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2015-09-24 ...
  • September 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Rapid advances have been made in the range of available designs and operational parameters as well as in the fundamental understanding of compact heat exchangers (CHEs). Since the majority of modern heat exchangers used for heating and cooling systems for vehicular applications are CHEs, keeping up to date with these advances is essential. This seminar will help you understand and be able to apply comprehensive information about the intricacies of CHE design, performance, operating problems and state-of-the-art-technology for car and truck applications.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2091
Ryosuke Hayashi
Icing phenomena have been studied since the middle of 1990s, and the numerical procedure for typical icing has been established. Recently, there are new problems of icing, which are SLD icing, ice crystal icing, and ice shedding phenomenon. The SLD and the ICI has been studied since 1990s. However, there are few researches on the ice shedding since the ice has many unknown physical parameters which are the density in atmosphere, the adhesion force between the wall and the accreted ice, the contact force between ice pieces and so on. Although existing icing models can simulate ice growth, these models do not have the capability to reproduce ice shedding. In the previous study, we developed an icing model that takes into account both ice growth and ice shedding. Furthermore, we validated the proposed ice shedding model through the comparison of numerical results and experimental data, which includes the flow rate loss due to ice growth and the flow rate recovery due to ice shedding.
2015-04-27 ...
  • April 27-May 8, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 5-16, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Vehicle functional requirements, diesel emission regulations, and subsystem thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, fouling, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges to the designer. This web seminar introduces many airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance and drive the design. The goal of this six-session course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of diesel cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1693
Mark Allen, Graham Hargrave, Petros Efthymiou, Viv Page, Jean-Yves Tillier, Chris Holt
It is an engineering requirement that gases entrained in the coolant flow of an engine must be removed to retain cooling performance, while retaining a volume of gas in the header tank for thermal expansion and pressure control. The main gases present are air from filling the system, exhaust emissions from leakage across the head gasket, and also coolant vapour. These gases reduce the performance of the coolant pump and lower the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid. This is due to the reduction in the mass fraction of liquid coolant and the change in fluid turbulence. The aim of the research work contained within this paper was to analyse an existing phase separator using CFD and physical testing to assist in the design of an efficient phase separator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1692
Walter Ferraris, Fausto Di Sciullo, Carloandrea Malvicino, Francesco Vestrelli, Fabrizio Beltramelli, Giancarlo Gotta
Automotive world is rapidly changing driven by the incoming CO2 emission regulation and the need of decreased fuel consumption for every vehicle line. The introduction of high efficiency solutions in order to get fuel consumption reduction has been already done on many vehicle systems without forgetting the cost sustainability of such solutions and with a general trend of weight reduction. For what concerns cooling systems, the increased adoption of dual level cooling loops and water cooled charge air cooling is a clear trend. The present paper proposes a compact and cost effective solution with low temperature loop cooling water cooled charge air cooler and water cooled condenser for A and B segment vehicle, with the possibility to add other exchangers to the secondary loop. All the thermal load is managed by only one radiator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1336
Meisam Mehravaran, Yi Zhang
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in predicting the behavior of automotive components. In the current work the fan, shroud and radiator assembly has been simulated using a less expensive CFD methodology. After validating the CAE tool with the test data, the similar simulation was carried on for 13 different shrouds and the effect of geometrical parameters on airflow was investigated. The CFD data show that the smoothly converging shroud will lead to higher flow rates while cavities and steps will perform as a restriction and degrade the efficiency. Besides, it is seen that decreasing the blade-shroud clearance up to 17 mm will improve the air flow as it prevents the leakage of the pumped flow, but if we go further, the airflow does not increase and may even decrease, which may be explained based on the interference of blade and shroud boundary layer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1662
Manjushri Mahadev Patil, Ashok Pise, Nitin Gokhale
