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Training / Education
2015-08-24
Improved understanding and control of ignition and thereby combustion are critical in dealing with the problems of pollutants formation, engine performance, and fuel economy. This seminar will provide you with basic knowledge and recent advances in combustion-initiation (ignition) issues to more intelligently evaluate and harness their potentials. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanical properties of the unburned charge near the spark plug and at the time of ignition strongly affect the quality of the combustion and therefore the emission of the pollutants from the engine. Furthermore, a weak ignition limits engine performance and drivability.
Event
2015-06-22
This session includes papers in the areas of static, dynamic, and fatigue characterization of elastomers, bushings, mounts and shock absorbers used in the mobility industry. Particular emphasis is given to new and innovative analysis and testing methodologies to quantify the non-linear properties of these systems in addition to the effects of temperature, frequency, and aging. Papers dealing with specific applications and case studies of existing methodologies are also welcome.
Event
2015-06-22
This session is focused on base engine, mounts, accessories, fuel injection system, combustion system, transmission related design or development noise and vibration topics. The papers of this session will have both experimental and analytical approaches to problem solving.
Training / Education
2015-06-08
The advent of digital computers and the availability of ever cheaper and faster micro processors have brought a tremendous amount of control system applications to the automotive industry in the last two decades. From engine and transmission systems, to virtually all chassis subsystems (brakes, suspensions, and steering), some level of computer control is present. Control systems theory is also being applied to comfort systems such as climate control and safety systems such as cruise control or collision mitigation systems. This seminar begins by introducing the highly mathematical field of control systems focusing on what the classical control system tools do and how they can be applied to automotive systems.
Event
2015-03-23
Training / Education
2015-03-23
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components. Specifically, the course will cover heat transfer design considerations related to the following: engine cooling and lubrication systems as well as bay-to-bay breathing; exhaust system and after-treatment components; tail pipe gas temperatures, as well as thermal interactions between the engine and its exhaust system with the components in the vehicle under-hood and under-body; turbochargers; passenger cabin HVAC system, including windshield de-icing; battery cooling; heat exchangers and challenges associated with predicting thermal mechanical fatigue life of components.
Training / Education
2015-03-12
Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.
Event
2014-12-11
Incremental solutions to meet ever-challenging emission regulations are gaining popularity, including start-stop control. This panel will explore start-stop architectures, and develop the benefits and challenges.
Training / Education
2014-12-03
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%. This web seminar will explore turbocharging for gasoline and diesel (heavy and light duty) engines, including the fundamentals of turbocharging, design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Event
2014-11-25
Training / Education
2014-11-20
Engine valvetrain systems have become more capable and increasingly more compact in the quest to improve efficiency. The developments parallel the advancements in other key engine components such as fuel injection or spark systems, turbocharging, aftertreatment, base engine and controls. While the gasoline sector has seen a steady rise in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), Diesel systems have lagged behind and only a few systems have seen production. The level of VVA activity however in the Diesel sector is beginning to increase as tighter regulations of CO2 emissions approach. Valve control plays a strong role in a number of key areas: turbocharger systems, allowing for better optimization matching across wide engine operating flows; enabling advanced combustion strategies where control over the charge mass and temperature are important; and cold start, where valve timing can be extremely effective for engine warm up compared with other strategies that rely on additional fueling.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session are related to design, development and testing of new or innovative electronic controls or control systems for internal combustion engines. Topics may include hardware, software and algorithm/function innovations as well as the associated sensors or actuators employed in the control system. Applications may range from very simple systems for 1-cylinder engines to more complex systems for high-performance or multi-cylinder engines.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session are related to design, development and testing of new or innovative electronic controls or control systems for internal combustion engines. Topics may include hardware, software and algorithm/function innovations as well as the associated sensors or actuators employed in the control system. Applications may range from very simple systems for 1-cylinder engines to more complex systems for high-performance or multi-cylinder engines.
Event
2014-11-19
This session focuses on hardware attached to the engine such as support systems, injectors, EGR valves, manifolds, turbo-chargers, water pumps, and ignition systems.
