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2015-07-20 ...
  • July 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 9-11, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2015-05-15
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-23
Event
In this session, research and development of small engine technology, including two-stroke cycle, will be covered. Topics include combustion, scavenging, emissions, fuel systems, control, and NVH.
2015-04-23
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
Separate sub-sessions cover zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing, boosting, and acoustics; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; numerical modeling of gas dynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 16-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Charlotte, North Carolina
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1249
Jinli Wang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
There is increasing demand for engine diagnostic and control with in-cylinder pressure signal. However, the application of cylinder pressure sensors are restricted by the high cost of the sensor. Another possible way for engine combustion state estimation is by processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed signal, but it is limited by the precision and complexity of the algorithm. It could be a solution by combined processing of one cylinder pressure signal and crankshaft speed signal together. A rigid crankshaft dynamics model was used to model the system. Measurement results from experiments show that the indicated torque error traces of different cylinder are similar in shape. According to this assumption, the reference cylinder with cylinder pressure signal available can serve as both a parameter calibration information source and an error reduction measure. The algorithm can be simplified with rather good precision.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing at the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power density ratios. In this scenario, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1121
Enrico Galvagno, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani, Antonio Tota
In this paper the torsional dynamic behaviour of a Dual Mass Flywheel is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The study presents a mathematical description of the system both in time and frequency domain, using lumped parameter models. Concerning the frequency domain analysis, two types of excitation are applied and compared: sine sweep excitation (with different directions) and steady-state sinusoidal excitation. A square wave excitation is used to stimulate the model and the real system in the time domain. The unknown damping parameter has been identified and a sensitivity analysis is presented. Good correspondence between experimental and numerical results has been found.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1726
Ajay Paul John, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
With the rapid growth of the two-wheeler industry, particularly in developing nations like India China etc., cost effective innovations and First Time Right designs are the fronts where the vehicle manufacturers are trying to compete. Piston is a very important part of the engine design as it contributes a significant amount to engine friction and engine noise. Piston scuffing is a common engine problem where there is a significant material loss at the piston and the Liner which could drastically affect the performance and the longevity of the involved components. For this study a small air cooled gasoline engine piston was taken in which significant wear patterns were noticed on its skirt. Also in this engine, the engine block is made of aluminium alloy with a cast iron sleeve acting as liner.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1738
Dileep Namdeorao Malkhede, Hemant Khalane
Due to reciprocating nature of IC engine, flow physics in intake manifold is complex and has significant effect on volumetric efficiency. Variable length intake manifold technology offers potential for improving engine performance. This paper therefore investigated effect of intake length on volumetric efficiency for wider range of engine speeds. For this purpose 1-D thermodynamic engine model of a single cylinder 611cc standard CFR engine capable of predicting pressure pulsations in the intake was developed. For validation, pressure pulsations were predicted at two different locations on intake manifold and compared against test data. This model was used to predict volumetric efficiency for different intake lengths and engine speeds. Volumetric efficiency was found to be a function of both engine speed and intake length, more so at higher engine speeds. FFT analysis of intake pressure pulsations during suction stroke and intake valve closed phase was carried out separately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1300
Shuanlu Zhang, Changlu Zhao, ZhenFeng Zhao, Dong Yafei, Fukang Ma
The hydraulic free piston engine is a complex mechanical-electro-liquid system, in order to simplify the complex system of the single hydraulic free piston engine, a new method for the driving of hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. Hydraulic differential drive achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. The structure and principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine is analyzed and the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and the hydraulic system working principle. In addition, the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Finally, the transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. Then we make a compare with the hydraulic free piston engine from Innas Company. The results show that: 1) the simplified engine can achieve the similar performance of the Innas concept. 2) The maximum frequency or the maximum power of the engine is increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1724
Chao Cheng, Ali Kharazmi, Harold Schock
