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Training / Education
2014-12-03
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%. This web seminar will explore turbocharging for gasoline and diesel (heavy and light duty) engines, including the fundamentals of turbocharging, design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria. It will discuss the interaction between turbocharging and engine systems and the impact on performance, fuel economy and emissions. Developments in turbocharging technology such as variable geometry mechanisms, two-stage and sequential (series & parallel) turbocharging, EGR including low pressure loop, high pressure loop and mixed mode systems and novel turbocharging systems will be described using figures and data.
Event
2014-10-20
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
Event
2014-10-20
This session describes design, performance, and operating characteristic of crucial peripheral devices, intake and exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures and features.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Saravanan D, Anish Gokhale, Karthikeyan N
The demand of Torque from an engine is highly variable, good torque at Partially Open Throttle (POT) condition improves drivability at city driving condition and good torque at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition improves cruising at highway driving condition, conventionally engine produces better torque at one particular operating condition leaving poor drivability at others. The Torque characteristics of an engine depends upon the volumetric efficiency of the engine, volumetric efficiency of a naturally aspirated engine can be improved by tuning the intake manifold, with an overall improvement in volumetric efficiency throughout the engine operating conditions better torque curve can be achieved which facilitates improved combustion and drivability. For improving volumetric efficiency, several technologies were developed and used, among that Dual Intake Manifold system is one where the flow of charge is channelized between longer and shorter flow path depending on the engine operating condition.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
S. Loganathan, M Anand
Fuel Economy & CO2 Reduction in IC Engines is the key driving factor for the Product performance & Customer satisfaction all around the world. The Stringent CO2 Limits calls for Engine Friction Reduction, Engine Downsizing & other Alternative measures. The challenges were to measure the component level Friction Contribution on the Engine & to select the critical contribution parameter & to optimize the same. Oil pump is one such important engine parasitic load which takes up engine power through crankshaft to deliver oil flow rate according to engine demand. The proper functioning of the Oil pump is considered with required engine Oil pressure along with optimum power consumption over various operating speed and temperature. Hence the various Oil pump critical design metrics are reviewed for two cylinder common rail diesel engine to have optimal power consumption and without reduction the Oil pressure at the engine oil gallery. Then the design should is validated with the engine testing against the current and optimized design to deploy the same.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ming Chen, Yanjun Wang, Wenrui Wu, Jun Xin
Because of increasing performance and emission demands, turbo charged gasoline engines are becoming popular in the market. These downsized engines have higher thermal loads and experience increased levels of vibration. As a result, thermo mechanical fatigue cracks on exhaust manifold and gasket sealing failure are often observed during engine durability tests, such as thermal shock test. The present paper describes a CAE approach to evaluate the exhaust manifold design. It allows the design engineers to identify structural weakness at the early stage and/or to find the root cause of the exhaust manifold failure. A transient none-linear finite element method is used to calculate the plastic deformation and thermal mechanical behaviors of the exhaust manifold assembly under the thermal shock test cycles, which include rated speed full load, rated speed motored and idle speed conditions. Transient heat transfer simulation is performed to provide thermal boundary conditions for the nonlinear stress/strain analysis.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
He Changming, Xu sichuan
The in-cylinder tumble intensity of GDI engine is crucial to combustion stability and thermal efficiency, required to be changed as the different operation conditions. A variable tumble system (VRS) applied to GDI engine was introduced to meet tumble ratio requirements in various situations. The transient gas exchange of four combustion systems all were investigated during both intake and compression strokes based on CFD simulation, namely (1) Case 1-Intake port B (with flap valve)/Spherical piston top; (2) Case 2-Intake port B (without flap valve)/Spherical piston top; (3) Case 3- Intake port A/Spherical piston top; (4) Case 4- Intake port A/Dented piston top. The simulated results of dynamic tumble ratio showed that during the whole intake process the dynamic tumble ratio of Case1 was obviously higher than other cases under the same boundary conditions, and the maximum value was about 5~6 times higher. The crank angle range, at which the strong tumble motion fully developed, was merely about 70oCA, roughly from 410oCA to 480oCA.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jose Serrano, Pablo Olmeda, Francisco Arnau, Artem Dombrovsky
