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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3200
Training / Education
2014-12-02
An efficient, robust, and quiet running drivetrain is as essential to customer satisfaction as styling and interior creature comforts. In this seminar, you will be exposed to various methods that can be used to accomplish this goal. Designed to help you visualize both individual components and the entire drivetrain system - without reference to complicated equations - this seminar focuses on the terms, functions, nomenclature, operating characteristics and effect on vehicle performance for each of the drivetrain components. Attendees will receive an introduction to the various components of the drivetrain, including the clutch or torque converter, manual or automatic transmission, driveshaft, axle, wheel ends, and brakes. This course also provides insight into: the structure and function of each component; vehicle integration; and related noise, vibration and harshness issues. You will be equipped to evaluate the space requirements, mounting needs, clearances required, and effect on vehicle response for each component.
Training / Education
2014-10-07
This seminar is designed to provide gear novices with a general understanding of gear nomenclature, geometry, and arrangements. Starting with the basic definition of gears, conjugate motion and the "Laws of Gearing", you will gain a solid understanding of gearing and the fundamentals of rotary motion transfer through gear-trains. Gear classifications, tooth forms and geometry, and very high-level application considerations, manufacturing processes, and inspection techniques will be covered. Attendees will receive a copy of the book, Gear Design Simplified, by Franklin D. Jones & Henry H. Ryffel.
Training / Education
2014-08-20
A comprehensive and practical understanding of planetary gear trains is critical for individuals involved with the design and development of automatic transmissions. A key component of the automatic transmission system, the planetary gear train is able to deliver reliable gains in power, durability, higher torque-to-weight ratios, and configuration flexibility. This two-day seminar will provide participants an advanced and comprehensive presentation on the topics of planetary gear train design, development, and applications for automatic transmissions. The instructor will guide participants through an increasingly complex set of topics including planetary gear train requirements, case study, and future trends in advanced transmission design and development.
Training / Education
2014-08-19
The planetary gear train is a core component of the automatic transmission system. The ability of the planetary gear train to deliver reliable gains in power, durability, higher torque-to-weight ratios, and configuration flexibility has enabled this gear set to become a key component of the automotive powertrain. A fundamental understanding of planetary gear trains is critical for individuals working in the automotive and industrial transmission fields. In this introductory one-day seminar on the basic principles of the planetary gear train, the instructor will guide participants through the basic structure and the various types of planetary gear trains. In addition, participants will be introduced to ratio calculation methods, gear train arrangements and power flow, component life estimation, and related NVH issues. Together, the principles and practices presented in this seminar will provide participants a fundamental and practical understanding of this important technology.
Training / Education
2014-07-28
Starting with a look at the transmission's primary function -- to couple the engine to the driveline and provide torque ratios between the two -- this updated and expanded seminar covers the latest transmission systems designed to achieve the most efficient engine operation. Current designs, the components and sub-systems used, their functional modes, how they operate, and the inter-relationships will be discussed. A manual transmission display will be used to explain ratios and how they function within the driveline. Automatic transmission design will illustrate the concept of automatic control and hydro-mechanic decision theory and implementation. Attendees will have the opportunity to supplement these theoretical concepts with practical, "hands-on" experience using the various transmission models and components provided. Mechatronics, toroidal transmission functions, and the future of the automatic transmission will also be discussed. Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) systems, which represent a fundamental shift in the way power is transmitted from the primary source to the remainder of the driveline will be the focus of in-depth coverage on the third day of this seminar.
Event
2014-05-28
Event
2014-05-14
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
John O. Manyala, Todd W. Fritz
Electro-hydraulic actuated systems are widely used in industrial applications due to high torque density, higher speeds and wide bandwidth operation. However, the complexities and the parametric uncertainties of the hydraulic actuated systems pose challenges in establishing analytical mathematical models. Unlike electro-mechanical and pneumatic systems, the nonlinear dynamics due to dead band, hysteresis, nonlinear pressure flow relations, leakages and friction affects the pressure sensitivity and flow gain by altering the system's transient response, which can introduce asymmetric oscillatory behavior and a lag in the system response. The parametric uncertainties make it imperative to have condition monitoring with in-built diagnostics capability. Timely faults detection and isolation can help mitigate catastrophic failures. This paper presents a signal-based fault diagnostic scheme for a gearbox hydraulic actuator leakage detection using the wavelet transform. The novelty of the work is the development of a high fidelity leakage fault detection as low as 0.128 lit/min.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Byeong wook Jeon, Sang-Hwan Kim
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway). After each event, participants were asked to complete the rating of the four descriptive terms as well as a comprehensive rating on the gear-shifting event.