A three-dimensional piston ring model has been developed using finite element method with eight-node hexahedral elements. The model predicts the piston ring conformability with the cylinder wall as well as the separation gap between the interfaces if existing along the ring circumference. In addition to the radial interaction between the ring front face and the cylinder wall, the model also predicts the interaction between the ring and groove sides in the axial direction. This means, the ring axial lift, ring twist, contact forces with the groove sides along the circumferential direction are all calculated simultaneously with the radial conformability prediction. Thermal load is believed having significant influence on the ring pack performance, especially for the top compression ring, which is under the most severe operating condition. The thermal load influences are included in the model with a typical piston ring groove and cylinder wall temperature boundary condition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1721
Harold Edward McCormick, John Crain, William Pisoni, Manas Lakshmipathy
It is well established that variances in cylinder bore surface finish influence oil consumption, wear, and scuffing. Recently published studies indicate oil consumption is a significant contributor to preignition in small high power density engines. It is also known that oil consumption leads to preignition in natural gas engines. Using a 3-D Surface Finish Analysis System on an engine cylinder bore to quantify the honed surface provides multiple benefits in engine development. The resultant improved cylinder bore surface will minimize oil consumption. 3-D surface finish analysis has proven to provide much higher quality surface finish data as compared to the historic industry standard, a 2-D Profilometer. Far fewer measurements are required for statistical confidence when using a 3-D surface finish analysis when compared to 2-D surface finish analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1717
Li-Chun Chien, Matthew Younkins, Mark Wilcutts
Dynamic skip fire is a control method for internal combustion engines in which engine cylinders are selectively fired or skipped to meet driver torque demand. Each cylinder is operated at or near its best thermal efficiency and flexible control of acoustic and vibrational excitations is achieved. In this type of engine operation, fueling, and possibly intake and exhaust valves of each cylinder are actuated on an individual firing opportunity basis. The implementation and benefits of this system have been described in several previous papers. This paper describes engine thermofluid modeling for this type of operation for purposes of air flow and torque prediction. Airflow dynamic and thermodynamic results for skip fire engine operation are presented and compared with experimental data under several different firing sequences. Unique impacts of dynamic skip fire on air estimation, and performance parameters are discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1302
Alexander Oliva, Stefan Held, Anatoli Herdt, Georg Wachtmeister
The piston assembly development of internal combustion engines is between the conflicting priorities of blow-by, friction, oil consumption and wear. The aim of this conflict consists in finding a minimum for all the mentioned parameters. This optimization can only be successful, if all involved effects are understood properly. In this paper only the blow-by and its associated flow paths for a diesel engine in part load operating mode are part of a detailed numerical investigation. A comparison of the possibilities to do a CFD analysis of this problem should show the decision why the here described way of modelling has been picked. Further, the determination of the complex geometry is described, which results in a challenging calculation area. Beside the constraints for temperature and pressure, also a meshing method for the creation of a dynamic mesh is explained that is capable to describe the movement of all three rings of the piston ring pack simultaneously.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1715
Farouq Meddahi, Alain Charlet, Yann Chamaillard, Christian Fleck
Compressor models play a major role as they define the boost pressure in the intake manifold. These models have to be suitable for real-time applications such as control and diagnosis and for that; they need to be both accurate and computationally inexpensive. However, the models available in the literature usually fulfil only one of these two competing requirements. On the one hand, physics-based models are often too complex to be evaluated on line. On the other hand, data-based models generally suffer insufficient inter- and extrapolation features. To combine the merits of these two types of models, this work presents an extended approach to compressor modelling with respect to thermo- and aerodynamic losses. In particular, the model developed by Martin et al. [1] is augmented to explicitly incorporate friction, incidence and transfer losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the turbocharger reliability and durability. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. It can use the self-circulation manner to realize high and low speed switching as well as satisfy the temperature upper limit of turbine entry without the large air compressor. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data can be used to validate the model. By utilizing the model, the relation between the valve opening and the flow distribution was obtained. Then, the dynamic simulation model is established in MATLAB/Simulink.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0524
Maniraj Perumal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ashokkumar Sundaramoorthy
This method and its special process are particularly suited for the production of Porous free combustion chamber proto type aluminium cylinder head casting. Current methods for producing porus free combustion chamber are graphite coating and CI/Cu metal chill which are moderately effective in achieving porus free combustion chamber. However, these current methods have serious drawbacks like high rejections due to blow holes/gas porosity generated from graphite coating and fine porosity due to prolonged cooling because of slow rate of cooling while peak temperature of metal chills. Using a typical aluminum alloy such as A356 or EN AC-AlSi7mg for prototype casting in regular sand casting practice, large SDAS (> 50 Чm) and medium amount of hydrogen content are possible in a prototype head.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1743