Recently, prediction of cylinder head temperature, using simulation techniques is one of interested tool for engineers. The main aim of this paper work is to predict the temperature field and mechanism of heat transfer prediction along cylinder head of diesel engines. Numerical analysis of conjugate heat transfer (CHT) between cylinder head and coolant was carried out. For the analysis a six cylinder, four cylinder, three cylinder, and two cylinder stationary diesel engines of different BMEP were taken. Simulation model was prepared and solved using commercial CFD software (STARCCM+ 9.O2) in two steps i.e. flow and Conjugate Heat transfer simulation. Flow simulation predicts flow distribution and its flow velocities along with its variation with respect to cylinder location and channel dimensions. Cylinder head is then used for further analysis where flow and heat transfer is solved simultaneously using CHT (conjugate heat transfer) simulation technique.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1663
Prafulla P Ghare, Hemant Khalane, Udaysingh Wakhure, Tushar Khobragade, Sandip Chaudhari, Atul Jahirabadkar
As one of the most complicated parts of an internal combustion Engine, the cylinder head is directly exposed to high combustion pressures and temperatures. Cooling must be provided for the heated surfaces to avoid overheating. However over-cooling will cause problems such as lower overall efficiency and high emission. Therefore, an optimal design of the cooling system is required to maintain trouble-free operation of engine. For single cylinder naturally aspirated engines, designer has to package injector, valve guide bores, head bolt bosses and intake and exhaust valve ports in limited space. On account of these space restrictions, designing of cooling jacket is very critical. Engineers invest a large amount of time and serious effort to optimize the flow through engine cooling jacket. The complicated structure of a cylinder head leads to the difficulty in acquiring detailed information of conducting flow and heat transfer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0337
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
Abstract The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1604
Tianwei (Thomas) Wang, John R. Wagner
Abstract Smart thermal management systems can positively impact the performance, fuel economy, and reliability of internal combustion engines. Advanced cooling systems typically feature multiple computer controlled actuators - a three way smart valve, a variable speed pump, and a variable speed electric radiator fan(s). To investigate the contributions of these electro-mechanical devices, a scale multifunction test bench was constructed which integrated these actuators, accompanying system sensors, and a controllable engine thermal load with real time data acquisition and control hardware/software. This paper presents a series of experimental studies that focus on the engine's thermal transient response to various actuators input control combinations. The test results established a basis for several key operating conclusions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1649
Kenji Matsumoto, Atsushi Takahashi, Tsutomu Inoue
Abstract In our preceding report [1], we showed that the thermal conductivity of a heat pipe dramatically improves during high-speed reciprocation. However, this cooling method has rarely been applied to car engine pistons because the thermal conductivity of commercially available heat pipes does not increase easily even if the pipe is subjected to high-speed reciprocation. In consideration of the data from our preceding report, we decided to investigate heat pipe designs for car engine pistons, propose an optimum design, and conduct thermal analysis of the design. As a result, we found that it is possible to transport heat from the central piston head area, where cooling is most needed, to the piston skirt area, suggesting the possibility of efficient cooling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0349
Suvankar Manna, Yogendra Singh Kushwah
With stringent requirements of fuel efficiency and emissions, the airflow and thermal management within the under-hood environment is gaining significance day by day. While adequate airflow is required for cooling requirements under various vehicle operating conditions, it is also necessary to optimize it for reduced cooling drag and fan power. Hence, the need of the day is to maximize cooling requirements of Condenser, Radiator ,CAC and other heat exchangers with minimal power consumption. To achieve this objective and due to the complicated nature of 3D flow phenomenon within the under-hood environment, it is useful to perform 3D CFD studies during preliminary stages to shorten design time and improve the quality and reliability of product design. In this paper we present the results from a CFD under-hood analysis that was carried out for design, development and optimization of a CRFM (Condenser, Radiator and Fan Module).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1734
Pallavi Annabattula, Owais Iqbal, Manyam Sanka, Kunal Arora
Coolant flow distribution in a topologically complex flow path aimed at efficient heat rejection from the critical regions of the engine is a challenge. However, with the established computational methodology, thermal response of an engine (via conjugate heat transfer) can be accurately predicted [1,2] and improved upon via Design of Experiment (DOE) study in a relatively shorter timeframe. This paper describes a method to effectively distribute the coolant flow in the engine coolant cavities and evenly remove the heat from various components. The DOE approach involves the usage of a sampling technique to screen the design space and generate the simulation matrix. Isight, a process automation and design exploration software, is used to set the framework of this study with the engine thermal simulation setup done in the CFD solver, STAR-CCM+.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1650