Event
2014-11-19
This session focuses on hardware attached to the engine such as support systems, injectors, EGR valves, manifolds, turbo-chargers, water pumps, and ignition systems.
Event
2014-11-18
Papers in this session are related to design, development and testing of new or innovative electronic controls or control systems for internal combustion engines. Topics may include hardware, software and algorithm/function innovations as well as the associated sensors or actuators employed in the control system. Applications may range from very simple systems for 1-cylinder engines to more complex systems for high-performance or multi-cylinder engines.
Event
2014-11-18
Papers in this session are related to design, development and testing of new or innovative electronic controls or control systems for internal combustion engines. Topics may include hardware, software and algorithm/function innovations as well as the associated sensors or actuators employed in the control system. Applications may range from very simple systems for 1-cylinder engines to more complex systems for high-performance or multi-cylinder engines.
Event
2014-11-18
Papers in this session are related to design, development and testing of new or innovative electronic controls or control systems for internal combustion engines. Topics may include hardware, software and algorithm/function innovations as well as the associated sensors or actuators employed in the control system. Applications may range from very simple systems for 1-cylinder engines to more complex systems for high-performance or multi-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Fosaaen
Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost. The performance of a novel low-cost, low-power narrow-band oxygen sensor was compared with several automotive as well as newer oxygen sensors developed for the small engine market.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Fosaaen
Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost. In this study, a sub-miniature resistance-based narrowband oxygen sensor was developed and its response to various exhaust lambda values was characterized at various temperatures.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giuseppe Danilo Rossi, Sara Gronchi, Matteo Gasperini, Bernardo Celata, Raffaele Squarcini
Electrical oil pumps are used in order to reduce the engine car emissions thanks to the optimization of the absorbed energy and motor efficiency. The present trend to obtain this improvement of the motor efficiency is the electrification of the auxiliary components that can be driven independently from the engine shaft. In this field, the electrical oil pumps are one of the most required components used for automatic transmissions as well as for the main lubrication system. An electrical oil pump is driven by an electric motor with its electronic control system. The electric motor should generate an available torque higher than the total torque requested by the hydraulic mechanism, to allow the pump generating the expected performances. The pump type has been chosen thanks to PPT experience in the development of hydraulic pumps, the “G-rotor” solution, which is a particular shape of gears, is the best compromise in terms of noise, dimensions, robustness and packaging. In order to design an optimized electrical oil pump it is important to evaluate the absorbed torque by the hydraulic mechanism.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Tetsuya Osakabe
As gasoline prices have crept up in recent years, demand for higher fuel efficiency has increased also for motorcycles. Growing attention has been paid to how we can comprehensively improve fuel efficiency by raising the efficiency of the generator and other auxiliary equipment. This paper describes how we improved the power generation efficiency of a single-phase motorcycle generator of outer-rotor type by reducing electric losses (i.e. iron loss and copper loss) and improving magnetic flux through electromagnetic field analysis. Through electromagnetic field analysis, we first distinguished iron loss and copper loss. Then, focusing on the iron loss that we found inferiority, we modified the thickness and material of the stator core and improved power generation efficiency. Another source of iron loss was the non-magnetic protection cover of the magnets in the rotor. We reduced iron loss by drilling holes of that cover into where the magnet and the stator core faced each other and the magnetic flux passed through.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Lakshmy Neela, Klaus Grambichler
Automotive Magnetic Sensor market is expanding day by day serving a lot of automotive applications. Crankshaft sensors are mainly used to monitor the position or rotational speed of the crankshaft, thereby controlling the ignition system timing and enabling misfire detection. Passive VR (Variable Reluctance) sensor and Active Hall effect sensor are the two commonly used low cost sensors in automotive crankshaft applications. An extensive research regarding the functional and physical attributes of both sensor technologies (incorporating innovative designs and different application scenarios) has been performed providing a wide overview of the benefits and ill-effects of both the technologies and a comprehensive guide for customers in sensor selection. Cost is an important factor driving today’s automotive market. Comparison of overall costs of active and passive systems starting with the sensing element, additional circuitry for signal shaping till package and assembly process from system level has been studied in detail.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Klaus Stuhlmüller