Event
2014-04-23
Standard
2014-04-16
This SAE Standard specifies the major dimensions and tolerances for Engine Flywheel Housings and the Mating Transmission Housing Flanges. It also locates the crankshaft flange face or the transmission pilot bore (or pilot bearing bore) stop face in relation to housing SAE flange face. This document is not intended to cover the design of the flywheel housing face mating with the engine crankcase rear face or the design of housing walls and ribs. Housing strength analysis and the selection of housing materials are also excluded. This document applies to any internal combustion engine which can utilize SAE No. 6 through SAE No. 00 size flywheel housing for mounting a transmission.
Event
2014-04-10
This session focuses on mechanical and hydro-mechanical models of SI and CI engines, including system-level models for vehicle fuel economy and emission prediction.
Event
2014-04-09
Event
2014-04-09
This Session includes papers on IVT/CVT systems and related topics.
Event
2014-04-09
This session deals with papers on automotive transmissions of different types, their enhancements and controls.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hiroko Ohtani, Khaled Zreik, Edgar Steigerwald, Martin Knaffel, Robert Neumann, Gordon P. Small, Gregory Mordukhovich, Tracey E. King
Under the initiative of The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR) [1], we have developed and run comprehensive friction tests of dual clutch transmission fluids (DCTFs). The focus of this study is to quantify the anti-shudder durability over a simulated oil life of 75,000 shifts. We have evaluated six DCT fluids, including 2 fluids with known field shudder performance. Six different tests were conducted using a DC motor-driven friction test machine (GK test bench): 1. Force Controlled Continuous Slip, 2. Dynamic Friction, 3. Speed controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 4. Motor-torque controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 5. Static Friction, and 6. Static Break-Away. The test fluids were aged (with the clutch system) on the test bench to create a realistic aging of the entire friction system simultaneously. The Force Controlled Continuous Slip mode has demonstrated a correlation with anti-shudder performance in the field, whereas other tests revealed important properties such as torque capacity and shift qualities.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Darrell Robinette
This paper presents a methodology to represent automatic transmission clutch-to-clutch shift dynamics with a two degree of freedom, lumped inertia model. The method of reducing the automatic transmission to a lumped, two inertia model as a function of shift and input shaft acceleration is detailed using a full kinematic representation of the automatic transmission. For a given clutch-to-clutch shift maneuver there are two dependent equations that utilize the two lumped inertias and represent the response of the transmission system from input to output shaft. Applicability of the method is shown for planetary automatic and layshaft dual clutch transmissions. Typical clutch-to-clutch shift maneuvers are illustrated with the two inertia model for power on upshifts and downshifts. The simplification of automatic transmission shift dynamics using this method enables rapid synthesis of a given transmission powerflow for estimation of shift quality potential, required clutching torques, inertia phase engine torque intervention and output torque through all phases of a shift event.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matija Hoic, Nenad Kranjcevic, Zvonko Herold, Josko Deur, Vladimir Ivanovic
Clutch wear is dominantly manifested as the reduction of friction plate thickness. For dry dual clutch with position-controlled electromechanical actuators this affects the accuracy of normal force control because of the increased clutch clearance. In order to compensate for the wear, dry dual clutch is equipped with wear compensation mechanism. The paper presents results of experimental characterization and mathematical modeling of two clutch wear related effects. The first one is the decrease of clutch friction plate thickness (i.e. increase of clutch clearance) which is described using friction material wear rate experimentally characterized using a pin-on-disc type tribometer test rig. The second wear related effect, namely the influence of the clutch wear compensation mechanism activation at various stages of clutch wear on main clutch characteristics, was experimentally characterized using a clutch test rig which incorporates entire clutch with related bell housing. Finally, the previously proposed and experimentally validated physical clutch model, which was focused on the clutch actuator and axial dynamics, is extended to capture both wear related effects as a further step towards a more comprehensive overall clutch dynamics model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jinning Li, Fan Luo, Yong Luo, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
Abstract This paper presents the dynamic and analysis models of a typical synchronizer, which are mainly used to analyze the sensitivity of parameters of synchronizer on the gear shift performance. Because there are so many parameters namely coefficient of friction, cone angle, mean radius, blocker angle, etc, affected the synchronizer performance, which the times of experience will increase in a geometrical ratio if tested them one by one, it is almost impossible to evaluate all parameters by experience alone. Due to virtual prototype technology, the synchronizer parameterized virtual models can be built for the synchronizer studies. The parameterized virtual models of the typical synchronizers are developed with ADAMS. Then the gear shift process is simulated and analyzed for the given input parameters respectively. The models also predict the shift time and the peak of the shift force, and the model is validated by the good correlation between simulation results and test data. Finally, this paper discusses the influence of the main parameters of synchronizer on the gear shift performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yashodhan V. Joshi, Jordan E. Kelleher
