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2015-09-24 ...
  • September 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Rapid advances have been made in the range of available designs and operational parameters as well as in the fundamental understanding of compact heat exchangers (CHEs). Since the majority of modern heat exchangers used for heating and cooling systems for vehicular applications are CHEs, keeping up to date with these advances is essential. This seminar will help you understand and be able to apply comprehensive information about the intricacies of CHE design, performance, operating problems and state-of-the-art-technology for car and truck applications.
2015-04-27 ...
  • April 27-May 8, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 5-16, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Vehicle functional requirements, diesel emission regulations, and subsystem thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, fouling, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges to the designer. This web seminar introduces many airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance and drive the design. The goal of this six-session course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of diesel cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1336
Meisam Mehravaran, Yi Zhang
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in predicting the behavior of automotive components. In the current work the fan, shroud and radiator assembly has been simulated using a less expensive CFD methodology. After validating the CAE tool with the test data, the similar simulation was carried on for 13 different shrouds and the effect of geometrical parameters on airflow was investigated. The CFD data show that the smoothly converging shroud will lead to higher flow rates while cavities and steps will perform as a restriction and degrade the efficiency. Besides, it is seen that decreasing the blade-shroud clearance up to 17 mm will improve the air flow as it prevents the leakage of the pumped flow, but if we go further, the airflow does not increase and may even decrease, which may be explained based on the interference of blade and shroud boundary layer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1656
Lisa Henriksson, Peter Gullberg, Erik Dahl, Lennart Lofdahl
For some vehicle segments the cooling demand is increasing as a result of increased engine power or introduction of different systems, for example EGR, CAC, WHR. To be able to fulfil the increased cooling demand an increased efficiency of the cooling device or an increased cooling package are required. Due to limitations of space at the front of the vehicle, behind the grill, alternative positions of extra heat exchangers have to be evaluated. Common for most of these positions is that the oncoming airflow is not necessarily perpendicular to the heat exchanger core. Evaluation of inclined airflows relative to the heat exchanger must therefore be performed. This article presents CFD simulations on one period of a louvered fin of compact louvered fin heat exchangers, where the incoming airflow was inclined relative to the heat exchanger core.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1163
Gabriel Elias, Stephen Samuel, Alessandro Picarelli
This study details the investigation into the hybridization of engine ancillary systems for 2014+ Le Mans LMP1-H vehicles. This was conducted in order to counteract the new strict fuel-limiting requirements governing the powertrain system employed in this type of vehicles. Dymola 1D vehicle simulation software was used to construct a rectilinear vehicle model with complete ancillary system, and a map based 3.8L, V8, engine and its associated ancillary systems, including oil pumps, water pump and fuel pump and a powertrain system with a full kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) strategy. Appropriate validation strategy was implemented to validate the model. A validated model was used to study the difference in fuel consumption for the conventional ancillary drive off of the internal combustion engine in various situational tests and a hybrid-electric drive for driving engine ancillaries.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1650
Azmi Osman, Mohd Asmu'i Hussin, Shaiful Fadzil Zainal Abidin
The drive to reduce CO2 and fuel consumption from passenger cars requires improvements from various subsystems. In particular, the ever growing importance of effective and efficient thermal management will no doubt benefit the quest for more efficient vehicle. While many established automakers have decided to increase the sophistications of the engine cooling circuits through electronics, the increase in complexity and costs are still not desirable especially for A and B segments passenger cars. With this in mind, simple mechanical based cooling systems with enhanced functionalities are in high demand. To meet such demand, a simplified engine split cooling circuit previously proposed, simulated and reported seems to be promising. To further verify the indicated advantages, a prototype unit was built and physically tested using a dynamometer with motoring capability.
2015-03-12 ...
