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2016-10-24
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1805
Florian Zenger, Clemens Junger, Manfred Kaltenbacher, Stefan Becker
Abstract A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1811
Anders Rynell, Gunilla Efraimsson, Mattias Chevalier, Mats Abom
Abstract To obtain realistic noise characteristics from CAA studies of subsonic fans, it is important to prescribe properly constructed turbulent inflow statistics. This is frequently omitted; instead it is assumed that the stochastic characteristics of turbulence, absent at the initial stage, progressively develops as the rotor inflicts the flow field over time and hence that the sound generating mechanism governed by surface pressure fluctuations are asymptotically accounted for. That assumption violates the actual interplay taking place between an ingested flow field and the surface pressure fluctuations exerted by the blades producing noise. The aim of the present study is to examine the coupling effect between synthetically ingested turbulence to sound produced from a subsonic ducted fan. The steady state inflow parameters are mapped from a precursor RANS simulation onto the inflow boundaries of a reduced domain to limit the computational cost.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1814
Maxime Legros, Jean Michel Ville, Solène Moreau, Xavier Carniel, Christophe Lambourg, Guillaume Stempfel
Abstract The new requirements during the first stages of the conception of a HVAC prompt the designer to integrate the acoustic problematic increasingly upstream. The designer needs to select a coherent components’ choice in order to comply with the specifications in terms of aeraulic and acoustic performances. A tool has been created to guide the designer’s choices based on an acoustic synthesis which is a design and/or diagnosis approach used to analyze and predict the acoustic behavior of a complex system. The synthesis is developed in order to propose an approach which considers the integration effects and some interaction effects. The acoustic synthesis results are the starting point of a psycho-acoustic study providing audio samples of the prediction and indications of the HVAC acceptance by the prospective user. Also, one may compare the results of different acoustic synthesis projects to study the influence of the parameters on the acoustic prediction.
2016-05-02
Standard
AS1975G
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, para-aramid fiber reinforced, hose assembly suitable for use up to 4000 psi, and up to 275 °F, aircraft and missile hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
2016-04-13
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-04-12
Event
This session considers modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2016-04-12
Event
This session considers modeling (zero-D, 1D, 2D, 3D CFD) and experimental papers on: combustion chamber, systems (lubrication, cooling, fuel, EGR); components (oil pumps, coolant pump, fuel injectors, compressors, turbines, turbochargers, torque converters, gear box, fans, bearings, valves, ports, manifolds, turbine housing); heat exchangers (radiators, oil coolers); aftertreatment (SCR, DOC, DOF, exhaust gas cooling); battery cooling (HEV, EV, motor/generator) and controls (passive and active).
2016-04-06
Standard
J516_201604
This SAE Standard provides general and dimensional specifications for the most common hose fittings used in conjunction with hydraulic hoses specified in SAE J517 and utilized in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. The general specifications contained in Sections 1 through 15 are applicable to all hydraulic hose fittings and supplement the detailed specifications for the 100R-series fittings contained in the later sections of this document. This document shall be utilized as a procurement document only to the extent agreed upon by the manufacturer and user. Refer to SAE J517 for specifications of hose and information on hose assemblies. SAE J1273 contains information on application factors affecting hose fittings, hose, and hose assemblies. THE RATED WORKING PRESSURE OF A HOSE ASSEMBLY COMPRISING SAE J516 FITTINGS AND SAE J517 HOSE SHALL NOT EXCEED THE LOWER OF THE TWO WORKING PRESSURE RATED VALUES.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1087
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
To achieve more stringent exhaust emission regulations will face more and more daunting challenges nowadays. It needs more new technologies to improve the IC engine performance but needing higher costs in order to meet Euro 6 and EPA standards in USA. Recently the opposed-piston engine (OPE) has been treated as the promising product to meet these new regulations but relatively lower costing. Although two-stroke OPE owning inherent thermal efficiency and power density advantages, the inefficient scavenge efficiency appears to become the main obstacle to enhance combustion efficiency whilst reducing exhaust gas emission. For the improvement of scavenge efficiency the transient gas exchange simulation was carried out for multiple Cases here, including two intake port configurations at various back pressures in exhaust system and two port timings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1578
Nicholas Simmonds, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis, Dimitris Drikakis, Adrian Gaylard, Wilko Jansen
Abstract Simulations are presented which fully couple both the aerodynamics and cooling flow for a model of a fully engineered production saloon car (Jaguar XJ) with a two-tier cooling pack. This allows for the investigation of the overall aerodynamic impact of the under-hood cooling flow, which is difficult to predict experimentally. The simulations use a 100 million-element mesh, surface wrapped and solved to convergence using a commercially available RANS solver (STARCCM+). The methodology employs representative boundary conditions, such as rotating wheels and a moving ground plane. A review is provided of the effect of cooling flows on the vehicle aerodynamics, compared to published data, which suggest cooling flow accounts for 26 drag counts (0.026 Cd). Further, a sensitivity analysis of the pressure drop curves used in the porous media model of the heat exchangers is made, allowing for an initial understanding of the effect on the overall aerodynamics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0222