Azmi Osman, Mohd Asmu'i Hussin, Shaiful Fadzil Zainal Abidin
Abstract The drive to reduce CO2 and fuel consumption from passenger cars requires improvements from various subsystems. In particular, the ever growing importance of effective and efficient thermal management will no doubt benefit the quest for more efficient vehicle. While many established automakers have decided to increase the sophistications of the engine cooling circuits through electronics, the increase in complexity and costs are still not desirable especially for A and B passenger car segments. With this in mind, simple mechanical based cooling systems with enhanced functionalities are in high demand. To meet such demand, a simplified engine split cooling circuit previously proposed, simulated and reported seems to be promising. To further verify the indicated advantages, a prototype unit was built and physically tested using a dynamometer with motoring capability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1653
Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi, Naoki Ito
Abstract Car engine piston cooling is an important technology for improving the compression ratio and suppressing the deformation of pistons. It is well known that thermal conductivity improves dramatically through the use of heat pipes in computers and air conditioners. However, the heat pipes in general use have not been used for the cooling of engines because the flow of gas and liquid is disturbed by vibration and the thermal conductivity becomes excessively low. We therefore developed an original heat pipe and conducted an experiment to determine its heat transfer coefficient using a high-speed reciprocation testing apparatus. Although the test was based on a single heat pipe unit, we succeeded in improving the heat transfer coefficient during high-speed reciprocation by a factor of 1.6 compared to the heat transfer coefficient at standstill. This report describes the observed characteristics and the method of verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1655
Rolf B. Karlsson, Tyler Pilgeram, Michael Dailey
Abstract Passenger vehicle engine cooling systems typically fall into surge tank or recovery type systems. Recovery systems rely on an expansion/recovery volume, which operates at atmospheric pressure. Over long periods of time and with elevated temperatures, coolant evaporates from this atmospheric recovery bottle. An experimental study determined the evaporation rate as a function of temperature for one bottle geometry. A 1-D model then projected the total coolant loss to evaporation over several different hypothetical customer duty cycles to evaluate robustness of recommended service intervals.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0394
Nicola Giovannoni, Alessandro d'Adamo, Giuseppe Cicalese, Giuseppe Cantore
Fuel/wall interaction in DISI engines plays a fundamental role on mixture preparation, combustion and pollutant emissions through a wide set of different mechanisms: it contributes to charge stratification and spark targeting, combustion propagation, lube oil dilution, end gas reactivity and fuel deposit formation. Particularly, this last promotes unburnt hydrocarbon and soot particle formation: due to the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is necessary to deeply analyze and well-understand the complex physical mechanisms promoting fuel deposit formation. The task is far from being trivial, due to the coexistence of mutually interacting factors, such as complex moving geometries influencing both impact angle and velocity, time-dependent wall temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1163
Gabriel Elias, Stephen Samuel, Alessandro Picarelli
Abstract This study details the investigation into the hybridization of engine ancillary systems for 2014+ Le Mans LMP1-H vehicles. This was conducted in order to counteract the new strict fuel-limiting requirements governing the powertrain system employed in this type of vehicle. Dymola 1D vehicle simulation software was used to construct a rectilinear vehicle model with a map based 3.8L V8 engine and its associated ancillary systems, including oil pumps, water pump and fuel pump as well as a full kinetic energy recovery system (ERS). Appropriate validation strategy was implemented to validate the model. A validated model was used to study the difference in fuel consumption for the conventional ancillary drive off of the internal combustion engine in various situational tests and a hybrid-electric drive for driving engine ancillaries.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1207
Makarand Kane, Swanand Kulkarni, Shinto Antony, Rohit Kharat, Naga Chaithanya
Abstract In small car segment, as far as hybridization is concerned, the space and safety constraint demands use of lower voltage viz., 48 V as compared to >100-volt-systems used for vehicles in other segments. These systems also have advantage of reduced copper weight due to reduced current. As 12 V systems are replaced by the 48 V systems, the auxiliary 12 V loads would necessitate implementation of a DC-DC converter. Considering the requirements of auxiliary loads that are fed from 12 V battery, the power rating of the DC-DC converter can get considerably high resulting in increased size. Hence, it is advisable to re-design at least some of the 12 V auxiliary systems to 48 V such as the radiator fan motor. This, along with the issues faced in the existing PMDC Motor with regard to efficiency and sizing have generated interest to investigate better alternatives for the motor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1657
Ahsanul Karim, Meisam Mehravaran, Brian Lizotte, Keith Miazgowicz, Yi Zhang
A computational aero-acoustics simulation on the aerodynamic noise generation of an automotive radiator fan assembly is carried out. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the unsteady flow field was performed including the entire impeller and shroud to obtain the source of an audible broad-band flow noise between 2 to 4 kHz. Static pressure probes placed around the outer-periphery and at the center of the impeller inlet side and, at the shroud cavities to capture the noise sources. The static pressure at all probe locations were FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) processed and sound pressure level (SPL) was calculated. The sound pressure levels from the fan outer-periphery probes show the dominant source of blade passing frequency (BPF) and the broad-band noise. The BPF level is the strongest in fan outer-peripheral region because of large pressure fluctuations as a result of blade-passing.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1656
Lisa Henriksson, Peter Gullberg, Erik Dahl, Lennart Lofdahl
For some vehicle segments the cooling demand is increasing as a result of increased engine power or introduction of different systems, for example EGR, CAC, WHR. To be able to fulfil the increased cooling demand an increased efficiency of the cooling device or an increased cooling package are required. Due to limitations of space at the front of the vehicle, behind the grill, alternative positions of extra heat exchangers have to be evaluated. Common for most of these positions is that the oncoming airflow is not necessarily perpendicular to the heat exchanger core. Evaluation of inclined airflows relative to the heat exchanger must therefore be performed. This article presents CFD simulations on one period of a louvered fin of compact louvered fin heat exchangers, where the incoming airflow was inclined relative to the heat exchanger core.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0515
Haiou Jin, Yimin Zeng, Jie Liang, M.S. Kozdras
Abstract New aluminum alloys, based on a commercial Al-Mn-Cu brazing sheet core alloy, with increasing alloying element Mg up to 2 wt.%, have been developed for automotive heat exchanger units in service at above 200°C. The new Al-Mn-Cu-Mg alloys are to be used as the core material in brazing sheets for vacuum and nickel brazing technologies. They were DC cast to 3.75″ lab sized ingots, scalped, re-heated to 520°C, hot rolled to 4.8 - 5mm, and cold rolled down to a final gauge of 1mm. It has been demonstrated by various mechanical and corrosion testing that Mg contributes a strong solid solution hardening effect at both the room and elevated temperatures, without damaging the other mechanical properties or corrosion resistance. Hence the alloys with 1 - 2 wt.% Mg are able to maintain high yield strength above 60 MPa at 200 - 300°C, with no reduction in formability and very limited decrease in corrosion resistance.
2015-03-17
Standard
J2970_201503
This standard provides the testing and functional requirements guidance necessary for a leak detection device that uses any non-A/C refrigerant tracer gas, such as helium or a nitrogen-hydrogen blend, to provide functional performance equivalent to a refrigerant electronic leak detector. It explains how a non- refrigerant leak detector’s calibration can be established to provide levels of detection equal to electronic leak detectors that meet SAE J2791 for R-134a and SAE J2913 for R-1234yf.
2015-03-05
WIP Standard
AS1946E
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, metallic reinforced, hose assemblies suitable for use in aerospace hydraulic, fuel and lubricating oil systems at temperatures between -67 °F and 450 °F for Class I assemblies, -67 °F and 275 °F for Class II assemblies, and at nominal pressures up to 1500 psi. The hose assemblies are also suitable for use within the same temperature and pressure limitations in aerospace pneumatic systems where some gaseous diffusion through the wall of the PTFE liner can be tolerated. The use of these hose assemblies in pneumatic storage systems is not recommended. In addition, installations in which the limits specified herein are exceeded, or in which the application is not covered specifically by this standard, for example oxygen, shall be subject to the approval of the procuring activity.
2015-03-05
WIP Standard
J1402
This recommended practice covers minimum requirements for air brake hose assemblies made from reinforced elastomeric hose and suitable fittings for use in automotive air brake systems including flexible connections from frame to axle, tractor to trailer, trailer to trailer and other unshielded air lines with air pressures up to 1 MPa, that are exposed to potential pull or impact. This hose is not to be used where temperatures, external or internal, fall outside the range of -40 °C to +100 °C.
2015-03-05
Standard
J20_201503
This SAE Standard covers reinforced and flexible hoses intended for use in water and ethylene glycol based engine-coolant system applications.
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