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2015-09-24 ...
  • September 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Rapid advances have been made in the range of available designs and operational parameters as well as in the fundamental understanding of compact heat exchangers (CHEs). Since the majority of modern heat exchangers used for heating and cooling systems for vehicular applications are CHEs, keeping up to date with these advances is essential. This seminar will help you understand and be able to apply comprehensive information about the intricacies of CHE design, performance, operating problems and state-of-the-art-technology for car and truck applications.
2015-04-27 ...
  • April 27-May 8, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 5-16, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Vehicle functional requirements, diesel emission regulations, and subsystem thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, fouling, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges to the designer. This web seminar introduces many airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance and drive the design. The goal of this six-session course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of diesel cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
2015-03-12 ...
  • March 12-13, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0053
Chandrakant Awate, Jayesh Zadokar, Sanjay Patel, Anay Malaviya, Vinti Arora
With ever increasing population growth and increase in per capita income, put lots of demand on energy requirements. On the other side depletion in fossil fuel, rocketing fuel prices and as we move ever closer to the 2021 fuel economy targets and CO2 emissions standards, it is imperative to find solutions which are cost-effective and from sustainable energy sources. Being in the tropical region, India has high solar insolation, which can be used for energy generation. This paper describes best possible ways to use solar energy for automotive application. This paper explains various types of photovoltaic (PV) technologies – crystalline and thin film solar cells. A medium sized sedan vehicle with mild hybrid technology and roof mounted PV panel is used for all experiments. Authors describe the benefits and limitations of each PV technology with experimental measurement and payback period analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0063
Jurgen De Kimpe, Serge Lievens, Shengchun Yan
This paper describes the properties of an engine coolant that uses a potassium propionate solution as base fluid. Although alternatives for ethylene glycol are known, e.g. propylene glycol and glycerin, the use of a salt based coolant for high temperature applications has seldom been considered as a viable option due to the intrinsic corrosiveness of such salt solutions. The salt based coolant offers freezing as well as boiling protection and has thermal properties that allow for usage in standard combustion engines. Volumetric heat capacity and viscosity are very similar to glycol based analogues, while its thermal conductive is substantially higher. Thermal experiments indicate that the potassium propionate coolant is highly effective in suppressing localized boiling phenomena. Due to its chemical nature the coolant has superior oxidation stability. The coolant has the further advantage of being readily biodegradable and has a low toxicity.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0137
Himanshu Agrawal, Abhishek Arun Kakade, Arun Kumar Singh, Sandeep N Shetty
Fan is generally used for cooling of alternator and an undesirable side effect of these fans is generation of flow induced noise. With stricter regulations and growing importance on acoustic comfort in present day market, its very important for companies to address flow induced noise problems early in product development stage. With physical testing, it would not be possible to get information on source strengths thus, limiting its usage. Whereas simulation on the other hand would be able to provide source strengths, directivity pattern and source ranking. This paper focuses on numerical simulation of alternator’s fan for prediction of air- borne noise. For this purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based transient analysis is performed with high fidelity turbulence model using commercial software package, ANSYS Fluent. Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) model is used for modeling sound propagation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0194
Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
An expansion tank is an integral part of an automotive engine cooling system. The primary function of an expansion tank is to allow for the thermal expansion of the coolant .The expansion tank will be referred as hot bottle in this paper. Optimization solutions are required during the early product development phase where the bench test data is not available for deciding the flow through the Hot bottle .In the System level modelling of the engine internal flow it is imperative to accurately model and characterize the components in the system. It is often challenging to define the hot bottle accurately with limited parameters in the 1D modelling. If the Hot bottle component is not defined properly in the system network, then the system flow balancing cannot be predicted accurately.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0196
Soujanya C, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Cooling system is one of the important systems of an Engine to maintain the optimum temperatures across engine and its components. Analysis of cooling system at initial phase of product development will help in optimum design of the system. Simulation plays a vital role in optimum design. In the System level simulation it is important to accurately model and discretize the components in the system in order to achieve optimum system level flow balancing and flow prediction. As engine coolant jacket is the major contributor of pressure drop in cooling system, its modelling strategy will have high influence on results predictions across the system. Simulation of engine cooling system with Split engine coolant water jacket is challenging. It is difficult to achieve the simulation results close to bench test due to complexity of the system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0199
Parandhamaiah Gorre, Pln Prasad, Kantha Mekala, Mansinh Kumbhar
In vehicle Front End Flow (FEF) analysis, the basic objective is to predict the mass flow/velocity of air at radiator inlet with constant fan rotation. In general, the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model is used to model the fan. The flow velocity distribution at radiator inlet due to fan rotation should be uniform in circumferential direction whereas it should vary in radial direction depending upon the blade geometry. But the drawback with MRF model is that, it gives higher velocities on radiator inlet at regions corresponding to the fan blades and lower velocities at other regions, which is not realistic. This problem is more predominant especially when the vehicle is at low speeds or when radiator is placed at mid or back of the vehicle or the fan is having less number of blades. In order to nullify this uneven velocity distribution at radiator inlet, a Mixing Plane (MP) approach was used in addition to the MRF model.
