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2015-07-27 ...
  • July 27-29, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 9-11, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
2015-07-20 ...
  • July 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
2015-06-03 ...
  • June 3-5, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 9-11, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2015-05-15
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-23
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2015-04-23
Event
In this session, research and development of small engine technology, including two-stroke cycle, will be covered. Topics include combustion, scavenging, emissions, fuel systems, control, and NVH.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines as a plant in engine controls
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 16-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Charlotte, North Carolina
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0523
Marco Maurizi, Roland Lochmann
Abstract In modern car engines, the oscillating masses, the inertia forces of the moving engine parts has to be kept as low as possible. Small oscillating masses are not only the basis for the engine smoothness; they also have a great influence on the reliability and life of the components. The smaller oscillating mass in the crank mechanism minimizes, the weaker the vibrations and reduces friction and wear of the parts. The contribution of the piston pin to the oscillating mass can be between ten and thirty percent. Mass reduction of the piston pin has a corresponding large effect. In the newly developed MAHLE composite piston pin, an aluminum core is pressed in a steel sleeve. This enables a weight reduction in the piston pin up to twenty percent for gasoline engines and up to thirty percent for diesel passenger car engines. As the production of piston pins should be kept simple and economical, the new composite piston pin utilizes a forming process for its manufacturing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0743
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Shinhyuk Joo, Thomas Briggs, Terrence Alger
Abstract In response to the sensitivity to diesel aftertreatment costs in the medium duty market, a John Deere 4045 was converted to burn gasoline with high levels of EGR. This presented some unique challenges not seen in light duty gasoline engines as the flat head and diesel adapted ports do not provide optimum in-cylinder turbulence. As the bore size increases, there is more opportunity for knock or incomplete combustion to occur. Also, the high dilution used to reduce knock slows the burn rates. In order to speed up the burn rates, various levels of swirl were investigated. A four valve head with different levels of port masking showed that increasing the swirl ratio decreased the combustion duration, but ultimately ran into high pumping work required to generate the desired swirl. A two valve head was used to overcome the breathing issue seen in the four valve head with port masking.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0785
Dockoon Yoo, Jihun Song, Yeongchu Kim, Wook Jung, Duksang Kim
Abstract As presented in the previous study [1], a 2.4L ULPC(Ultra Low PM Combustion) diesel engine was achieved through optimal matching with piston bowl geometry and nozzle spray angle that significantly reduce the amount of engine out soot generated in the combustion. This engine complies with US Tier 4 Final regulation without DPF (only DOC) which was developed for off-road applications such as skid-loader, forklift and construction equipment. Improvement in fuel consumption of diesel engine for off-road applications and construction equipment which are operating continuously for a long time at high load conditions will be very important for reducing the operating costs. This paper explains a detailed review of improvement BSFC of 2.4L ULPC diesel engine by optimizing the combustion system with swirl ratio, nozzle flow rate and piston bowl geometry while maintaining non-DPF solution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0798
Philipp Seidenspinner, Martin Härtl, Thomas Wilharm, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract A new constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) apparatus is presented that calculates the cetane number (CN) of fuels from their ignition delay by means of a primary reference fuel calibration. It offers the benefits of low fuel consumption, suitability for non-lubricating substances, accurate and fast measurements and a calibration by primary reference fuels (PRF). The injection system is derived from a modern common-rail passenger car engine. The apparatus is capable of fuel injection pressures up to 1200 bar and requires only 40 ml of the test fuel. The constant volume combustion chamber can be heated up to 1000 K and pressurized up to 50 bar. Sample selection is fully automated for independent operation and low levels of operator involvement. Capillary tubes employed in the sampling system can be heated to allow the measurement of highly viscous fuels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0346
Lei Dongxu, Minli Bai, Jizu Lv, Peng Wang, Chengzhi Hu, Yuyan Wang
Abstract Due to the latent heat of vaporization, the efficiency of boiling heat transfer is several times and even dozens of times higher than that of the convection heat transfer. With the improvement of power density of the engine, there are more requirements for engine cooling system design. It has been confirmed that the subcooled boiling did exist in the engine cooling. If boiling heat transfer can be reasonablely used, we can achieve the objective of enhancing heat transfer without changing the existing structure. In this paper, in order to quantitatively research the subcooled boiling in the engine, we simulated the subcooled boiling in the analog channel with the Euler multiphase model, found the importance of the turbulent dispersion. In additon, we explored the applicability of existing models to subcooled boiling, and compared the results with the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0983
