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2016-10-24
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-04-13
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-04-12
Event
This session considers modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2016-04-12
Event
This session considers modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0647
Azmi Osman, M. Khairul Arif Muhammad Yusof, Mohammad Rafi
Additional fuel consumption reduction during the NEDC test cycle and real life driving can be effectively achieved by quickly raising the temperatures of the powertrain’s parts, oils and coolant closer to the optimal operating temperatures. In particular, the engine cooling system today must play a bigger role in the overall thermal management of the powertrain’s fluids and metals during warm-up, idle and severe operating conditions. In responding to these additional requirements, the previously proposed cost effective split cooling system has been further evolved to expedite the powertrain’s warming up process without compromising the overall heat rejection performance during severe operating conditions. In achieving these warming and cooling functions, the coolant flow rate in the cylinder head is almost stagnant when the single thermostat is closed and at its maximum when the thermostat is fully opened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1087
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
To achieve more stringent exhaust emission regulations will face more and more daunting challenges nowadays. It needs more new technologies to improve the IC engine performance but needing higher costs in order to meet Euro 6 and EPA standards in USA. Recently the opposed-piston engine (OPE) has been treated as the promising product to meet these new regulations but relatively lower costing. Although two-stroke OPE owning inherent thermal efficiency and power density advantages, the inefficient scavenge efficiency appears to become the main obstacle to enhance combustion efficiency whilst reducing exhaust gas emission. For the improvement of scavenge efficiency the transient gas exchange simulation was carried out for multiple Cases here, including two intake port configurations at various back pressures in exhaust system and two port timings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1089
Jagrit Shrivas, Girish Khairnar, Sachin Pande, Yaser Hussaini, Amit Chaudhari
Abstract: In Internal Combustion (I.C.) engines, seat inserts and valves are the major components responsible for performance, emissions and reliability. Failure of these components can cause performance deterioration. In case of compressed natural gas (CNG) engines, impact on life of seat inserts and valves are adversely affected due to its dry combustion environment and high operating temperatures. Greaves cotton has developed a single cylinder, water cooled, dedicated CNG engine with port injection from the base diesel engine. Major challenges were encountered during the CNG engine development with respect to seat inserts and valves wear. The design was modified considering the different failure modes as below: 1. Seat insert material compatibility 2. Seat angle 3. Seat width 4. Valve head stiffness 5. Alignment of seat inserts and valves 6. Valves closing velocities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0653
Sethuramalingam T, Chandrakant Parmar, Sashikant Tiwari
The aim of this paper is to strategize thermal protection of the engine and components in a vehicle with engine mounted in rear and radiator along with cooling fan mounted in front. An additional Exhaust Fan with speed sensor is fitted in rear mounted engine compartment and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU is used to maintain safety of critical components like HT cables, alternators, wiring harness etc. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal from exhaust fan to ensure the intended operation of the exhaust fan. With the implementation of additional exhaust fan it was observed that max engine compartment temp did not exceed safe operating temperature limit when the vehicle is driven in all road load condition (including highway, city & mountain drive tests) in all vehicle operating conditions. The component temperature was observed within acceptable operating temperature.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0652
Ravi ranjan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej khan
This paper reports a study on Charge air cooler effectiveness, Pressure drop and Acceleration Performance of a utility vehicle, for different layouts positioning of Inter cooler, radiator, condenser and fan module in order to finalize efficient Power train cooling system layout. The main objective was effective utilization of front end opening area, eliminating inter cooler heat load on the radiator, so that radiator size, fan size and Fan Motor wattage can be optimized to achieve desired cooling performance requirements with the cooling system (CRFM) module. Effect of the inter cooler effectiveness, Intake pressure drop and Vehicle acceleration were studied to finalize the position of inter-cooler along with other engine cooling components. The cooling system restriction was optimized (reduced) by reducing radiator core thickness with finalizing inter cooler position just above the radiator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1081
Jonathan Harrison, Rodrigo Aihara, Fabian Eisele
Engine and transmission oil systems are commonly pressurized by gerotor style pumps, due to their simplistic design and low cost. Gerotor pumps are designed with certain tolerances of the gears and housing, thus creating a tradeoff of lower cost with larger tolerances and higher cost with smaller tolerances. By building a detailed gerotor pump model with a 1D hydraulic flow network, engineers can evaluate pump performance with these tolerances as input and compare to find the optimal design. This paper showcases the ease of building a gerotor model in 1D by using an automated process extracting the key model inputs directly from the pump CAD file. The gerotor pump performance is predicted including flow rate, total power loss, volumetric efficiency, and total efficiency vs. pump speed, pressure rise, clearance tolerances, and temperature, and compared with experiment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1578
Nicholas Simmonds, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis, Dimitris Drikakis, Adrian Gaylard, Wilko Jansen