Xingyu Zhang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Binyu Mei, Zhilei Li, Zhongjie Yang, Can Wang
Abstract The heavy duty trucks have large engine power and drive continuously in mountainous area, so the heat dissipation of engine is very important. In the traditional cooling system with fixed transmission ratio fan, the cooling capacity is insufficient and the engine is easy to be over-heated when the engine is working in low speed and heavy load conditions. Owning to the bigger size of electric motor compared to the hydraulic motor, it is not suitably applied to the heavy duty trucks. Contrasted with the electric motor, the hydraulic drive cooling system is widely applied in heavy duty trucks due to smaller size, larger power, continuous speed modulation and flexible installation location. However, the low transmission efficiency of the pump-motor system results in high power consumption of the cooling system. In this paper, the mathematical and simulation model of hydraulic-driven fan cooling system is established for the specific engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0205
Mattia De Rosa, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover
Abstract The internal combustion (IC) engines exploits only about 30% of the chemical energy ejected through combustion, whereas the remaining part is rejected by means of cooling system and exhausted gas. Nowadays, a major global concern is finding sustainable solutions for better fuel economy which in turn results in a decrease of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) is one of the most promising techniques to increase the overall efficiency of a vehicle system, allowing the recovery of the heat rejected by the exhaust and cooling systems. In this context, Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are widely recognized as a potential technology to exploit the heat rejected by engines to produce electricity. The aim of the present paper is to investigate a WHR system, designed to collect both coolant and exhausted gas heats, coupled with an ORC cycle for vehicle applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0209
Youcai Liang
Abstract This paper presents performance of a novel ECCS (electricity-cooling cogeneration system) based on cascade utilization of the waste heat of marine engines. The cogeneration system consists of a steam Rankine cycle and an NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration cycle with an expander. The steam Rankine cycle recycles the energy of both jacket coolant and exhaust gas of engine, while the absorption refrigeration cycle is employed to recover energy of the expanded steam at the turbine outlet in Rankine cycle. The performance of the waste heat recovery system is evaluated in terms of electricity, cooling capacity, equivalent electricity and exergy efficiency. The simulation results show that the novel ECCS exhibited a maximum net electricity output of 4561 kW, a maximum cooling capacity of 3197 kW, and a maximum equivalent electricity of 5233 kW.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0214
Kaushal Kumar Jha, Ravi Ranjan, Parvej Khan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani
Abstract For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0238
Gang Liu, Zheng Zhao, Hao Guan, Yaqi Liu, Chunhui Zhang, Dingwei Gao, Wuming Zhou, Juergen Knauf
Abstract Reducing fuel consumption is a major challenge for vehicle, especially for SUV. Cooling loss is about 30% in total energy loss under NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle. It is necessary to optimize vehicle thermal management system to improve fuel economy. Otherwise, rapid warm-up is beneficial for friction reduction and passenger comfort in cold-start. Vehicle thermal behavior is influenced by cooling system layout, new technology and control strategy. Thermal management simulation is effective to show the energy flow and fuel consumption under the influence of new technology under NEDC cycle. So 1D thermal management simulation model is created, including vehicle, cooling system, lubrication system and detailed engine model with all friction components. And the interrelations between all the components are considered in the model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0245
Jingwei Zhu, Stefan Elbel
Abstract Increasing energy costs justify research on how to improve utilization of low-grade energy that is abundantly available as waste heat from many thermodynamic processes such as internal combustion engine cycles. One option is to directly generate cooling through absorption/adsorption or vapor jet ejector cycles. As in the case of power generation cycles, cooling cycle efficiencies would increase if the heat input were available at higher temperature. This paper assesses the feasibility of a novel idea that uses a vortex tube to increase the available temperature levels of low-grade heat sources. The desired temperature increase is achieved by sending a stream of vapor that was heated by the waste heat source through a vortex tube, which further elevates the temperature used in a heat driven ejector cooling cycle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0658
Tomoyuki Kogo, Yoshihiko Hamamura, Koichiro Nakatani, Tadashi Toda, Akio Kawaguchi, Akira Shoji
Abstract A highly efficient new 2.8-liter inline 4-cylinder diesel engine has been developed in response to growing demand for diesel engines and to help save energy while providing high-torque performance. Engine efficiency was improved by reducing cooling loss based on an innovative combustion concept applied across the whole engine. Cooling loss was reduced by restricting in-cylinder gas flows and improving combustion chamber insulation. To prevent the restricted gas flows from affecting emissions, a new combustion chamber shape was developed that increased air utilization in the cylinder through optimizing the in-cylinder fuel distribution. Combustion chamber insulation was improved by a new insulation coat that changes the wall surface temperature in accordance with the gas temperature. This reduces cooling loss and avoids the trade-off effect of intake air heating.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0657