In a microcontroller-operated ignition process, the combustion is dependent on three important criteria: Spark burn duration, ignition voltage, and ignition spark energy. These criteria must be adapted exactly to the engine's individual requirement profile to ensure optimal combustion. In each operating state and operating environment, optimum ignition is ensured by continuously analyzing sensor values. Engine manufacturers continue to be faced with the challenge of ensuring that the machine runs as smoothly and quietly as possible. Increased spark duration and higher energy of the ignition spark enable improved combustion of the gasoline-air mixture in the combustion compartment. This article describes an electrical ignition process using an array of multiple coils and a magnetic generator that is rotating in sync with the machine. During this process the magnetic field temporarily flows through the coils and generates a sequence of magnetic flow variations per rotation. This induces corresponding half-waves of alternating voltage in the coils of the ignition module.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Henning Heikes, Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Jürgen Berkemer, Thorsten Raatz, Wolfgang Fischer
Cost reduction of engine management systems (EMS) for two-wheeler applications is the key to utilize their potentials compared to carburetor bikes regarding emissions, fuel economy and system robustness. In order to reduce the costs of a system with port fuel injection (PFI) Bosch is developing an EMS without a manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor. The pressure sensor is usually used to compensate for different influences on the air mass, which cannot be detected via the throttle position sensor (TPS) and mean engine speed. Such influences are different leakage rates of the throttle body and changing ambient conditions like air pressure. Bosch has shown in the past that a virtual sensor relying on model based evaluation of engine speed can be used for a detection of leakage air mass in idling to improve the pre-control of the air-fuel ratio. This provides a functionality which so far was only possible with an intake pressure sensor. In this paper the air mass calculated from the model based engine speed evaluation is used to adapt the influence of ambient pressure changes e.g. because of different altitudes.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Danilo D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta Panza
In the present work, an Auto Regressive (AR) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of an internal combustion engine, for knock detection purposes. To this aim, vibrational signals are acquired on a four cylinder Spark Ignition engine for different engine speeds and spark advances. The same analysis is executed by also using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index, applied on the in-cylinder pressure waveforms. The results of the three methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology. In particular, the problem of fixing a constant threshold level for each running condition is afforded and solved. The examples presented show the capability of the vibration based detection algorithms in accurately monitor the presence of heavy or soft knock phenomena, and to determine its intensity. Therefore, the possibility of implementation in modern on-board control units is foreseen, as well.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuta Kugimachi, Yusuke Nakamura, Norimasa Iida
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has several advantages of high thermal efficiency and low emission over the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engine and Compression Ignition (CI) engine. Although one way to achieve higher loads without knocking in HCCI engine is the combustion phasing retard, it is difficult to control a combustion-phasing since there is no external combustion trigger for controlling ignition like spark ignition and diesel fuel injection. Futhermore, recent researches show that too much combustion-phasing retard leads to unacceptable cycle-to-cycle variation of Pressure Rise Rate (PRR) and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP). Therefore, it is necessary to construct a HCCI combustion control system to control a combustion-phasing at constant phasing in the expansion stroke accurately to get the high load without knocking. This study investigates the HCCI combustion control system and the algorithm as a means of extending the limit of IMEP of HCCI combustion at high load for realize HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jens Steinmill, Ralf Struzyna
Authors: Dipl.-Ing. Jens Steinmill, Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Struzyna, Prof.Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Eifler Department for Combustion Engines, Ruhr-University Bochum , D-44801 Bochum, Germany Contact: e-mail: Jens.Steinmill@rub.de | phone: +49234-3227404 | fax: +49234-3207404 The control and regulation of internal combustion engines for use in nano-CHP units has not yet reached the state of the art, which is common in the automotive industry. Frequently, the engines are operated in a stationary operating point without adjustment of the combustion process. In the automotive sector is the torque structure prior art. The requested torque by driver, which is derived from the accelerator pedal position is coordinated with the other torque requests and converted in the simplest case, into a desired air-charge, ignition angle and amount of fuel. The actuators on the engine, for example, Throttle, ignition and injectors are triggered. At a nano-CHP unit, the target size of the motor controller is is not mechanical torque, but thermal and mechanical power.
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