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Training / Education
2014-10-20
Vehicle functional requirements, diesel emission regulations, and subsystem thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, fouling, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges to the designer. This webinar introduces many airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance and drive the design. The goal of this six-session webinar is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of diesel cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles. Participants will learn about vehicle/product constraints, integration issues, cooling airflow, system resistance, fans, shrouds, radiators, coolers, estimating heat rejection, thermal recirculation, and overall system performance. Basic concepts will be reinforced with examples and a cooling performance calculation of a diesel cooling system. SAE Papers 2002-01-0256, 850281, 900001 and 740691 are included as references in the course materials.
Training / Education
2014-09-25
Rapid advances have been made in the range of available designs and operational parameters as well as in the fundamental understanding of compact heat exchangers (CHEs). Since the majority of modern heat exchangers used for heating and cooling systems for vehicular applications are CHEs, keeping up to date with these advances is essential. This seminar will help you understand and be able to apply comprehensive information about the intricacies of CHE design, performance, operating problems and state-of-the-art-technology for car and truck applications.
Event
2014-09-22
WIP Standard
2014-04-16
This SAE recommended Practice is intended for use in testing and evaluating the approximate performance of engine cooling fans. This performance would include flow, pressure, and power. This flow and pressure information would then be used to estimate the engine cooling performance. This power consumption would then be used to estimate net engine power per SAE J1349. The procedure also provides a general description of equipment necessary to measure the approximate fan performance. The test conditions in the procedure generally will not match those of the installation for which cooling and fuel consumption information is desired. The performance of a given fan depends on the geometric details of the installation, including the shroud and its clearance. These details should be duplicated in the test setup if accurate performance measurement is expected. The performance at a given air density and speed also depend on the volumetric flow rate, or the pressure rise across the fan, since these two parameters are mutually dependent.
WIP Standard
2014-04-04
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) line, metallic reinforced, hose assemblies suitable for use in aerospace hydraulic, fuel and lubricating oil systems at temperatures between -67 °F and 450 °F for Class I assemblies, -67 °F and 275°F for Class II assemblies, and at nominal pressures up to 1500 psi. The hose assemblies are also suitable for use within the same temperature and pressure limitations in aerospace pneumatic systems where some gaseous diffusion through the wall of the PTFE liner can be tolerated.

The use of these hose assemblies in pneumatic storage systems is not recommended. In addition, installations in which the limits specified herein are exceeded, or in which the application is not covered specifically by this standard, for example oxygen, shall be subject to the approval of the procuring activity.

WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Standard covers reinforced hose, or hose assemblies, intended for conducting liquid and gaseous dichlorodifluoromethane (refrigerant 12) in automotive air-conditioning systems. The hose shall be designed to minimize permeation of refrigerant 12 and contamination of the system and to be serviceable over a temperature range of -30 to 120 °C (-22 to 248 °F). Specific construction details are to be agreed upon between user and supplier. NOTE— SAE J2064 is the Standard for refrigerant 134a hose. For refrigerant 134a use, refer to SAE J2064
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Recommended Practice is used for establishing the compression set that could be expected to occur with engine coolant hoses under securing clamps. It seeks to reproduce the type of indentation caused by the clamps in the wall of the hose. An excessive compression set measured by this method would indicate a hose that could eventually alloy leakage of coolant past the clamps in service. This method has been found to give repeatable results in the range of 25% to 50% initial compression.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
The Measurement of Coolant Hose task group conducted a round-robin study to determine the measuring capability of automotive suppliers and users to measure Inside Diameter (ID), Outside Diameter (OD), Wall Thickness (Wall) and wall thickness variation of hose using traditional measuring devices and techniques. Seven companies (five suppliers and two end users) participated in this testing. Based upon the round-robin study this information report will detail procedures, test measuring devices, results and recommendations.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
The Hose Measurement Task Force conducted a round-robin study to determine the measuring capability of automotive suppliers and users to simultaneously measure the Inside Diameter (ID), Outside Diameter (OD), Wall Thickness (Wall), and Wall thickness Variation (WV) of hose using a laser-based, non-contact LOTIS QC-20 gauging device. Three (3) companies (all end users) participated in this testing with one of the three companies performing the GR&R calculations presented herein. Based upon the round-robin study this report will detail procedures, test measuring devices, results, and conclusions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kambiz Jahani, Sajjad Beigmoradi