Simulations are presented which fully couple both the aerodynamics and cooling flow for a model of a fully-engineered production saloon car (Jaguar XJ) with a two-tier cooling pack. This allows for the investigation of the overall aerodynamic impact of the under-hood cooling flow which is difficult to predict experimentally. The simulations use a 100 million element mesh, surface wrapped and solved to convergence using a commercially available RANS solver (STARCCM+). The methodology employs representative boundary conditions, such as rotating wheels and a moving ground plane. A review is provided of the effect of cooling flows on the vehicle aerodynamics, compared to published data. Further, a sensitivity analysis of the pressure drop curves used in the porous media model of the heat exchangers is made, allowing for an initial understanding of the effect on the overall aerodynamics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0657
Sethuramalingam T, Chandrakant Parmar, Sashikant Tiwari
In conventional Passenger cars with rear engine, radiator is located at the rear end of the car. The thermal management of cooling system becomes challenging due to inadequate air flow through the radiator. This paper is about designing a distinctive cooling system where the radiator is mounted in the front of the car. However this kind of arrangement requires lengthy coolant lines extended between the radiator and the engine, routed beneath the vehicle. The U-shaped arrangement where radiator and engine are at higher coolant head and cooling lines are at very low coolant head becomes very critical as air traps in the coolant system during coolant filling and de-aeration process. This restricts the coolant circulation during vehicle running-in and thus affect the life of critical components due to overheating.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1091
Sujan Dhar, Homa Afjeh, Chiranth Srinivasan, Raj Ranganathan, Yu Jiang
This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a Caterpillar engine. The model was developed through collaboration between Simerics and Caterpillar using the PumpLinx CFD software. The model predictions were validated using measurements from engine dyno tests. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc. The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling it to the flow through a rigorous force balance. The journal orbits and bearing deformations were inputs to the model. Both the model setup and the transient computational run times are practical.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0654
Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, K SARANGAPANI, Samson Solomon, Parvej khan
The paper presents the development of a rear powertrain cooling system of a minivan. The packaging of cooling system is such that the radiator faces towards the rear of the vehicle bumper which is opposite to the conventional rear cooling system (i.e. radiator faces towards the front of the vehicle to get ram air benefit). In small minivan, the space ahead of engine is used as floor for passenger foot. Due to these space constraint, the cooling system has no choice, but to move rear of the vehicle and above the departure plane to meet packaging requirements. Furthermore, in conventional rear cooling system, in front of the radiator, there will be engine and exhaust system, which heats up the air going to the radiator and reduces radiator cooling performance. Thus the cooling system is placed such that the radiator faces the rear bumper to draw in cooler air. In this condition we don’t depend on the ram air but on the fan to meet required airflow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0180
Montassar Khammassi, Thierry Marimbordes, Judicael Aubry, Bertrand Barbedette, Mickael Cormerais, Cherif Larouci, Quentin Frossard
In order to cope with new regulations and find a better compromise between fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and comfort, thermal management technologies are getting more complex. This is especially true when it requires replacing a basic passive solution with a mechatronic system. A new Active Cooling Thermal-management (ACT) valve concept has been developed to specifically replace wax thermostat while keeping the same packaging and cost range and bringing closed loop temperature control, fast response time and precision. This new module is manufactured by assembling injected thermoplastic components. By essence it leads to dimension tolerances, deformation and wear over its life. Those uncertainties and deviations have to be taken into account when the nominal part is designed to ensure part efficiency till the end of its life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0197
Ravi Ranjan, Kaushal Kumar Jha, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej Khan
The traditional approach of engine thermal behavior of engine during startup has largely be dependent on experimental studies and high fidelity simulations CFD. However these techniques require considerable effort, cost and time. The low fidelity simulations validated with experimental results becoming popular due to its ease in handling the several parameters, cost effectiveness and quick predictive results. A four point mass model of engine thermal behavior during cold start has been developed to study the engine warm up temperature. The four point mass model consider the lumped mass of coolant, mass of engine directly associated with coolant, mass of engine oil and mass of engine directly associated with engine oil. The advantage of four point model is predict the coolant temperature as well as lubricant temperature during the transient warm cycle of engine. The error between predicated temperatures and experimental are within 10%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0224
Robin Y. Cash, Edward Lumsdaine, Apoorv Talekar, Bashar AbdulNour
To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting in reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the theoretical equations that define the process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0245
Jingwei Zhu, Stefan Elbel
Increasing energy costs justify research on how to improve utilization of low-grade energy that is abundantly available as waste heat from many thermodynamic processes such as internal combustion engine cycles. One option is to directly generate cooling through absorption/adsorption or vapor jet ejector cycles. As in the case of power generation cycles, cooling cycle efficiencies would increase if the heat input were available at higher temperature. This paper assesses the feasibility of a novel idea that uses a vortex tube to increase the available temperature levels of low-grade heat sources. The desired temperature increase is achieved by sending a stream of vapor that was heated by the waste heat source through a vortex tube, which further elevates the temperature used in a heat driven ejector cooling cycle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0226
Teresa Castiglione, Francesco Pizzonia, Sergio Bova