Tanmay Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel gasket (MLS), strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, block, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1723
Dieter Gabriel, Thomas Hettich
Fuel economy legislation is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston material change from aluminum to steel is enabling advancements in both demands. Furthermore, steel material properties lead to increased piston strength, robustness and durability. All this can be achieved at a lower compression height compared to an aluminum reference piston. Therefore, piston mass can be reduced despite the increase in material density. Since steel pistons require cooling of the combustion bowl region and the ring belt just like the aluminum counterpart, MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The TopWeld concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1719
Daniel Pachner, Lukas Lansky, David Germann, Markus Eigenmann
Turbocharger maps measured on the gas stand are commonly used to represent turbine and compressor performance. The maps are useful source of information for mean value modeling, engine calibration optimization, virtual sensing and feedback control design. For some tasks, representing the maps by fitted functional forms can be more convenient than using the interpolation of the map data directly. The functional representation usually allows for wider extrapolation ranges and more reliable application of numerical optimization methods. Several functional forms have been proposed for compressor map modeling, often based on empirical polynomial models. However, most successful models are based rational polynomials of dimensionless head and flow parameters (Winkler, Jensen). The turbines are usually modeled as orifices, or orifices with variable cross-section in case of variable nozzle (VNT) turbines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1159
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
The objective of the work reported in this paper was to identify how turbocharger response time (“turbo-lag”) is best managed using pneumatic hybrid technology. Initially methods to improve response time have been analysed and compared. Then the evaluation of the performance improvement is conducted using two techniques: engine brake torque response and vehicle acceleration, using the engine simulation code, GT-POWER. Three pneumatic hybrid boost systems have been considered: Intake Boost System (I), Intake Port Boost System (IP) and Exhaust Boost System (E). The three systems respectively integrated in a six-cylinder 7.25 l heavy-duty diesel engine for a city bus application have been modelled. When the engine load is increased from no load to full load at 1600 rpm, the development of brake torque has been compared and analysed. The findings show that all three systems significantly reduce the engine response time, with System I giving the fastest engine response.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0874
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner
Recent developments in advanced combustion engines have showed increases in efficiency and lower emissions through low temperature combustion (LTC) modes such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI). These combustion modes often rely on high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), advanced fuel injection, and in the case of RCCI a combination of fuels with different reactivities. Despite the advantages of LTC, such operations are highly sensitive to the in-cylinder pre-combustion conditions and face significant challenges in multi-cylinder operation due to cylinder-to-cylinder variations of the combustion process. The overall engine efficiency is constrained by the variations in factors such as combustion duration, combustion phasing, peak pressure, and heat release.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1251
Fabien Redon, Arunandan Sharma, John Headley
Following a brief overview of the opposed-piston architecture and its inherent efficiency benefits, the technical paper features detailed dynamometer performance and emissions results of a multi-cylinder Achates Power opposed-piston engine configured to meet current emissions requirements. This will include multi-cylinder test results for the following: • Brake thermal efficiency • Emissions • Transient load and emissions response • Heat rejection • Exhaust temperature • Catalyst light-off mode Included in the discussion is an in-depth analysis of the opposed-piston multi-cylinder test engine’s indicated thermal efficiency, friction and pumping losses. The paper also addresses the opposed-piston architecture’s historic challenges and explains how they have been solved.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1262
Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao, Phil Stansfield, Paul Freeland
Gasoline engine downsizing has become a popular and effective approach to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. This is typically achieved in the form of the boosted direct injection gasoline engine. In addition, such engines are typically equipped with variable valve timing (VVT) devices on the intake and exhaust valves. This paper describes the synergies between the valve timings and boost based on the experimental investigations on a single cylinder, four-stroke, gasoline direct injection spark ignited engine with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams. Two cam profiles have been tested to realize Miller cycle and compare with the standard camshaft. One features a long opening duration and standard valve lift for Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) and one features a short opening duration and low valve lift for Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC).
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