These days many research effort on internal combustion engines is centred on optimising turbocharger matching and performance on the engine. In the last years a number of studies have pointed that heat transfer phenomena have a strong effect on turbocharger behaviour. The difficulty of determining the necessary data to take into account such phenomena arises as a consequence of the little information provided by turbocharger manufacturers. In this background, Original Engine Manufacturers (OEM) need general engineering tools able to provide reasonably precise results in predicting the mentioned heat transfer phenomena. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a procedure, applicable to small automotive turbochargers, able to give necessary heat transfer properties that can be used in a lumped 1D turbocharger heat transfer model. Such model must be suitable to work coupled to whole-engine simulation codes (such as GT-Power or Ricardo WAVE) for its usage in a global engine models by the OEM.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Chendil Pandi, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Ravindra Purushottam Mahajan, Kannan S
In the current competitive market especially with the emission & CO2 norms becoming more stringent, an engine with high power, low cost and better fuel economy becomes very important and these are the drivers for innovation. With the existing technology, delivering the intended power with good fuel economy without much impact of cost becomes very difficult. The concept of downsizing gives a very good potential to improve the fuel economy. There was a need to develop a technologically advanced engine which can deliver the same torque and power as of 2.5 litre 4 cylinder engine with 40% less cubic capacity from 1.5 litre 3 cylinder engine for an SUV application. A 1.5 litre 3 cylinder with regulated two-stage turbo charger was one of the innovative solutions to meet cost and FE targets without compromising performance. For the first time a 3 cylinder engine with two-stage turbocharger was implemented to meet the full load performance requirement of the engine and the combustion is carefully calibrated to get best possible FE and drivability in that class of vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Elias Sundström, Bernhard Semlitsch, Mihai Mihaescu
This paper focuses on numerical analysis of the flow in a ported-shroud centrifugal compressor at stable and unstable near-surge operating conditions. A production turbocharger compressor which is widely used in the heavy automotive sector is considered. A systematic approach is taken to assess the flow solver employed and to characterize the flow field under steady-state and unsteady conditions. The computational data are compared with available experimental measurements, which represent an idealized installation. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is used initially on successively refined grids and cell types to assess the dependency of the computed flow solution to the mesh resolution used. The RANS method used is based on the integral formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation with the time-dependent part set to zero. Convection and diffusion terms are approximated in finite volumes with averaged values over cell faces. The SST k-omega two-equation model is used, assuming isotropy of turbulence with no curvature correction option.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ian S. Park, Andrew M. Williams
Modelling of turbochargers based on steady state operating maps for turbine and compressor rotors is widely recognized to have limitations arising from flow pulsations and heat transfer effects that are not well accounted for by interpolation and extrapolation from the mapped data. With implementation of low pressure exhaust gas recirculation systems and multi-stage boosting, the inlet conditions of centrifugal compressors vary more widely than traditional single stage compression systems. Understanding the impact of the inlet conditions on irreversibilities, and therefore efficiency complements existing works on pulse flow and heat transfer effects in informing the engine modelling community. This research experimentally explores the effect of inlet pressure and temperature on the total-total efficiency of a steady flow centrifugal compressor across a range of conditions in isolation of pulse flow effects and with negligible heat transfer. The results suggest that for any given corrected mass flow rate and total-total pressure ratio the isentropic efficiency is dependent on inlet conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Shankar D Patil, P Mahesh, P RAMESH