T Sethuramalingam, Chandrakant Parmar, Sashikant Tiwari
Abstract DFSS is a disciplined problem prevention approach which helps in achieving the most optimum design solution and provides improved and cost effective quality products. This paper presents the implementation of DFSS method to design a distinctive cooling system where engine is mounted in the rear and radiator is mounted in the front of the car. In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle. This layout is mainly found in small, entry level cars and light commercial vehicles chosen for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. In conventional Passenger cars, a radiator is located close to the engine for simple packaging and efficient thermal management. This paper is about designing a distinctive cooling system of a car having rear mounted engine and front mounted radiator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0651
Masaki Harada, Takashi Yasuda, Shota Terachi, Sergio Pujols, Jason R. Spenny
Abstract Due to the recent trend emphasizing on environmental friendly, engine supercharger downsizing technology has been under development globally. In this report, the technical knowledge for high performance and high quality water-cooled CAC development is provided. For higher cooling performance, the optimum fin and tube core matrix water-cooled CAC, delivering best performance and quality have been developed. For higher reliability against thermal stress, the detail specifications of water-cooled CAC based on the transient analysis and the simulation technology have been established.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0654
Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Sarangapani K, Samson Solomon, Parvej Khan
Abstract The paper presents the development of a proposed rear powertrain cooling system of a minivan. The packaging of cooling system is finalized such that the radiator faces towards the rear of the vehicle bumper which is opposite to the conventional rear cooling system (i.e. radiator faces towards the front of the vehicle). In the small minivan, the space ahead of the engine is used as a floor for passenger foot. Due to these space constraints, the cooling system has no choice, but to move rear of the vehicle and above the departure plane to meet packaging requirements. Furthermore, in the conventional rear cooling system, in front of the radiator, there is engine and exhaust system, which heats up the air going to the radiator and reduces radiator cooling performance. Thus the cooling system is placed such that the radiator faces the rear bumper to draw in cooler air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0668
Tingting Li, Jerald Caton, Timothy Jacobs
Abstract A comprehensive analysis of engine performance and fuel consumption was carried out to study Low Heat Rejection (LHR) concepts in the conventional light-duty diesel engine. From most previous studies on LHR diesel engines, thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) have been recognized as a conventional way of insulating engine parts; while for the cases studied in this paper, the LHR concept is realized by altering engine coolant temperature (ECT). This paper presents engine simulation of a multi-cylinder, four-stroke, 1.9L diesel engine operating at 1500 rpm with five cases having different ECTs. The simulated results have been validated against experimental data. Calibration strategy for the engine simulation model is detailed in a systematic methodology for a better understanding of this simulation-development process. The calibrated model predicts the performance and fuel consumption within tolerated uncertainties.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0182
Harish Kumar Gangwar, Ankur Sharma, S.B. Pathak, VIvek Dwivedi, Amit Nigam
Abstract Ever tightening emission limits and constant pressure for increasing engine power are resulting in increased engine operating temperature. This coupled with continuous drive for fuel economy improvement because of the stiff competition are forcing OEMs to explore alternative cooling solutions resulting in less power take off and quick response as cooling requirement shoots up. Aim of this paper is to analyze the relative benefits of incorporating a new cooling fan drive system concept over conventional viscous fan driven cooling system with step-less variable speed control independent of engine speed variation. Hydraulic fan drive system control fan rpm based on the fluid temperature as compared to air temperature in viscous coupling fan drive system. HFD system provides quick response when increase in coolant temperature is observed. HFD system in this way provide more control on fan rpm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0197
Ravi Ranjan, Kaushal Kumar Jha, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej Khan
Abstract The traditional approach of engine thermal behavior of engine during startup has largely been dependent on experimental studies and high fidelity simulations like CFD. However, these techniques require considerable effort, cost and time. The low fidelity simulations validated with experimental results are becoming more popular due to their ease in handling the several parameters such as cost effectiveness and quick predictive results. A four point mass model of engine thermal behavior during cold start has been developed to study the engine warm up temperature behavior. The four point mass model considers the lumped mass of coolant, mass of engine directly associated with the coolant, mass of engine oil and mass of engine directly associated with the engine oil. The advantage of four point model is to predict the coolant temperature as well as lubricant temperature during the transient warm up cycle of the engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0193