  • March 12-13, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0037
Kartik Kulkarni, Ayush Sood
The heat losses through exhaust gases and the engine coolant contribute significantly towards reduction in thermal efficiency of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine. This largely impacts the fuel economy and power output. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) has proven to be an effective method of overcoming these challenges. A Rankine cycle is a reverse refrigeration cycle that circulates a working fluid through the four basic components namely the pump, evaporator, turbine and condenser. It is a popular WHR approach in automotive applications with varying levels of success in the past. As the heat transfer capability in organic working fluids is greater than the conventionally used inorganic fluids, the former is used to capture maximum waste heat from low grade heat sources such as the automobile engine. A dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is proposed for a heavy duty IC Engine with working fluids R245fa and R236fa for the High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) loops respectively.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0053
Chandrakant Awate, Jayesh Zadokar, Sanjay Patel, Anay Malaviya, Vinti Arora
Abstract With ever increasing population growth and increase in per capita income, there is a lot of demand on energy requirements. Also due to depletion in fossil fuels, rocketing fuel prices and CO2 emissions standards, it is imperative to find solutions which are cost-effective and from sustainable energy sources. Being in the sunny tropical belt, India has high solar insolation, and so it should adopt a policy of developing solar power as a dominant component of the renewable energy mix. This paper describes the best possible ways to use solar energy for automotive application. This paper explains various types of photovoltaic (PV) technologies - crystalline and thin film solar cells for automotive use. A medium sized sedan vehicle with mild hybrid technology and roof mounted PV panel has been used for all experiments. The paper describe the benefits and limitations of each PV technology with experimental measurement and payback period analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0063
Jurgen De Kimpe, Serge Lievens, Shengchun Yan
Abstract This paper describes the properties of an engine coolant that uses a potassium propionate solution as base fluid. Although alternatives for ethylene glycol are known, e.g. propylene glycol and glycerin, the use of a salt based coolant for high temperature applications has seldom been considered as a viable option due to the intrinsic corrosiveness of such salt solutions. The salt based coolant offers freezing as well as boiling protection and has thermal properties that allow for usage in standard combustion engines. Volumetric heat capacity and viscosity are very similar to glycol based analogues, while its thermal conductive is substantially higher. Thermal experiments indicate that the potassium propionate coolant is highly effective in suppressing localized boiling phenomena. Due to its chemical nature the coolant has superior oxidation stability. The coolant has the further advantage of being readily biodegradable and has a low toxicity.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0087
R Arvind, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Anshul Agarwal
Abstract Selection of EGR system is very complex for a particular engine application. The performance of the EGR system depends highly on the Cooler Heat Transfer Efficiency. Cooler effectiveness drops over a period of operation due to soot deposition, HC condensation, and fuel quality. This phenomenon is called as Cooler Fouling. Fouling cannot be avoided completely but the level of performance drop over time has to be studied and minimized. The minimum pressure drop and the highest efficiency in fouled condition is the target for selection of a cooler. In this study, various parameter combinations like tube shape and profile, tube length, number of tubes, tube diameter, and pitch of corrugations, which influence the cooler performance were tested. A better understanding of each of its effect on cooler effectiveness and fouling behavior was obtained. The tube shape was changed from rectangular to circular, also from smooth surface to corrugate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0141
Ravishastri Gadasu, Anshul Khatri, Aashish Parmar
Abstract With increase in product diversity in passenger car market, the need for NVH comfort has gained very strong foothold in every segment. This needs in depth analysis for limiting the noise at part level. Radiator Fan Module is one of such part which contributes to Cabin comfort in major way. In this paper, author is focusing on designing of RFM (Radiator Fan Module) in order to have low noise. Primary objective of RFM is to meet Heat rejection requirement with optimized air flow. Radiator Fan is primarily responsible for meeting air flow requirement within specified noise limit. For flow inducing components like Radiator Fan, there is always a trade-off between the functional requirement and the noise from various sources (Electrical / Mechanical / Flow). Design of Fan blades and Motor Support ribs in RFM is critical to improve Flow noise, i.e. Air cutting noise.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0137
Himanshu Agrawal, Abhishek Arun Kakade, Arun Kumar Singh, Sandeep N Shetty