A dynamic model of the cooling system of an ICE that is able to predict heat transfer both under single-phase forced convection and in the presence of nucleate boiling, was developed. The model, which also includes the heat transfer to the lubricant, was widely validated by experimental tests and was then used to evaluate the benefits of an innovative cooling strategy during the NEDC. Special attention was reserved to the warm-up period. The case considered herein is that of a spark ignition engine, 1.2 dm3 displacement. The innovative control strategy, which is based on a robust Model Predictive Control algorithm, adjusts the coolant flow rate by means of an electric pump, in order to bring the cooling system to operate around the onset of nucleate boiling. In particular, the heat transfer mechanism is maintained just below the onset of nucleate boiling during the engine warm-up, in order to take advantage of the lower heat transfer coefficient.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1080
Narendra V. Bansode, Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
A single cylinder gasoline engine of a sports bike generates sufficient hot gases to pose great challenge to the designers of exhaust system. The high temperature exhaust gases in muffler creates thermal elongation on the solid parts of exhaust system, which is mounted on the chassis. This arrangement induces thermal stress in exhaust assembly. It is necessary to analyze this thermal stress to ensure the durability of muffler components. The exhaust design has a diversion at the header pipe to distribute the flow in two branches. This junction and the branches heat up excessively and showed repeated failure. To analyze the thermal stress, the temperature distribution in the muffler components is obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. The complete motorcycle with detailed exhaust system is modelled in the standard wind tunnel using a commercial CFD software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1083
Kenji Sato, Takeru Hamakawa, Takeyuki Yamasaki, Yoshimichi Ishihara, Hisashi Hashimoto, Chao Shi, Hiroaki Haneda, Shinichi Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Iida
The independent bearing cap is a cylinder block bearing structure that has high mass reduction effects. In general, this structure has low fastening stiffness compared to the rudder block structure. Furthermore, when using combination of different materials such as an aluminum material and a cast iron material, small sliding occurs at the mating surface, and fretting fatigue sometimes occurs at lower area than the material strength limit. Fretting fatigue was previously predicted using CAE, but there were issues with establishing a correlation with the actual engine under complex conditions, and the judgment criteria were not clear, so accurate prediction was a challenge. This paper reports on a new CAE-based prediction method that uses three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis to predict the fretting damage occurring on the bearing cap mating surface in an aluminum material cylinder block.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0238
Gang Liu, Zheng Zhao, Hao Guan, Yaqi Liu, Chunhui Zhang, Dingwei Gao, Wuming Zhou, Juergen Knauf
Reducing fuel consumption is a major challenge for vehicle, especially for SUV. Cooling loss is about 30% in total energy loss under NEDC cycle. It is necessary to optimize vehicle thermal management system to improve fuel economy. Otherwise, lower warm-up time is beneficial for friction reduction and passenger comfort in cold-start. Vehicle thermal behavior is influenced by cooling system layout, new technology and control strategy. Thermal management simulation is effective to show the energy flow and fuel consumption under the influence of new technology under NEDC cycle. So 1D thermal management simulation model is created, including vehicle, cooling system, lubrication system and detailed engine model with all friction components. And the interrelations between all the components are considered in the model. For model calibration, large amount of data is obtained from vehicle tests such as transient fuel consumption and transient coolant temperature.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0651
Due to the recent trend emphasizing on environmental performance, engine supercharger downsizing technology has been developing globally with consideration for fuel efficiency and emission regulations. Accordingly, it increases demand for charge air coolers (hereafter "CAC"), especially, water cooled CAC will be more adopted due to its sufficiency in vehicle acceleration performance, its effect to increase engine output, and its availability to be used with future LPL system. In this report, we represent mainly the technical knowledge, which we have obtained in the development of water cooled CAC, targeting higher performance with downsizing plus higher quality in the aspect of corrosion resistance and reliability against thermal stress. For higher cooling performance, we have designed the optimum core matrix with fins and tubes of water cooled CAC, leading to the top level of performance quality.
2016-01-02
Standard
AS4623E
This document defines the requirements for heavy-duty polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, para-aramid reinforced, hose assembly suitable for use in 275 °F, 3,000 psi aircraft systems where rapid rate pulsing and torsional/longitudinal flexing may occur in addition to normal hydraulic system loading. Size -16 and -20 are limited to +225 °F service.
2015-12-17
Standard
J1942/1_201512
Effective August 28, 1991, the SAE replaced the USCG as the listing agency for Marine Hose Assemblies. The previous USCG list was discontinued as of December 31, 1992, and is being replaced by this SAE listing, J1942-1. All products appearing on the USCG list as of December 31, 1992, may be carried over to the SAE J1942-1 provided they meet the new test requirements listed in SAE J1942. If your products comply, you may retain your listings with no additional testing. (Please note that the USCG has the authority to request and inspect your test results at their discretion). The following list consists of hose data provided as of December 2015, and is for convenience in determining acceptability of nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies intended for usage under 46 CFR 56.60-25. Where the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) or type of fitting is not specified, use the manufacturer's recommended MAWP or type of fitting.
2015-12-08
WIP Standard
J2873
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to Electric Cooling Fan Assemblies used in vehicle cooling systems. This document outlines the critical mounting interface characteristics such that a common standard is possible.
2015-12-02
Standard
AS21904D
No scope available.
2015-12-02
Standard
AS21902D
Scope unavailable.
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