The efficiency of the vehicle cooling system strongly depends on the air flow through the radiator core. The flow through the radiator core in turn depends on other panels that are in the vicinity of the radiator. In this study, the effect of geometrical change at vehicle front-end including the whole bonnet, grille and bumper area is investigated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Numerical modeling is carried out by means of CAE tools. Simulations are performed for maximum power and maximum torque conditions, monitoring the mass flow rate through the radiator core and velocity contribution over the radiator face. To the velocity field of the airflow, the heat exchangers are represented as porous media and fan module is modeled utilizing Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) approach. The validity of the developed simulation capability is tested by successful comparison with the available experimental data for the base model at the given operating conditions. On studying the model with complete new front-end style, local modifications are applied incorporating adding airguide, flap and anti-recycler in order to enhance the flow distribution in the vicinity of radiator and increase the mass flow rate passing through it.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Felix Regin A, Abhinav Agarwal, Niraj Kumar Mishra
Abstract Increased engine thermal load, front end styling and compact vehicle requirements have led to significant challenges for vehicle front end designer to provide innovative thermal management solutions. The front end cooling module design which consists of condenser, radiator, fan and intercooler is an important part of design as it ensures adequate heat removal capacity of radiator over a wide range of operating conditions to prevent overheating of engine. The present study describes the optimization of cooling air flow opening in the front end using CFD methodology of a typical passenger car. The predicted vehicle system resistance curve and coolant inlet temperature to the radiator are used for the selection of cooling modules and to further optimize the front end cooling opening area. This leds to the successful optimization of the front end, selection of cooling modules with significant cost savings by reducing prototype testing and design cycle time.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiaozhen Sheng, Shouhui Huang, Sheng Tian, Xia Cao, Youlin Huang
Abstract Subject to excitations from pressure pulsations in boost air, the rubber pipe connecting the turbo compressor outlet and the intercooler of an engine vibrates structurally and radiates noise. If the pipe is improperly selected, the resulted vibration may be strong enough to radiate noise which is sufficient to damage the sound quality of the vehicle. This paper presents an initial analysis on this issue. First, formulae are derived for predicting vibration and sound radiation of the pipe for a given pressure pulsation, resulting in sound transmission index for the pipe to quantify its sound insulation behavior. Then effects on the sound transmission index are investigated for pipe parameters such as pipe wall thickness, Young's modulus and density of pipe material.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matthieu De Maillard, Mehrdad Zangeneh
Abstract In many automotive highway/off-highway engine cooling applications the fan has to provide a fairly large pressure rise and operate with a large gap between the tip of the blade and the shroud surface (tip clearance). This can pose difficult design challenges. This paper presents a design process coupling 3D inverse design with a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) for an axial cooling fan. The aim is to reduce the leakage loss and profile losses to improve performance. The inverse design method parameterizes the 3D shape of the axial fan with a reduced number of design parameters allowing a larger exploration of the design space in the optimization process. The methodology is applied to the design of a highway truck engine cooling fan with a tip gap of 8% of blade height. Two designs from the optimization are analyzed in detail using 3D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations, confirming that the design optimized for minimizing leakage losses meets the design specification.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael J. Lance, Hassina Bilheux, Jean-Christophe Bilheux, Sophie Voisin, C. Scott Sluder, Joseph Stevenson
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. Exhaust gas laden with particulate matter flows through the EGR cooler which causes deposits to form through thermophoresis and condensation. The low thermal conductivity of the resulting deposit reduces the effectiveness of the EGR system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, industry-provided coolers were characterized using neutron tomography. Neutrons are strongly attenuated by hydrogen but only weakly by metals which allows for non-destructive imaging of the deposit through the metal heat exchanger. Multiple 2-D projections of cooler sections were acquired by rotating the sample around the axis of symmetry with the spatial resolution of each image equal to ∼70 μm. A 3-D tomographic set was then reconstructed, from which slices through the cooler sections were extracted across different planes. High concentrations of hydrocarbon is necessary for imaging deposits and only those coolers which exhibited large organic fractions or hydrated sulfate phases were successfully characterized.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael J. Lance, John Storey, Sam Lewis, C. Scott Sluder
Abstract All high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers become fouled during operation due to thermophoresis of particulate matter and condensation of hydrocarbons present in diesel exhaust. In some EGR coolers, fouling is so severe that deposits form plugs strong enough to occlude the gas passages thereby causing a complete failure of the EGR system. In order to better understand plugging and means of reducing its undesirable performance degradation, EGR coolers exhibiting plugging were requested from and provided by industry EGR engineers. Two of these coolers contained glassy, brittle, lacquer-like deposits which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) which identified large amounts of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Another cooler exhibited similar species to the lacquer but at a lower concentration with more soot. The authors propose that lacquer deposits form when oxygenated PAHs present in the exhaust condense on the cooler walls subsequently experience nitric acid catalyzed polymerization in the presence of aldehydes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kenji Yoshida, Junichi Semura, Itsuhei Kohri, Yoshihiro Kato
