkage.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2436
Santosh Deshmane, Onkar Gangvekar, Samson Rajakumar
In today’s competitive automobile market, driver comfort is at utmost importance and the bar is being raised continuously. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gear can result into customer dissatisfaction and will impact the brand image. While there are continual efforts being taken by most of the car manufactures, “Double Bump” in gear shift has still remained as a pain area and impact severely on the shift feel. This is more prominent in N-S transmissions. In this paper ‘Double Bump’ is a focus area and a mathematical / analytical approach is demonstrated by analyzing ‘impacting parameters’ and establishing their co-relation with double bump. Additionally, the results are also verified with a simulation model.
2017-10-04
Event
2017-10-03 ...
  • October 3-12, 2017 (4 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) technology is both a theoretical and practical option that addresses a number of system level improvement opportunities within the automotive and mobility industries. Although this technology has been available for many years and is now fully matured as a production ready technology, it is often not fully understood. This web seminar presents a focused view of CVT technology in all its forms and implementations.
2017-09-25 ...
  • September 25-26, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
An efficient, robust, and quiet running drivetrain is as essential to customer satisfaction as styling and interior creature comforts. In this seminar, you will be exposed to various methods that can be used to accomplish this goal. Designed to help you visualize both individual components and the entire drivetrain system - without reference to complicated equations - this seminar focuses on the terms, functions, nomenclature, operating characteristics and effect on vehicle performance for each of the drivetrain components.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2124
Violet Leavers
Within the aviation industry the analysis of wear debris particles recovered from magnetic plugs and lubricating fluids is an essential condition monitoring tool. However, in large organisations, high staff turnover in remote work environments often leaves dangerous gaps in on-site support and background knowledge. The current work seeks to bridge those gaps by developing interactive software dedicated to wear debris particle classification, root cause diagnosis and serviceability prognostics. During the research several hundred wear debris particle images were collected, analysed and classified. Each image was analyzed by a number of experts and at each stage of the analysis the experts were questioned about the knowledge and experience used to make their diagnoses and prognoses. The end result is the compilation of an extensive knowledge base representing the combined expertise of a number of highly trained engineers, each with decades of hands-on experience.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2123
Violet Leavers
The need to maintain aircraft in remote, harsh environments poses significant challenges for on-site condition monitoring. For example, in desert assignments or on-board ships, frequent rotation of staff with variable levels of skill requires condition monitoring equipment that is not only robust and portable but also user friendly and requiring a minimum of training to set up and use correctly. The mainstays of any on-site aerospace maintenance program are various fluid and particulate condition monitoring tests that convey information about the current mechanical state of the system. In the front line of these is the collection and analysis of wear debris particles retrieved from a component’s lubricating or power transmission fluid or from magnetic plugs. It is standard practice within the specialist laboratory environment to view and image wear debris using a microscope.
2017-09-06
Event
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0172
Haijun Chen, Lin Li, Mark Schudeleit, Andreas Lange, Ferit Küçükay, Christian Stamme, Peter Eilts
Abstract In view of the rapidly increasing complexity of conventional as well as hybrid powertrains, a systematic composition platform seeking for the global optimum powertrain is presented in this paper. The platform can be mainly divided into three parts: the synthesis of the transmission, the synthesis of the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the optimization and evaluation of the entire powertrain. In regard to the synthesis of transmission concepts, a systematical and computer-aided tool suitable both for conventional und hybrid transmissions is developed. With this tool, all the potential transmission concepts, which can realize the desired driving modes or ratios, can be synthesized based on the vehicle data and requirements.
CURRENT
2017-08-15
Standard
J1608_201708
Provide standard shift pattern guidelines for manual transmission shift controls in light, medium, and heavy trucks and buses.
2017-08-14
WIP Standard
J2555
This SAE Standard describes a procedure to be used to evaluate a disturbance known as "idle gear rattle" which can exist in vehicles equipped with manual transmissions and clutches. Other types of noises associated with operation at idle are also briefly described. This SAE Standard defines a procedure, which can be used to obtain meaningful standardized comparisons of idle gear rattle among several vehicles. The procedure can be used in evaluating field complaints in current model vehicles or it can be used in the development of future models. The purpose is to promote commonization of the procedure and results.
2017-08-14
WIP Standard
J2606
Drain and Fill plugs used on engines, transmissions, transfer cases and front and rear drive axles for class 5 - 8 vehicles. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish and maintain a common plug, for various bus and truck powertrain components, among the various manufacturers. This will allow OEM manufacturing facilities and service outlets to utilize common plugs and common tools for oil fill and drain operations.
2017-08-14
WIP Standard
J2469
Although not limited to, these installations are normally used on trucks considered as Medium Duty (Class 6 and 7), as well as Heavy Duty (Class 8). This SAE Recommended Practice defines powertrain application startability rating requirements for pull type single and twin plate truck clutches.
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