In recent years, the focus on engine parasitic losses has increased as a result of the efforts to increase engine efficiency and reduce greenhouse gasses. The engine gear train, used to time the valve system and drive auxiliary loads, contributes to the overall engine parasitic losses. Anti-backlash gears are often used in engine gear trains to reduce gear rattle noise resulting from the torsional excitation of the gear train by the engine output torque. Friction between sliding surfaces at the gear tooth is a major source of power loss in gear trains. The effect of using anti-backlash gears on the gear friction power loss is not well known. As a part of the effort to reduce parasitic losses, the increase in friction power loss in the Cummins ISX 15 gear train due to the anti-backlash gear was quantitatively determined by modifying the methods given in ISO 14179-2 to fit the anti-backlash gear sub-assembly. A test case with a two gear mesh arrangement was designed for the purpose of validating the analysis by rig testing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joseph Y. Chen
The planetary gear train has been used as a core element for most of automatic transmissions (AT) due to its unique advantages: such as high power density, lower noise level, lower support bearing cost, and easier for mass production, compare to lay shaft or other types. In particularly, when multiple-pinion (MP) arrangement is used to accommodate flexible packaging design specifications. However, the planetary gear train does inherit a critical limit that is the lack of flexibility on gear ratio selection, because it needs to comply with certain constraints on tooth combination to meet gear train installation for assembly, load sharing for durability and phasing arrangement for noise concerns. To fully take the MP advantages for AT transmission applications, while increase the gear ratio selection was the primary motivation that prompted us to seek for some potential solutions on the MP arrangement. This report will provide the method for the proposed approach, and also reveal some of the associated assessment results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yoshiharu Inaguma, Naohito Yoshida
Abstract This article describes the friction torque caused by pushing vanes on a cam contour and its influence on a variation of pump driving torque in a balanced vane pump. In the vane pump, the friction torque of the vane is significant to discuss a variation in the driving torque as well as an improvement in the mechanical efficiency. In this work, the influence of the thickness of a vane and the number of vanes on the friction torque of the vane and their additional effect on the variation in the pump driving torque are theoretically and experimentally investigated. The friction torque of the vane occupies a large part of the total friction torque in the vane pump and strongly depends on the number of vanes existing in a suction area as well as the thickness of the vane. The variation in the pump driving torque is composed of the variation of the ideal torque and that of the friction torque of the vane. The former is determined by vane arrangement in the suction area, and the latter is caused by a change in the number of vanes in the suction area.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gary L. Anderson, Pete G. Imbrogno
Abstract Improved Power Density through Use of Powder-Forged Helical Gears in Transmissions. With the continuing mileage improvement requirements, increasing power density is an important economic consideration in new vehicle design. This paper describes the power density improvement available through reduced grain size and inclusion levels that are typically found in wrought materials. The powder forged process is similar to tool steel manufacturing rather than wrought steel manufacturing in that powder is used to manufacture the gear resulting in smaller inclusions than typically found in wrought steel.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Miguel De la Cruz, Stephanos Theodossiades
Abstract In this paper, a direct correlation between transmission gear rattle experiments and numerical models is presented, particularly focusing on the noise levels (dB) measured from a single gear pair test rig. The rig is placed in a semi-anechoic chamber environment to aid the noise measurements and instrumented with laser vibrometers, accelerometers and free field microphones. The input torsional velocity is provided by an electric motor, which is controlled by a signal generator, aiming to introduce an alternating component onto the otherwise nominal speed; thus, emulating the engine orders found in an internal combustion engine. These harmonic irregularities are conceived to be the triggering factor for gear rattle to occur. Hence, the rig is capable of running under rattling and non-rattling conditions. The numerical model used accounts for the gear pair's torsional dynamics, lubricated impacts between meshing teeth and bearing friction. The results show that rattle is indeed triggered by the governing engine orders present in the transmission's primary input shaft.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Marco Mammetti, Marina Roche Arroyos
Abstract Over recent years IDIADA has developed several prototype electric vehicles as well as testing a number of electric powertrain configurations. Generally the electric motor output shaft delivers the torque to the transmission under a considerable level of high-frequency load variation and with noticeable torque irregularities that must be smoothed out in order to fulfill general NVH targets. This paper deals with the development phase of a prototype vehicle in which a specific testing activity was carried out to improve the overall NVH behavior of the powertrain. For this purpose, the mechanism of energy transference from the current to the motor and from the motor to the downstream driveline components was deeply characterized. The activity was aimed at smoothing the abrupt change in torque delivery and limiting the transfer of torque irregularities from the motor to the transmission. The torque control software calibration and the driveline elements were developed in order to reduce the noise and vibration critical frequency ranges.
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