Mohd Abas, Ricardo Martinez-Botas
Abstract Cylinder deactivation has been utilized by vehicle manufacturers since the 80's to improve fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Cylinder deactivation is achieved by cutting off fuel supply and ignition in some of the engine cylinders, while their inlet and outlet valves are fully closed. The vehicle demand during cylinder deactivation is sustained by only the firing cylinders, hence increasing their indicated power. Conventionally, half the number of cylinders are shut at certain driving conditions, which normally at the lower demand regime. An optimal strategy will ensure cylinder deactivation contributes to the fuel saving without compromising the vehicle drivability. Cylinder deactivation has been documented to generally improve fuel consumption between 6 to 25 %, depending on the type-approval test drive cycle. However, type-approval test has been reported to differ from the “real-world” fuel consumption values.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1075
Muhammad Ahmar Zuber, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Zambri Harun, Zulkhairi Zainol Abidin, Antonino La Rocca, Paul Shayler, Fabrizio Bonatesta
Abstract The focus of this study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along the predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories obtained from Kiva-3v CFD simulation with a series of Matlab routines. 3500 locations representing soot particles were selected inside the cylinder at 8° CA ATDC as soot was formed in high concentration at this CA. The dominant soot particle size was recorded within the size range of 20-50 nm at earlier CA and shifted to 10-20 nm after 20° CA ATDC. Soot particle quantities reduce sharply until 20° CA ATDC after which they remain steady at around 1500 particles. Soot particles inside the bowl region tend to stick to the bowl walls and those remaining in the bowl experience an increase in size. Soot particles that move to the upper bowl and squish regions were observed to experience a decrease in size.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0162
Kunihiko Suzuki, Guang Yu, Satoru Watanabe
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop control-oriented modeling methodology and apply to an actual control design in turbocharged spark ignition engines. A grey-box modeling approach was adapted to accelerate the system calibration time, while providing accurate system dynamics. An engine simulator based on first principles models was utilized to investigate the statistical model derivation process. A recursive least squares method with forgetting factor was employed to estimate model parameters related to turbocharger and vehicle/drivetrain behaviors, which seemed to be major factors causing delay of turbocharger system. The concept was demonstrated through its application to the actual control design, and the reliability of the proposed method was theoretically investigated. According to the model evaluation results, approximated behavior models are in good agreement with time series data yielded by the engine simulator under various transient operations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1121
Enrico Galvagno, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani, Antonio Tota
Abstract This paper investigates the torsional dynamic behaviour of a Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) both numerically and experimentally. First, the experimental setup is described, followed by a mathematical description in the frequency domain of the mechanical system under test, using a lumped parameter model. An analytical expression for the frequency response function describing the rotational dynamics is derived and compared with experimental data. Sine sweep tests are used to characterise the system, imposing constant amplitude excitation, i.e. the torque applied to the engine side of the DMF. Moreover a method for enhancing the dynamic performance of the electric motor torque control is suggested in order to use it as a torsional shaker.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Abstract Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1644
Huan Li, Ying Huang, Gang Li, Yongguang Yang
Abstract The cylinder-by-cylinder variations have many bad impacts on the engine performance, such as increasing the engine speed fluctuation, enlarging the torsional vibration and noise. To deal with this problem, the impact mechanism of cylinder-by-cylinder variations on low order torsional vibration has been studied in this paper, and subsequently a new individual cylinder control strategy was designed by processing the instantaneous crankshaft rotation speed signal, detecting the cylinder-by-cylinder variation and using feed-back control. The acceleration characteristics of each cylinder in each engine cycle were compared with each other to extract the variation index. The feed-back control algorithm was based on the regulation of the fuel injection according to the detected variation level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1623
Ivan Arsie, Rocco Di Leo, Stefano Falco, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare
Abstract International regulations continuously restrict the standards for the exhaust emissions from automotive engines. In order to comply with these requirements, innovative control and diagnosis systems are needed. In this scenario the application of methodologies based on the in-cylinder pressure measurement finds widespread applications. Indeed, almost all engine thermodynamic variables useful for either control or diagnosis can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure. Apart for improving the control accuracy, the availability of the in-cylinder pressure signal might also allow reducing the number of existing sensors on-board, thus lowering the equipment costs and the engine wiring complexity. The paper focuses on the detection of the engine thermal state, which is fundamental to achieve suitable control of engine combustion and after-treatment devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1649
Kenji Matsumoto, Atsushi Takahashi, Tsutomu Inoue