Fifteen numbers of New Generation 12T ICV vehicles built with 4-Cyl 120HP Diesel engines validate at regular interval from zero to 60000 Km in a tropical conditions. Field run data composed and analyzed with Intended Duty cycle for engine oil drain life estimation. The ICV trucks with sump capacity 0.083- 0.104 litre / hp and SAE 15W40 viscosity of oil meeting API CH-4 , API CI-4+ from group –I and Group-II base stocks are considered. The engine wear is more a function of silica concentration, load factor and age than the API category of oil. Soot accumulation in diesel engine crankcase oil is the dominant factor which governs engine oil change interval. Oil drain interval is found proportional to the sump volume for the same stress on oil. Based on data, Iron concentration and kinematic viscosity decides useful oil life with respect to the discard limits. In Indian tropical conditions, field trials are carried out on 12T payload vehicles at higher temperature, humidity, dust levels and load factor.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Lei Shi, Hualei Li, Yi Cui, Xiaojian mao
With the continuous development of high power density and wide speed range diesel engines, the requirements of the turbocharging systems matching with the diesel engines are increasing. The boost pressure of diesel engine need to be improved further, however the problem of matching the wide speed range diesel engine and the high pressure turbocharging system has to be resolved. Two-Turbocharger System can provide high boost pressure level over a wide range of engine speed by controlling the working condition of each turbocharger. It is an effective measure to improve the fuel economy performance and the transient responsive performance, and to reduce the smoke emission at low speed operation. However, the control strategy of two turbochargers will be more complicated. In this paper, the two-turbocharger system was matched with a vehicle diesel engine and the comparison of different matching strategy was analyzed. The steady and transient performance of the diesel engine with different two-turbocharger system was studied.
Event
2014-10-09
Session CV302 focuses on the mechanical design of Powertrain and drive train components, sub-systems, and systems. Relevant topics include but are not limited to: Materials, coatings, and processes Design/Analysis/Test methods Novel designs of Powertrain and drive train components and sub-systems: Noise/Vibrations of Powertrain/drive train components and sub-systems- gear rattle, torsional vibration, sound power, etc. Powertrain and drive train includes but is not limited to engine, mounting, transmission, driveshaft(s),differential(s),dropbox(es), and axles.
Event
2014-10-09
Session CV302 focuses on the mechanical design of Powertrain and drive train components, sub-systems, and systems. Relevant topics include but are not limited to: Materials, coatings, and processes Design/Analysis/Test methods Novel designs of Powertrain and drive train components and sub-systems: Noise/Vibrations of Powertrain/drive train components and sub-systems- gear rattle, torsional vibration, sound power, etc. Powertrain and drive train includes but is not limited to engine, mounting, transmission, driveshaft(s),differential(s),dropbox(es), and axles.
Training / Education
2014-10-06
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
Training / Education
2014-10-02
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
K Giridharan
Abstract: In this research paper, a novel train traction system is described (Indian patent and PCT application are pending). In this system, the vehicle is lifted like a hovercraft by air cushion and the traction is achieved by using horizontally mounted all wheel drive. Chance of derailment is completely eliminated and wherein even in the event of failure of few traction wheel stations during run, the train remains mobile with absolute safety even at high speeds. Horizontally mounted all wheel drive traction is powered by overhead electrification to maintain high power to weight ratio and faster acceleration. In the present invention, no rail but just a flat surface on the vertical side walls of the simple traction bed is used. This eliminates the enormous cost of laying the complex and expensive railway tracks. Other advantages include the lack of exhaust fumes and carbon emissions at point of use especially in countries where electricity comes primarily from non-fossil sources, less noise, lower maintenance requirements of the traction units.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sibel Kaya, Barış Ayber