Shoichi Imahigashi, Masaharu Sakai, Etsuro Yoshino, Yasushi Mitsuishi
Abstract In recent years, the spread of eco-car has led to the demand for adaptation to low heat source, high efficiency and low noise in vehicle air conditioner. On the other hand, larger interior space of vehicle to assure passenger comfort is demanded, so that the car air-conditioner is required to be smaller. Therefore, we adopted 2-layer HVAC for the air conditioner which can respond to a low heat source. At the same time we have developed the compact high-efficiency 2-layer blower fan for HVAC in order to enable the 2-layer HVAC to be mounted on eco-car with smaller space than conventional HVAC. Generally, because axial flow velocity increases resulting from downsizing of the blower, the ununiform velocity distribution in the axial direction and the turbulent flow between fan blades occurs. It causes the efficiency decrease. To satisfy both downsizing and high-efficiency of the 2-layer blower, we have developed new technologies which can make the flow uniform between fan blades.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0188
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, Liping Liu
In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on convective heat transfer performance in an automotive radiator was analyzed based on measured nanofluid properties. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube) and SiO2 nanoparticles ranging between 1 and 100 nm in size were dispersed in distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to provide uniform particle dispersion in the fluid and keep the mixture stable for a long period of time. The impact of various particle types and their volume concentration on fluid properties such as density, thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally analyzed. It is observed that the nanofluid properties increased with the increase in particle volume concentration. TiO2 nanofluids were observed to show the highest increase in density (2.6% higher than the base fluid at a 1% vol. concentration) and also the largest enhancement in thermal conductivity (7.5% augmentation at 1% concentration).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0187
Zizhen Yu, Gangfeng Tan, Tianming He, Xuexun Guo, MengYing Yang, Shengguang Xiong
Abstract With the improvement of occupants’ awareness on the driving safety, hydraulic retarder applications increase quickly. The traditional hydraulic retarder, on the one hand, exhausts the waste heat of transmission oil by the engine cooling system; on the other hand, the engine power should be consumed to drive the water pump and the engine cooling fan for maintaining the normal operation of the auxiliary braking system. In this study, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) instead of the traditional hydraulic retarder water-cooling system is applied to achieve the effective temperature control of the hydraulic retarder, while the waste heat of transmission oil could be recovered for saving vehicle energy consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0555
Federico Millo, Sabino Caputo, Claudio Cubito, Antonella Calamiello, Davide Mercuri, Marcello Rimondi
The target for future cooling systems is to control the fluid temperatures and flows through a demand oriented control of the engine cooling to minimize energy demand and to achieve comfort, emissions, or service life advantages. The scope of this work is to create a complete engine thermal model (including both cooling and lubrication circuits) able to reproduce engine warm up along the New European Driving Cycle in order to assess the impact of different thermal management concepts on fuel consumption. The engine cylinder structure was modeled through a finite element representation of cylinder liner, piston and head in order to simulate the cylinder heat exchange to coolant or oil flow circuits and to predict heat distribution during transient conditions. Heat exchanges with other components (EGR cooler, turbo cooler, oil cooler) were also taken into account.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1393
Prabhakar Konikineni, V. Sundaram, Kumar Sathish, Sankarasubramanian Thirukkotti
Abstract Fan shroud is one of the critical components in an engine cooling system. It helps in achieving optimum air flow across the heat exchangers. The major challenge is to design a fan shroud which meets noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) requirements without compromising on air flow targets [1]. An improperly designed fan shroud will cause detrimental effects such as undesirable noise and vibration, which will further damage the surrounding components. In current days, multiple simulations and test iterations are carried out in order to optimize its design. The objective of this paper is to provide a design framework to achieve optimized fan shroud that meets NVH requirements in quick turnaround time using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach [2]. The purpose of the Engine cooling system is to maintain the coolant temperature across the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0180
Montassar Khammassi, Thierry Marimbordes, Judicael Aubry, Bertrand Barbedette, Mickael Cormerais, Cherif Larouci, Quentin Frossard
Abstract In order to cope with new regulations and find a better compromise between fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and comfort, thermal management technologies are getting more complex. This is especially true when it requires replacing a basic passive solution with a mechatronic system. A new Active Cooling Thermal-management (ACT) valve concept has been developed to specifically replace wax thermostat while keeping the same packaging and cost range and bringing closed loop temperature control, fast response time and precision. This new module is manufactured by assembling injected thermoplastic components. By essence it leads to dimension tolerances, deformation and wear over its life. Those uncertainties and deviations have to be taken into account when the nominal part is designed to ensure part efficiency till the end of its life.
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