Abstract Fan is generally used for cooling of alternator and an undesirable side effect of these fans is generation of flow induced noise. With stricter regulations and growing importance on acoustic comfort in present day market, it's very important to address flow induced noise problems early in product development stage. With physical testing, it would not be possible to get information on source strengths thus, limiting its usage. Whereas simulation on the other hand would be able to provide source strengths, directivity pattern and source ranking. This paper focuses on numerical simulation of alternator's fan for prediction of air- borne noise. For this purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based transient analysis is performed with high fidelity turbulence model using commercial software package, ANSYS Fluent. Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) model is used for modeling sound propagation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0146
Dhanashri Ravikiran Desai, Suhas Suryawanshi, Bhalchandra Deshmukh
Abstract Developing countries like India is now highly relying on the alternate source of power generation to have uninterrupted power supply for their economic development. Diesel Power generator is one of the solutions in meeting the uninterrupted power requirement. In India, Power generating sets are having stringent emission norms and also the present government policies of removing subsides from Diesel fuel adding the additional burden on operating cost. As such researcher has a tough task to design the product considering the stringent requirement of legislation and performance. The main focus of this research work is to address performance necessities and the noise legislation. The detail methodology has been laid down to analyze and optimize performance and noise of Diesel Generator with respect to cooling system. Cooling fan with drive arrangement has been selected to study the canopied Diesel Generator performance and overall noise emission.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0216
Ramesh Babu Pathuri, Prasanna Nagarhalli
Abstract Upfront in a vehicle program, sizing of front end cooling module i.e. Condenser Radiator Fan Module (CRFM) and front grille opening is vital hence simulation tools like 1D have gained tremendous importance. This paper focuses on the modeling and analyzing performance behavior of engine cooling system using 1D simulation tool and also discusses the correlation of simulated results with test results. 1D model of engine cooling system is developed by inputting all necessary geometrical and performance data of all components (radiator heat load, coolant pipe geometry, CRFM, pump, thermostat etc.) with necessary assumptions. Air flow rates used on heat exchangers are predicted in 3D Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. First isothermal coolant circuit is modeled and coolant flow correlation is achieved to build confidence in modeling.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0196
Soujanya C, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract Cooling system is one of the important systems of an engine to maintain the optimum coolant temperature across engine and its components. Analysis of cooling system at initial phase of product development will help in optimum design of the system and there by achieving better performance of engine. For this purpose the traditional method followed is to run several bench tests and to analyze the engine performance and repeat the bench tests for validating any design changes. This results in increased lead time of engine development and overall cost. To reduce the lead time as well as reduce the overall cost, 1D (one dimension) simulation tools place a major role. Simulation of engine cooling system with special kind of engine coolant water jacket is challenging. It is difficult to achieve the simulation results close to bench test due to complexity of the system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0194
Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, V Sundaram, S Sathish Kumar
Abstract An expansion tank is an integral part of an automotive engine cooling system. The primary function of the expansion tank is to allow the thermal expansion of the coolant. The expansion tank will be referred as hot bottle in this paper. In the System level modeling of the engine internal flow, it is imperative to accurately model and characterize the components in the system. It is often challenging to define the hot bottle accurately with limited parameters in the 1D modeling. Currently it is very difficult to optimize the system by testing. Since testing consumes a lot of time and changes in development stage. If the hot bottle component is not defined properly in the system network, then the system flow balancing cannot be predicted accurately. In this paper, the approach of creating a 1D modeling tool for hot bottle flow prediction is discussed and the simulation results are compared with the physical test data.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0195
Chandran Narasappan, V Sundaram, S. Sathish Kumar
Abstract The Charge Air Cooler (CAC) is designed to cool the charge air after being boosted by the Turbocharger. In order to maintain the optimum temperature and to further improve the charge air density entering to the engine the CAC is used. This makes the combustion more efficient and better engine performance and fuel economy. The performance of the CAC is highly affected by the plumbing lines which transport the compressed charge air from turbocharger to the intake manifold of the Engine. It consists of tube, hose, duct and resonator. Designing the optimum CAC plumbing lines with lesser pressure drop is the major requirement of the CAC system considering the complex packaging. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulation is a good way to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0192