Abstract This study investigates the reduction of the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) noise radiated from an automotive engine cooling fans, especially in case of the fan with an eccentric shroud. In recent years, with the increase of HV and EV, noise reduction demand been increased. Therefore it is necessary to reduce engine cooling fan noise. In addition, as a vehicle trend, engine rooms have diminished due to expansion of passenger rooms. As a result, since the space for engine cooling fans need to be small. In this situation, shroud shapes have become complicated and non-axial symmetric (eccentric). Generally, the noise of fan with an eccentric shroud becomes worse especially for BPF noise. So it is necessary to reduce the fan BPF noise. The purposes of this paper is to find sound sources of the BPF noise by measuring sound intensity and to analyze the flow structure around the blade by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). From the present results, suggest a design concept of the shroud shape to reduce the fan BPF noise is suggested.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Toshihide Ninagawa, Osamu Hakamata, Sergio Pujols
Abstract Requirements for fuel economy improvement and reduction in the vehicles engine compartment have increased significantly in the pass years. Performances in radiators have driven changes in terms of compactness and weight reductions. By focusing on the air flow we have optimized the radiator fin and developed a high performance radiator. A similar performance was achieved using an 11mm core depth which has 30% weight reduction compared to a 16mm core depth. The purpose of this paper is to present a technical outline about fin optimization.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Cornelius Pfeifer
Abstract Automotive manufacturers are looking for ways to reduce the CO2 emissions of their vehicle fleet. Increasingly, OEMs are focusing on intelligent air flap systems, which enable high cooling capacity through maximum air flow when they are in an open position. In a closed position, they reduce drag and the time necessary to bring the engine up to operating temperatures. Electric vehicles like the Tesla S benefit from Röchling's Active Grille Shutters (AGS) with a total of four independently controlled flap systems and the new generation of actuators. The module extends the driving range through improved aerodynamics and ensures optimized battery cooling and temperature control. Maximum benefit can be achieved if the controlled air flap systems are mounted right in the front to optimize aerodynamics. While adaptive air flap systems are increasingly used to improve aerodynamics today, they can be a key component of a future thermoacoustic engine encapsulation. This presentation is giving an overview about the current active grille shutter systems as well as a prospect for further CO2 reduction when integrated into a thermoacoustic engine encapsulation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mickael Cormerais, Thierry Marimbordes, Stephane Warnery, David Chalet, Haitham Mezher, Laurent Roussel
Abstract The future environmental constraints [e.g. WLTC +RDE, CAFE, Euro 6.2, 7] for the pollutant emissions lead to new challenges for the internal combustion engine. One of the solutions to decrease the fuel consumption, the CO2 and pollutant emissions whilst keeping the same driving and thermal comforts is the engine's thermal management, in particular during the warm-up phase. Furthermore, the traditional cooling system is not designed to work at the new engine transient thermal conditions at a non-optimal temperature in terms of fuel economy and exhaust emission. This paper describes a new technology for engine cooling systems that is able to control the coolant flow and temperature in relation to the engine conditions such as load and rotational speed. With a no flow in crankcase cooling strategy and a high engine temperature regulation, the Active Cooling Thermomanagement Valve succeeds in decreasing the fuel consumption without deteriorating engine's performance. To validate this concept, endurance tests were performed to verify the wear and durability.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
C. Scott Sluder, John M.E. Storey, Michael J. Lance
Abstract Fouling in EGR coolers occurs because of the presence of soot and condensable species (such as hydrocarbons) in the gas stream. Fouling leads to one of two possible outcomes: stabilization of effectiveness and plugging of the gas passages within the cooler. Deposit formation in the cooler under high-temperature conditions results in a fractal deposit that has a characteristic thermal conductivity of ∼0.033 W/m*K and a density of 0.0224 g/cm3. Effectiveness becomes much less sensitive to changes in thermal resistance as fouling proceeds, creating the appearance of “stabilization” even in the presence of ongoing, albeit slow, deposit growth. Plugging occurs when the deposit thermal resistance is several times lower because of the presence of large amounts of condensed species. The deposition mechanism in this case appears to be soot deposition into a liquid film, which results in increased packing efficiency and decreased void space in the deposit relative to high-temperature deposits.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xu Song, John Myers, Scott Sarnia
The Low Temperature Cooling (LTC) system is commonly developed for secondary cooling function requirements, such as forced induction air cooling, and HEV power electronics module cooling. The large heat transfer capacity of coolant allows for very compact water-cooled heat exchangers to be installed remotely for better underhood aerodynamic characteristics and more compact packaging design. An integrated LTC loop developed on a Hyundai 2.0L Turbo Charged vehicle extends a traditional WCAC (Water-cooled charged air cooler) application to include a water-cooled condenser (WCOND) module. Unlike other published LTC system design approaches, this research project emphasizes underhood airflow improvement strategy and focuses on heat transfer efficiency. This paper discusses the integrated LTC loop configuration, Low Temperature Radiator (LTR) design, coolant flow control, and others. The LTC system prototype design allowed vehicle performance data to prove that a simplified front end cooling module package allows better airflow cooling efficiency.
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