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2015-07-20 ...
  • July 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 9-11, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2015-05-15
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-23
Event
In this session, research and development of small engine technology will be covered. Topics include combustion, emission, control, and NVH.
2015-04-23
Event
In this session, research and development of small engine technology will be covered. Topics include combustion, emission, control, and NVH.
2015-04-23
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 16-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Charlotte, North Carolina
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1721
Harold Edward McCormick, John Crain, William Pisoni, Manas Lakshmipathy
It is well established that variances in cylinder bore surface finish influence oil consumption, wear, and scuffing. Recently published studies indicate oil consumption is a significant contributor to preignition in small high power density engines. It is also known that oil consumption leads to preignition in natural gas engines. Using a 3-D Surface Finish Analysis System on an engine cylinder bore to quantify the honed surface provides multiple benefits in engine development. The resultant improved cylinder bore surface will minimize oil consumption. 3-D surface finish analysis has proven to provide much higher quality surface finish data as compared to the historic industry standard, a 2-D Profilometer. Far fewer measurements are required for statistical confidence when using a 3-D surface finish analysis when compared to 2-D surface finish analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1291
Guohua Xie, Xiaoyu Xie
Turbo-gasoline in automobiles offers a higher refinement levels than their naturally aspirated counterparts. But the turbocharged engine has the drawback of the slower torque response, and the drawback of the gasoline engine for passenger car is more obvious. There are two identical smaller turbochargers in V-type gasoline twin-turbocharged engine because the smaller turbocharger has the smaller rotational inertia and its dynamic response at low speed can be improved. In theory, two identical turbochargers flow adjustment range is twice time that of a turbocharger in sequential turbocharging system, but the transient switching in sequential turbocharging system is Insurmountable difficulties. The authors propose the split sequential turbocharging system (SSTC). The SSTC consists of a split intake device and two different turbochargers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1281
Ahsanul Karim, Anthony Morelli, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte, Robert Wade
The use of Swirl-Vanes or Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) in gas engines is well-known and has demonstrated their ability to improve compressor surge margin at low flow rates. But, the use of swirl-vanes is not too common in large diesel engine turbo-chargers where compressor housing inlet has some form of Casing–Treatment (CT). Recently, Ford engineers used swirl-vanes in a diesel engine turbocharger where the compressor inlet had a casing-treatment and the experimental data showed no improvement in surge margin. To investigate reasons for not improving surge margin after introducing swirl-vanes at the compressor inlet, CFD analyses were performed. The CFD results showed strong interactions between swirling flow at the compressor inlet and flow stream coming out of the compressor inlet casing-treatment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1290
Vasudev D. Chaudhari
Turbocharging with intercooling can improve the fuel economy and reduce the engine emission. Turbocharger utilizes the waste energy from engine exhaust for boosting the inlet air pressure. At higher loading condition due to increased air pressure temperature the charge carrying capacity of engine decreases. Thus, reduced charge affects the engine combustion, performance and hence emission characteristics. A Maruti Swift Dzire VDI, 76 HP rated power, turbocharged, DI, water cooled diesel engine was run on diesel at 3000 rpm under variable loading conditions. Experimentation was done with cutting the intercooler from system, maintained temperature (partial) intercooling and with full intercooler surface temperature by varying present intercooler surface area. Engine performance was measured to know the behavior of diesel engine under different intercooling situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested. These vehicles are powered by 4-strokes engines with a displacement ranging from 50 to 250 cm3 and a power ranging from 3.0 to 16.5 kW.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10 – a blend of ethanol, isobutanol and gasoline. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 11.2% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.1% with the isobutanol blends).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1292
Surendranath Mutta, Sathiya Narayanan M, Priyank Gupta, Nandhakumar KRISHNAN
Diesel Engines are known for its low fuel consumption coupled with high specific power output. Downsizing the Engines with Turbocharging and common rail Injection technologies are the recent trends in improving the efficiency and performance of diesel engines. It is very challenging to match the torque targets at low speed and Power targets at high speed range of a diesel engines due to system hardware limitation. Torque at lower Engine speed will improve a greater extent to the drive-ability of a vehicle. Formation of black smoke is a major problem in lower engine speeds due lack of air availability. The use of Variable geometry, two stage turbocharging and four valves per cylinder are some of the solutions which make the task simpler, also involves additional cost and fundamental design changes. At the same time commonly used waste gate turbocharger used to boosting the airflow but fails to deliver required air flow at lower engine speeds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1723
Dieter Gabriel, Thomas Hettich
Fuel economy legislation is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston material change from aluminum to steel is enabling advancements in both demands. Furthermore, steel material properties lead to increased piston strength, robustness and durability. All this can be achieved at a lower compression height compared to an aluminum reference piston. Therefore, piston mass can be reduced despite the increase in material density. Since steel pistons require cooling of the combustion bowl region and the ring belt just like the aluminum counterpart, MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The TopWeld concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0935
Leonid Tartakovsky, Ran Amiel, Vladimir Baibikov, Mark Veinblat
It is known that in spark ignition (SI) engines with external mixture formation (carburetor, single-point- and port fuel injection) that are widely used in various non-automotive applications a certain part of injected fuel impinges internal surfaces of the intake manifold. This part of the fuel deposits on the manifold surface in the form of a liquid film, which is crawling to cylinders at substantial lower velocity than the main air/fuel mixture stream. Quantity of this liquid fuel penetrating into the individual cylinders differs depending on their location. It is greater for the cylinders located nearer to the port and lesser for the distant cylinders. Any change in operating regime or ambient temperature results in a change of the wall film thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1285
Dingfeng Deng, Fanghui Shi, Louis Begin, Isaac Du
Several instances have occurred where the outer surface of turbocharger fully floating journal bearing bushings have exhibited damage from oil debris resulting in loud constant tone noises and subsequent warranty claims. This paper studies the effect of oil debris in Turbocharger journal bearings on Subsynchronous NVH. A CFD model is built to study the behavior of oil debris particles with different sizes. The oil debris particles tend to navigate to the inner film or outer film of bearing bushing depending on the drag and centrifugal forces. It is found that the dominant centrifugal forces prevent larger particles from reaching the inner film while smaller particles travel more easily to the inner film. It is also found that the turbine side is more likely to become damaged from debris than the compressor side bearing due to higher temperatures. A tribology analysis is executed to determine the effect of oil debris particles on the speed ratio of the bearing bushing to the shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1286
A. Meghani, J. Allen, J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, D.J. Marshall, J.S. Hoyle, S. McBroom, R. Urista, M. Bazyn
The paper discusses the effects of various charging system technologies on the performance and fuel consumption of a modern supercharged engine, the Jaguar Land Rover AJ126 3.0 litre V6. The goal of the project was to improve performance and reduce the fuel consumption of the standard engine by researching new technologies. As standard the AJ126 engine uses an Eaton R1320 supercharger with a fixed ratio drive from the crankshaft and no clutch.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0662
Weiguo Zhang, Mac Lynch, Robert Reynolds
A turbocharger is currently widely used to boost performance of an internal combustion engine. Generally, a turbocharger consists of a compressor which normally is driven by an exhaust turbine. Both the compressor and the turbine will have an influence on how the low frequency engine pulsation propagates in the intake and exhaust system. In addition, the turbocharger will produce high frequency flow induced sound. The high frequency sound generation is associated with rotating blade pressures, supersonic tip speeds or rotating shock waves. This paper focuses on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the prediction of this high frequency flow induced sound. A turbocharger compressor is generally a centrifugal compressor consisting of wheel, diffuser and housing. As the compressor wheel rotates, ambient air is drawn in axially through an air induction system, accelerated to high speed and then expelled in a radial direction to the outlet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1724
Chao Cheng, Ali Kharazmi, Harold Schock
A three-dimensional piston ring model has been developed using finite element method with eight-node hexahedral elements. The model predicts the piston ring conformability with the cylinder wall as well as the separation gap between the interfaces if existing along the ring circumference. In addition to the radial interaction between the ring front face and the cylinder wall, the model also predicts the interaction between the ring and groove sides in the axial direction. This means, the ring axial lift, ring twist, contact forces with the groove sides along the circumferential direction are all calculated simultaneously with the radial conformability prediction. Thermal load is believed having significant influence on the ring pack performance, especially for the top compression ring, which is under the most severe operating condition. The thermal load influences are included in the model with a typical piston ring groove and cylinder wall temperature boundary condition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1283
Qiwei Wang, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Yue Liu