This study is inspired by the calculations and validations of the FWD-halfshaft joint selection aspect of life and strenght. A tool is required to validate the calculations of strenght in terms of torque and life in terms of kilometer for halfshaft joints, however there is not a calculation tool for halfshaft joints from this attribute perspective. The tool is involved with the related calculations about the life and strenght, validations of the joint types and the selection of the optimum joint type and size. Validation of the tool will be done by comparing road load data which is collected from durability vehicles. After the completion of the study, one can gain the capability on joint selection for all kind of FWD vehicles. This tool introduce more efficent methodology and will prevent the user from oversizing of the joint and from redundant cost.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Uday Nayak, Aravind S, Sunil Aundhekar
The present competitive market scenario and customer requirements demand for improved NVH quality and to meet statutory norms without increased cost. Noise is becoming one of the major concerns day by day. When gears are used for power transmission, gear noise is of particular concern. The noise may be created due to harmonics of the rotating and meshing internal components. This has a significant effect on the overall vehicle sound quality. Various factors contribute to gearbox noise. Some of them include shaft misalignments, gear geometry, lubrication, bearings and loose mountings. Hence it is essential to study which factors contribute to the gearbox noise and to develop a countermeasure for the same. This paper offers an experimental investigation of reducing the noise levels in Ashok Leyland gearbox by modifying the gear tooth profile on one of the gear trains in order to meet the futuristic noise statutory norms. The modification includes controlling the tip relief and introduction of lead-profile charts in the existing spur gear train as well as converting the existing spur gear train to helical gear train.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Igor Taratorkin, Viktor Derzhanskii, Alexander Taratorkin, Sergey Kharitonov
The paper presents the findings of the investigation of consistent patterns of parametric resonances in the nonlinear system "Engine unit – Torque Converter – Planetary Transmission Elements (Drum and Lined Plate). The mentioned oscillations and resonances form dynamic loading of powertrain lined plates. The paper validates the ways of tuning parametric oscillations providing for increasing durability of multiplate clutches plates of vehicle powertrain in terms of the research results. The evaluation of dynamic stability was led on the basis of the analysis of Mathieu equation and Ince-Strutt diagram. The restriction of the depth of rigidity modulation parameter is offered by filtering of high-frequency disturbances which are generated in the nonlinear system by the power unit (internal combustion engine (ICE) or electric motor (EM)), by hydrodynamic processes in the hydraulic transformer (torque converter or hydraulic coupling) and in the system of its oil supply. The efficiency evaluation of the influence of the developed actions on lined plate’s durability is performed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jagjeet Singh, Gagandeep Singh
As technology advanced, synchronizer which were previously sold as feature in hi-end vehicles are becoming a "standard" feature. In most off road vehicle / tractors constant mesh gear box are replaced with synchromesh gearbox as driver demand for more and more comfort. In synchromesh gear box when gear is shifted from one gear to another a locking provision is provided in gear dog teeth and shifting sleeve which is known as "Back Taper angle" which avoid gear jump out. This locking provision is different from "interlocking" which avoid double gear engagement. In this paper, a new design method is mentioned in which back taper angle is eliminated from both shifting sleeve and gear dog teeth and machining is provided on hub and entry chamfer on both gear dog teeth and shifting sleeve are changed from symmetric to asymmetric. This new design reduced gear shift effort and avoid gear jump out. This new machining can be done by simple gear cutting operations and there is no need for an special machine as required to generate back taper angle.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Nishant Mohan, Mayank Sharma, Ramesh Singh
The economics of operating internal combustion engines in cars, buses and other automotive equipment is heavily affected by friction and wear losses caused by abrasive contaminants. As such, dust is a universal pollutant of lubricating oils. Road dust consists of depositions from vehicular and industrial exhausts, tire and brake wear, dust from paved roads or potholes, and from construction sites. Present research investigates the influence of SAE dust powder of size 5 µm-100 µm as contaminant in SAE 20W-40 lubricant on the relative motion of a plane surface over the other having circular surface in contact. A pin-on-disk setup as per ASTM G99 has been used to conduct the experiments, firstly at increasing rpm keeping constant load of 118 N, and secondly by increasing loads, keeping rpm constant at 1000. The contaminated lubricant has been used to study its influence on friction and wear rate at the interface of pin of 12 mm diameter and disk at track diameter of 98 mm. