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2017-04-05
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-04
Event
This session considers modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-04
Event
This session considers modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation system (EGR) has been used for years for NOx emissions control in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every regulation while durability requirements are increasing, so EGR systems manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. Commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs, but same engine has multiple applications with totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with the consequent impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of and EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibrations, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0620
Chandrakant Parmar, Sethuramalingam Tyagarajan, Sashikant Tiwari, Ravindra Thonge, S Arun Paul
The engine compartment of passenger car application contain various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the individual component body temperature. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the life or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategise thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and it's components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECU, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0628
Rahul Fageria, Satvik Jain
Turbochargers have become an inevitable part of modern engines for their ability to improve an engine's efficiency and power output through forced induction using the exhaust gas energy which otherwise would have been wasted. And with their use, there is always some unwanted heat as a by-product. For that, turbo intercoolers are employed, they reduce the temperature of the forced air before reaching the engine and improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through an isobaric cooling. The forced air produced by the turbocharger is routed through the intercooler where its temperature is reduced before reaching the engine. Intercoolers also eliminate the need for using the wasteful method of lowering intake charge temperature by the injection of excess fuel into the cylinders' air induction chambers, to cool the intake air charge, prior to its flowing into the cylinders.This has made modern heavy duty diesel vehicles far more efficient.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1086
Cagri Sever, Todd Brewer, Scott Eeley, Xingfu Chen, Ruichen Jin, Emad Khalil, Michael Herr
For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is the thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes many different operating conditions while it is cold and during the warmed up condition. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Integrated exhaust manifold heads are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. For field risk assessment, the customer usage profiles are analyzed and corresponding duty cycles are built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1083
Chawin Chantharasenawong
This study focuses on achieving a lower overall lap time at SAE Formula Student competition through a modification to the standard intake system. The lower lap time is achieved by widening the range of engine RPM which produces torque higher than 90% of the maximum value and lowering the engine RPM corresponding to the maximum torque. An intake system with ‘variable runner length’ is introduced to the 2015 racecar of KMUTT team. The values of intake lengths are determined from the wave equation with the goal of producing over 90% of the maximum torque of the baseline configuration over a range of engine RPM. Computer simulations are performed to determine the pressure at engine entry at various runner lengths. Finally, a prototype variable runner length intake system with linear motor actuators is constructed and installed on the racecar. Chassis dynamometer tests are performed to determine the engine torque for 3,000 – 10,500 RPM at all interested runner lengths.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1087
Pengfei Zang, Zhe Wang, Yu Fu, Chenle Sun
The Linear Internal Combustion Engine-Linear Generator Integrated System (LICELGIS) is different from conventional crank-based engine for reducing frictional losses by eliminating the crankshaft. Thus, the LICELGIS piston stroke is not constrained geometrically and the system compression ratio is variable. During steady-state operation, the LICELGIS converts the fuel chemical energy into electric power with piston assembly reciprocating motion, which can for example be used as a range-extender in hybrid electric vehicles. The LICELGIS scavenging process is prerequisite and key for the system steady-state operation, which has remarkable influence on mixture gas and, eventually, on engine combustion performance. In order to achieve high scavenging performance, a LICELGIS is investigated in this paper. The LICELGIS motion characteristics and scavenging process were analyzed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1077
Nicolas Arnault, Nicolas BATAILLEY, Arnaud MARIA, Laurent BECHU
PSA Group, SOLVAY and SOGEFI have teamed-up to produce the first Plastic Diesel Fuel Filter fully made of recycled polyamide 66, ready for mass-production. This has been achieved by using the brand new plastic compound developed by SOLVAY Engineering Plastics. This material is 100% recycled from airbag wastes, providing a premium material able to stand demanding applications requirements supplied though circular economy, which is quite unusual in automotive industry yet. SOGEFI has tested this material through its existing plastic injection process, and tested the parts on extensive bench validation tests. It confirmed that this material is fully compatible with standard injection process, and that all the tests have been passed successfully. Finally, PSA Group has driven the choice of the tested parts: DV engine 1.6l Euro6b application, homologated the material grade and evaluated the whole validation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1076
Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani, Esra Demren
Engine and transmission oil pumps are one of the primary sources of tonal noise or whine inside the vehicles. The whine is specially a cause for NVH concern during vehicle coast down when the engine background noise acting as sound masking for the whine is decreasing. To prevent and/or reduce the risk of oil pump-induced tonal noise, upfront NVH evaluation of the oil pump is required. Through analytical CAE approach oil pump pressure pulsations corresponding to different orders of the pump can be evaluated. And modifications to the oil pump design can be studied in order to reduce the pressure peaks and/or breaking down the peaks over their frequency spectrums to introduce self-masking effect. In this presentation, a couple of CAE case studies addressing oil pump-induced whine in an I4 during coast down along with test data are reviewed. The studied pump is of a variable displacement vane type.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1082
Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Thomas Sanders, Mikhail A. Ejakov, Reda Adimi, Alexander Boucke, Jochen Lang, Gunter Knoll
Strict requirements for fuel economy and emissions are the main drivers for recent automotive engine downsizing and an increase of boosting technologies. For high power density engines, among other design challenges, valve and guide interactions are very important. Undesirable contact interactions may lead to poor fuel economy, engine noise, valve stem to valve guide seizure, and in a severe case, engine failure. In this paper, the valve stem and valve guide contact behavior is investigated using computational models for the camshaft drive in push and pull directions under several misalignment conditions for an engine with roller finger follower (RFF) valvetrain and overhead cam configuration. An engine assembly analysis with the appropriate assembly and thermal boundary conditions are first carried out using the finite element solver ABAQUS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0151
Satvik Jain, Rahul Fageria
Turboexpansion is a concept which is aimed at reducing the fuel consumption of pressure-charged combustion engines by providing over-cooled air to the engine prior to its induction in the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine is dependent on intake charge density which is preferred to be high at reduced charge air temperature. This becomes achievable through a cooling system known as a turbo expander which essentially expands a high-pressure gas to produce work that is usually employed to drive a compressor. Though, initially used for the purpose of refrigeration in industries, for the past few decades various researches have proved its efficiency in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, it is usually employed to extend the knock limit and reduce carbon emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0629
John Kuo, George Garfinkel
Detailed thermal modeling of liquid-cooled vehicle traction battery assemblies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques usually involves large models to accurately resolve small cooling channel details. For large battery packs, some of these meshes may exceed current computational capabilities or result in long and expensive computational efforts. Moreover, only steady-state thermal predictions are usually performed, as drive-cycle transient simulations become impractical due to the exceedingly long solving times. To tackle this problem, an innovative segregated method has been developed for thermal analysis of liquid-cooled traction batteries, where battery cells and their active cooling system are divided into three parts: the cell, the cold plate and the interface between them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0624
Jiaxin Liu, Sicheng Qin, Yankun Jiang, Shumo He
In this work, a XD132 Road Roller from XCMG in China was employed as the research basis to study the heat exchange performance for the heat dissipation module under varied working conditions. The module in XD132 consists of a cooling fan and a radiator group. At first, a numerical investigation on the elementary unit of the radiator was performed to obtain Colburn j factor and Fanning f factor, which was used for the -NTU method that predicts the radiator performance. The fan was numerically tested in a virtual tunnel to acquire the performance curve. The performance data from both investigations were transformed into the boundary conditions for the numerical model in a virtual tunnel. A field experiment was carried out to validate the simulation accuracy, and the performance regularity under four working conditions were discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1081
Chongzhi Zhong, Tieqiang Fu, Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Ke Wu, Wangwen Gu
To study on the influence of L/D, diameter of the adsorption tube, purge tube and air tube about carbon canister, based on the ORVR canister and ordinary canister whether with single or double cavity. The results demonstrate that the similar of L/D,efficient work ability and efficient adsorption rate of the carbon canister with partition is better than the one without partition; the diameter of adsorption tube is smaller or as similar as purge tube. For ORVR canister, it is larger than purge tube and similar as air tube, which makes more effective for canister gas adsorption from the fuel tank. The vehicle purge flow test results demonstrate that the maximum purge flow of double cavity canister is bigger than that of single cavity, while the total amount of purge flow is similar with each other. The change of the quality about double cavity canister is smaller than that of single cavity. The results provide theoretical basis for canister design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0131
Chiranth Srinivasan, Chonglin Zhang, Haiyang Gao, De Ming Wang, Jody Slike
In an automotive cooling circuit, the wax melting process determines the net and time history of the energy transfer between the engine and its environment. A numerical process that gives insight into the mixing process outside the wax chamber, the wax melting process, and the effect on the poppet valve displacement will be advantageous to both the engine and automotive system design. A fully three dimensional, transient, system level simulation of an inlet controlled automotive cooling circuit is undertaken in this paper. A proprietary CFD algorithm, PumpLinx®, is used to solve this complex problem. A two-phase model is developed in PumpLinx® to simulate the wax melting process. The hysteresis effect of the wax melting process is also considered in the simulation. The coolant circulated using a centrifugal pump, which operates via a constant ratio with respect to the engine speed, is modeled as part of the computational domain.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0627
Bo Yang, Peter Woyciesjes, Aleksei Gershun
In this paper, new test results in the use of electrochemical techniques to measure corrosion in extended life engine coolants are presented. Corrosion protection performance of the engine coolants (including both fresh coolants and simulated used coolants) for typical cooling system metals under heat rejecting surface and heat accepting surface corrosion conditions for both general corrosion and localized corrosion are measured under conditions similar to the ones encountered in vehicle engine cooling systems as a function of immersion time. Fleet test of the coolants were also conducted. They are used to provide technical support on the electrochemical test methodologies adopted. The effective use of electrochemical techniques to aid the development of the next generation of extended life coolant technologies with improved corrosion protection performance and a longer service life will be demonstrated and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0337
Kalyan S. Nadella
Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for vehicles. Cooling modules typically include radiator, charge air cooler, transmission oil cooler, low-temp radiator and condenser. Typical loading on cooling modules comes from body, in the form of road loads. The road load accelerations are commonly utilized to predict the high-stress regions and predict the fatigue life of the components. In certain cases where components are attached to both body and engine, the cooling module components can experience additional loads which might require additional analysis to determine the fatigue life. In the proposed paper we look at the effect of engine roll on the fatigue life of transmission oil cooler which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe. Bench tests were used to prove out the mode of failure observed in the simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1079
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sayak Mukherjee, Rahul Jain, Shivdayal Prasad, Kamal Rohilla
Flex Connectors are intended for mitigating the relative movement of exhaust system components along the axis of the system arising from the thermal expansion due to intermittent engine operation. Flex connectors must not be installed in locations, where they will be subjected to destructive vibration. Hence, the stiffness of the flex connector plays an important role, while designing/selecting the right design. It consists of a multi-ply bellows combined with an inside and an outside steel braid. The liner is included to reduce the temperature of the bellows and improve flow conditions. The braid is included for mechanical protection and to limit the possible extension of the joint. It has only axial translational motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0664
Mohd Asif, Karl Giles, Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, Niall Turner
Engine downsizing, the practice of reducing engine displacement whilst maintaining key drivability characteristics, is a well-established method by which automotive manufacturers improve the fuel economy of their products. This improvement is achieved primarily via reduced pumping and friction losses within the engine, as well as by reducing overall vehicle weight. However, the higher BMEP requirement of downsized engines results in increased peak pressures and temperatures within the cylinder. Subsequently, there is an increased tendency for downsized engines to experience damaging forms of abnormal combustion such as pre-ignition and knock. The causes of knock are well understood but it is important to be able to relate these causes to the effects of controllable engine parameters. This study attempts to quantify the effects of several key engine parameters on the knock behavior of a 60% downsized, DISI engine running at approximately 23 bar BMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0622
Sury Janarthanam, Douglas Hughes, James Gebbie, Patrick Maguire, Sarav Paramasivam
Hybrid vehicles utilize a high voltage battery pack to improve fuel economy by maximizing the capture of vehicle kinetic energy for reuse. Consequently, these batteries experience frequent and rapid charge-discharge cycles. The heat generated during these cycles must be managed effectively to maintain battery cell performance as well as pack life. The battery cooling system must keep the pack temperature below a design target and approximately uniform across all cells in the pack. Here, the authors discuss some of the design points of the air cooled battery packs in Ford’s current model Fusion and C-Max hybrids. In these vehicles, flow of battery cooling air was required to not only provide effective cooling of the battery cells, but to simultaneously cool a DC-to-DC (high to low DC voltage) converter module.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0623
Zun Wang, Yi Zhang, Christophe lenormand, Mohammed Ansari, Manuel Henner
Radiator thermal cycle test is a test method to check out the robustness of a radiator. During the test, the radiator is going through transient cycles that includes high and low temperature spikes. These spikes could lead to component failure and transient temperature map is the key to predict high thermal strain and failure locations. In this investigation, an accurate and efficient way of building a numerical model to simulate the transient thermal performance of the radiator is introduced. A good correlation with physical test result is observed on temperature values at various locations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0621
Sanjin Saric, Andreas Ennemoser, Branislav Basara, Heinz Petutschnig, Christoph Irrenfried, Helfried Steiner, Günter Brenn
RANS computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+<5) [1]. As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region [2].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1046
Christian Binder, Fahed Abou Nada, Mattias Richter, Andreas Cronhjort, Daniel Norling
Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for future improvements. In the course of this study, the surface temperature of a steel piston and a piston with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was measured at different crank angles using phosphor thermometry. The experiments were carried out on a low-vibration, heavy-duty single cylinder engine equipped with an optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The setup included also a flow meter and two thermocouples to measure the amount and temperature of the oil which is injected into the piston cooling gallery. To be able to measure surface temperature though the flame at continuous operation, the engine was run on n-heptane to reduce soot formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1088
Katherine Randall, Cody Bradford, Jeremy Ross, Jeremy Church, Nolan Dickey, Adam Christian, Matthew Dunn
Variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in I4 engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through measured vehicle data and an understanding and explanation of the physics related to engine operation the relationship between crankcase volume change throughout the engine cycle and crankcase pressure fluctuations. It can be demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of key engine design parameters of number of cylinders, firing frequency, engine displacement, crankcase volume and engine stroke the frequency and amplitude and frequency of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1224
Ryota Kitamoto, Shinnosuke Sato, Hiromichi Nakamura, Atsushi Amano
A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) was developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, an FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell stack (FCSTK) to the driving motor.The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size and loss of passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced to approximately 30% compared to the conventional VCU inductor. The heat generated by the smoothing capacitor increases together with the current.
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