2014-11-14
WIP Standard
AIR1358C
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) indicates those dimensions, deemed critical by the manufacturer to assure proper mating of disconnect hose fittings. The dimensions are critical, but not necessarily complete, in defining these fittings since there are other criteria which must also be met.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0064
Koorosh Khanjani, Jiamei Deng, Andrzej Ordys
Abstract Increasing the efficiency and durability of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of engineers in the development of modern road vehicles. Emission legislations are becoming intensively strict each year, forcing manufacturers to deploy sophisticated engine control strategies. The engine coolant temperature is conventionally controlled with mechanical elements such as wax-thermostat and belt-driven mechanical water-pump, which result in engine temperature fluctuations and delayed response to variable inputs. Variable coolant temperature is beneficial; it can decrease the hydrodynamic frictional losses of lubricated engine parts in light duty conditions. Moreover it improves performance and protects engine parts from thermal stresses and sealing failure in heavy duty conditions. In this paper the feasibility of controlling coolant temperature is examined in different driver demand conditions using electric flow-control valve replacing conventional thermostat.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0139
Ryutaro Shinohara
Abstract In this paper, a light-duty exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger prototype is proposed to enhance the heating capacity of an automobile cabin. Even though the prototype is a small and simple structure of offset fins installed on a double tube, it showed a heat recovery capacity of more than 800 W. Therefore, the prototype is expected to be used in vehicles such as recreational vehicles and light utility vehicles with a cabin roof. The prototype was compared with a mass-produced model in tests of heat transfer and pressure drop performance by using hot air and a coolant. The results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficient for the prototype exceeded that for the mass-produced model for a Reynolds number of less than 1500.
2014-11-02
WIP Standard
AS5008B
Scope is unavailable.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2586
Shui-chang Liu, Zheng-qi Gu, Li-fu Li, Yong Zhang, Wan-dong ZHAO
Abstract To shorten the development cycle and ensure the stability of the products, based on RNG k-e turbulence model and porous model, 3 dimension (3D) flow field Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation is adopted to calculate the radiator group performance for a engineering vehicle being developed. Air-side flow field simulations of the radiator unit model are carried out firstly to obtain the radiators' air-side characteristics; then, the air flow and heat transfer in the whole air channel containing the radiator group are simulated simultaneously to get the inlet and outlet water temperatures of radiator group, at last, the real vehicle test is carried out to verify the simulation results.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2612
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, Ronghua Huang
Abstract The work reported in this paper contributes to understanding the effects of ethanol/gasoline ratio on mixture formation and cooling effect which are crucial in the development of EDI+GPI engine. The spray simulations were carried out using a commercial CFD code. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of spray shapes in a constant volume chamber and cylinder pressure in an EDI+GPI research engine. The verified model was used to investigate the fuel vaporization and mixture formation of the EDI+GPI research engine. The effect of the ethanol/gasoline ratio on charge cooling has been studied. Compared with GPI only, EDI+GPI demonstrated stronger effect on charge cooling by decreased in-cylinder temperature. However, the cooling effect was limited by the low evaporation rate of the ethanol fuel due to its lower saturation vapour pressure than gasoline's in low temperature conditions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2830
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Ashish Karnwal, Dhruv Gupta, Vipul Vibhanshu, Abhishek Sharma, Jitesh Singh Patel
Abstract The interest of using alternative fuels in diesel engines has been accelerated exponentially due to a foreseen scarcity in world petroleum reserves, increase in the prices of the conventional fossil fuels and restrictions on exhaust emissions such as greenhouse gases from internal combustion (IC) engines initiated by environmental concerns. The constant trade-off between efficiency and emissions should be in proper balance with the conventional fuels in a fuel design process for future combustors. Unlike gasoline and diesel, alcohols act as oxygenated fuels. Adding alcohols to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust properly due to the presence of oxygen, which enhances premixed combustion phase, improves the diffusive combustion phase which increases the combustion efficiency and reduces air pollution. The higher activation energy of alcohols leads to better resistance to engine knocking that allows higher compression ratios and greater engine thermal efficiencies.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2883
Lukasz Grabowski, Zbigniew Czyz, Krzysztof Kruszczynski
Abstract This paper focuses on the issues concerning gyroplane powertrain cooling. The Rotax 912S engine was selected as a propulsion system following a detailed analysis. A one-dimensional model, simulated with the AVL Boost software, was applied to determine the heat balance of the engine and the heat flux penetrating through each of engine's surfaces. The geometrical quantities defined in the model were obtained by measuring a three-dimensional geometry provided by an authorized Rotax engine supplier company. Calculation results were then verified by comparing the obtained values with data available from the Rotax 912S engine and with the values of individual parameters given in the literature.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2884
Konrad Pietrykowski, Tytus Tulwin
The article presents convective heat transfer phenomenon by analytically and empirically taken data and CFD based model analysis. 1000 hp ASz-62IR aircraft radial engine is the object of research. This engine is being continuously operated on M18 Dromader and AN-2 aircraft. To recount heat oriented phenomena a three-dimensional CFD model was developed that accounts circumfluent flow around cylinder and cylinder head engine surfaces. The geometry includes M18 Dromader frontal airframe elements to account their influence on cooling air flow. The simulation has been conducted as a steady-state flow. Geometry and setup specific swirls and backflows were observed that increase cylinder and cylinder head rear side heat transfer coefficients. Flow along cooling fins was analysed, connecting their heat transfer coefficient dependency. Results show that local air velocity has big influence on heat flux passed by fin walls.