Authors: Qiwei Wang, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Xunan Gao, Si liu (School of Automobile Studies, Tongji University) Abstract: To study the turbocharger matching based on vehicle performance requirement, vehicle powertrain simulation model and turbocharged gasoline engine simulation model were built through the use of one-dimension simulation software and had been verified by experiment. According to the vehicle performance, the fuel consumption at 90km/h, of NEDC cycle and the accelerating duration from 0 to 100km/h were analyzed when fitted with different turbochargers. Then, to study the matching under multiple working conditions (NEDC cycle, full-load condition and high altitude condition), the matching of four turbochargers with a gasoline engine were compared respectively. The analysis on turbocharger matching was carried out according to the distribution of working points of NEDC cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1279
Pengfei Lu, Chris Brace, Bo Hu
After years of study and improvement, turbochargers in passenger cars now generally have very high efficiency. This is advantageous, but on the other hand, due to their high efficiency, only a small proportion of the exhaust energy is needed for compressing the intake air, which means further utilization of waste heat is restricted. From this point of view, a turbo compounding arrangement has significant advantage over a turbocharger in converting exhaust energy as it is immune to the upper power demand limit of the compressor. However, with the power turbine in series with the main turbine, power losses are incurred due to the higher back pressure which increases the pumping losses. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of turbo compounding a 2.0 litres gasoline engine and seeks to draw a conclusion on whether the power produced is able to offset the increased pumping work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1280
Ahsanul Karim, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte
The stable operation of turbocharger compressor at low flow rates is important to provide low end engine torque for turbocharged automotive engines. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the lowest flow rates at different turbo speed at which surge phenomenon occurs. For this purpose, a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation performed including the entire compressor wheel and volute. The wheel consisted of six main and six splitter blades. Flow bench and engine testing can be used to detect surge phenomenon. Complete 3D CFD analysis can be performed upfront in the design to calculate low end compressor operating range and to understand the fundamental mechanisms of stalled flow, the surge phenomenon, and impact of compressor inlet conditions on surge. This paper presents a CFD analysis near the low flow region at constant turbo speed to predict automotive centrifugal compressor surge phenomenon.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0798
Philipp Seidenspinner, Martin Härtl, Thomas Wilharm, Georg Wachtmeister
Today´s reference method for determining the Cetane Number (CN) of diesel fuels is still based on the use of prechamber combustion engines. Their more than 60 year old technology requires operation by skilled technicians and up to 1 liter of fuel for a single test run is necessary. Thus, the testing process is expensive and the evaluation of scarce model fuels becomes impossible. Alternative methods using constant volume combustion chambers (CVCC) have been introduced, which measure the ignition delay time (ID) between fuel injection and combustion to determine a Derived Cetane Number (DCN). The CVCC methods consume less fuel and are cheaper to operate. In contrast to the engines, calibration of these chambers is no longer carried out by analyzing primary reference fuels (PRFs).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1075
Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood
In-cylinder soot particle size and its distribution are of interest to engine designers and researchers as they influence the soot emitted from exhaust tailpipes as well as the soot in oil.  The focus of this present study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories.  The prediction of a soot particle pathline, size and how it is transported in the cylinder of a direct injection diesel engine was performed using post-processed in-cylinder combustion data from Kiva-3v CFD simulations with a series of Matlab routines.  Soot particles were assumed massless and only soot surface growth and oxidation processes were considered in calculating the sizes.  3500 locations at 8° Crank Angle (CA) ATDC were selected inside the engine cylinder at the beginning of the pathline and size calculation.  
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1282
J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, D.J. Marshall, T.R. Johnson, L. Barker, J. King, J. Martin, A.G.J. Lewis, S. Akehurst, C.J. Brace, C.D. Copeland
The paper discusses investigations into improving the full-load and transient performance of the Ultraboost extreme downsizing engine by the application of the SuperGen variable-speed centrifugal supercharger. SuperGen varies the drive ratio by using a power-split gearbox and two electric machines to divide the input torque, to transmit it via two paths (mechanically and electrically) and then to recombine it in order to decouple the speed of the compressor from that of the crankshaft. It also functions as an alternator and, when equipped with appropriate internal clutches, can provide stop-start and mild hybrid functionality too, all while only requiring a 12V electrical architecture in the vehicle.
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