Abstract In our preceding report [1], we showed that the thermal conductivity of a heat pipe dramatically improves during high-speed reciprocation. However, this cooling method has rarely been applied to car engine pistons because the thermal conductivity of commercially available heat pipes does not increase easily even if the pipe is subjected to high-speed reciprocation. In consideration of the data from our preceding report, we decided to investigate heat pipe designs for car engine pistons, propose an optimum design, and conduct thermal analysis of the design. As a result, we found that it is possible to transport heat from the central piston head area, where cooling is most needed, to the piston skirt area, suggesting the possibility of efficient cooling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1738
Dileep Namdeorao Malkhede, Hemant Khalane
Due to reciprocating nature of IC engine, flow physics in intake manifold is complex and has significant effect on volumetric efficiency. Variable length intake manifold technology offers potential for improving engine performance. This paper therefore investigated effect of intake length on volumetric efficiency for wider range of engine speeds. For this purpose 1-D thermodynamic engine model of a single cylinder 611cc standard CFR engine capable of predicting pressure pulsations in the intake was developed. For validation, pressure pulsations were predicted at two different locations on intake manifold and compared against test data. This model was used to predict volumetric efficiency for different intake lengths and engine speeds. Volumetric efficiency was found to be a function of both engine speed and intake length, more so at higher engine speeds. FFT analysis of intake pressure pulsations during suction stroke and intake valve closed phase was carried out separately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1743
Tanmay Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel gasket (MLS), strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, block, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1742
Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Tanmay Santra
India is considered to have one of the maximum two wheeler density in the world. Hence, all the scooter and bike manufacturers are striving to keep their market share by quickly bringing quality products with high mileage at a cheap price tag. With emission norms becoming stringent day by day, they should take care of every detail in the engine driving their vehicles. So today's engineer must be efficient and they must be able to refine and improve the technologies they use, faster and with greater accuracy than ever before. Focus of this paper is on reducing a two wheeler Cylinder Bore deformation through CAE simulation, which, in extreme conditions was observed to cause engine seizure. Bore deformation is of great significance to the overall performance of an engine in terms of oil consumption, blowby, emissions and influences piston dynamics to a great extent. They are however, difficult to measure and the deformation, being in micron level, are often prone to misinterpretation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0524
Maniraj Perumal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ashokkumar Sundaramoorthy
This method and its special process are particularly suited for the production of Porous free combustion chamber prototype aluminium cylinder head casting. Current methods for producing porous free combustion chamber are graphite coating and CI/Cu metal chill which are moderately effective in achieving porous free combustion chamber. However, these current methods have serious drawbacks like high rejections due to blow holes/gas porosity generated from graphite coating and fine porosity due to prolonged cooling because of slow rate of cooling while peak temperature of metal chills. The present work shows how this goal can be achieved in cylinder head casting of single cylinder high speed engine. Fundamental micro structural investigations are shown as well as the results of tensile tests, high temperature strength, corrosion behavior and static and dynamic component testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0825
Gen Shibata, Koki Ishi, Hirooki Ushijima, Yushi Shibaike, Hideyuki Ogawa, David E. Foster
Abstract Premixed diesel combustion offers the potential of high thermal efficiency and low emissions, however, because the rapid rate of pressure rise and short combustion durations are often associated with low temperature combustion processes, noise is also an issue. The reduction of combustion noise is a technical matter that needs separate attention. Engine noise research has been conducted experimentally with a premixed diesel engine and techniques for engine noise simulation have been developed. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel research engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. In the experiments, the engine was operated at 1600 rpm and 2000 rpm, the engine noise was sampled by two microphones, and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1653
Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi, Naoki Ito
Abstract Car engine piston cooling is an important technology for improving the compression ratio and suppressing the deformation of pistons. It is well known that thermal conductivity improves dramatically through the use of heat pipes in computers and air conditioners. However, the heat pipes in general use have not been used for the cooling of engines because the flow of gas and liquid is disturbed by vibration and the thermal conductivity becomes excessively low. We therefore developed an original heat pipe and conducted an experiment to determine its heat transfer coefficient using a high-speed reciprocation testing apparatus. Although the test was based on a single heat pipe unit, we succeeded in improving the heat transfer coefficient during high-speed reciprocation by a factor of 1.6 compared to the heat transfer coefficient at standstill. This report describes the observed characteristics and the method of verification.
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