2014-10-09
Event
Hybrid drive trains combine combustion engines and electric/hydraulic motors. Sophisticated energy management of both propulsion systems in the context of drive train and vehicle operation is required for maximum fuel efficiency and minimum CO2 emissions. This session discusses the latest developments in regard to energy management, optimization potential for combustion engine within electric/hydraulic drive trains and considers the impact on emissions, certification, and fuel consumption/CO2.
2014-10-07
Event
This session covers advanced technologies and analysis/design/testing techniques related to cooling system performance. It includes both system-level and component-level contents. Market conditions and government legislation are driving the demand for more power, better fuel economy and lower emissions. Simultaneously, the space available for arranging cooling systems is shrinking. These performance and emissions constraints emphasize the need for integrated engine/vehicle procedures or techniques for developing cooling systems and problem solving. This session is designed to examine the trends in cooling system design and implementation strategies to meet these new requirements.
2014-10-07
Event
This session covers advanced technologies and analysis/design/testing techniques related to cooling system performance. It includes both system-level and component-level contents. Market conditions and government legislation are driving the demand for more power, better fuel economy and lower emissions. Simultaneously, the space available for arranging cooling systems is shrinking. These performance and emissions constraints emphasize the need for integrated engine/vehicle procedures or techniques for developing cooling systems and problem solving. This session is designed to examine the trends in cooling system design and implementation strategies to meet these new requirements.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2344
Peter Gullberg, Antoine Tavernier
Abstract Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is today an important tool in the design process of fuel and energy efficient vehicles. Under-hood management is one of the fields where CFD has proven itself to be useful for cost-efficient development of products. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) method is the most common used tool in the industry for modeling rotating parts. In previous papers, the modeling strategy with MRF has been documented for open fans and showed high capability to predict fan performance. One of the open points of this proposed method has been its applicability to closed fans (ring fans), as industry experience and discussions has indicated previous conclusions of open fans and MRF modeling may not apply across ranges of fan designs. This paper investigates the MRF method for a closed fan with U-shroud and analyzes several aspect of the modeling strategy.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2345
Lei Jin, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Rui Nie, Jing Cai, Xiaomeng Shen
Abstract In the Rankine cycle, the pressure differential generated by the phase change of the working fluid produces turbine output power, which enables the recovery of waste heat from the internal combustion engine. The heat transfer ability of the evaporator is the key factor that determines the quality of turbine's mechanical work. In this paper, the performance of the evaporator with two-phase zone and preheated zone is studied. After obtaining the thermal characteristics of diesel engine exhaust from the experimental data, the mathematical model of the evaporator is built according to the specific working conditions of ORC and geometrical parameters of the evaporator. Three typical engine operating conditions are used to estimate the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporator. The result shows that, in the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is much greater than the exhaust side of the engine.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2337
Lisa Henriksson, Erik Dahl, Peter Gullberg, Arnaud Contet, Thomas Skare, Lennart Lofdahl
Abstract This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on three heat exchangers with thicknesses of 19mm and 52mm. Each heat exchanger was mounted in a duct, where it was tested for thermal and isothermal conditions. The inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. For the ambient cases the coolant had the same temperature as the surrounding air, these tests were performed for five airflow rates. When the coolant had a temperature of 90°C a combination of five coolant flow rates and five airflow rates were tested. The test set-up was defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2338
Vishal Kale, Bharani Dharan Raju, Vikas Dhiman
Abstract This paper involves increase in engine power by increasing bore size and stroke length along with other required engine level design modifications. Main focus is on addressing the cooling related issues by optimizing the cooling jacket design and water pump flow parameters. Engine cooling requirements need to be upgraded to address increase in thermal loads because of reduction in cooling area between cylinder block and cylinder liner due to increase in bore size keeping engine block size fixed. Methodology used is cooling jacket optimization and water pump design modifications. In internal combustion engines, cooling system involves a complex geometry of water jackets. For such complex systems, CFD simulations can be executed in a short period of time and are relatively inexpensive. CFD provides the ability to theoretically simulate any physical condition.
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