Sourabh Shrivastava, Padmesh Mandloi
Abstract CFD simulations of an engine cooling system needs to resolve two aspects of the system; in-cylinder combustion and engine cooling. Underlying physics of an in-cylinder combustion process and heat transfer through engine cooling system requires very different time scales for resolution. This puts a limitation on practicality of solving the two problems simultaneously for any industrial case. Instead of solving the problem simultaneously, solution for an engine cooling system operating at a constant load can be derived using the coupled approach. This involves running two different CFD simulations: a transient in-cylinder simulation to model combustion in the engine, and a steady state CHT simulation using engine cooling system for heat transfer. These simulations are thermally coupled through boundary conditions and are performed in cyclic manner one after the other. Simulations are continued till the change in temperature with coupled cycles becomes insignificant.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0199
Parandhamaiah Gorre, Pln Prasad, Kantha Mekala, Mansinh Kumbhar
Abstract In vehicle Front End Flow (FEF) analysis, the basic objective is to predict the mass flow/velocity of air at radiator inlet with constant fan rotation. In general, the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model is used to model the fan. The flow velocity distribution at radiator inlet due to fan rotation should be uniform in circumferential direction whereas, it should vary in radial direction depending upon the blade geometry. However, the drawback with MRF model is that, it gives higher velocities near radiator inlet at regions corresponding to the fan blades and lower velocities at other regions, which is not realistic. This issue is more predominant when the vehicle is at low speeds or when radiator is placed at mid or back of the vehicle or the fan is having less number of blades. In order to nullify this uneven velocity distribution at radiator inlet, Mixing Plane (MP) approach was used in addition to the MRF model.
2015-01-08
Standard
J1658_201501
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to refrigerant blends (multicomponent refrigerants) intended for use as retrofit refrigerants to replace CFC-12 (R-12) in mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. Since the composition of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures changes as refrigerant is lost, either through the vapor phase or the liquid phase, the method of charging A/C systems is important. The purpose of this document is to determine the proper refrigerant phase, liquid or vapor, for system charging by relating system performance changes to the charging method. This document is complete only when combined with the requirements of SAE J1657.
2014-12-31
Standard
AIR1358C
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) indicates those dimensions, deemed critical by the manufacturer to assure proper mating of disconnect hose fittings. The dimensions are critical, but not necessarily complete, in defining these fittings since there are other criteria which must also be met.
2014-12-11
Standard
J2912_201412
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0064
Koorosh Khanjani, Jiamei Deng, Andrzej Ordys
Abstract Increasing the efficiency and durability of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of engineers in the development of modern road vehicles. Emission legislations are becoming intensively strict each year, forcing manufacturers to deploy sophisticated engine control strategies. The engine coolant temperature is conventionally controlled with mechanical elements such as wax-thermostat and belt-driven mechanical water-pump, which result in engine temperature fluctuations and delayed response to variable inputs. Variable coolant temperature is beneficial; it can decrease the hydrodynamic frictional losses of lubricated engine parts in light duty conditions. Moreover it improves performance and protects engine parts from thermal stresses and sealing failure in heavy duty conditions. In this paper the feasibility of controlling coolant temperature is examined in different driver demand conditions using electric flow-control valve replacing conventional thermostat.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0139
Ryutaro Shinohara
Abstract In this paper, a light-duty exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger prototype is proposed to enhance the heating capacity of an automobile cabin. Even though the prototype is a small and simple structure of offset fins installed on a double tube, it showed a heat recovery capacity of more than 800 W. Therefore, the prototype is expected to be used in vehicles such as recreational vehicles and light utility vehicles with a cabin roof. The prototype was compared with a mass-produced model in tests of heat transfer and pressure drop performance by using hot air and a coolant. The results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficient for the prototype exceeded that for the mass-produced model for a Reynolds number of less than 1500.
2014-11-02
WIP Standard
AS5008B
Scope is unavailable.
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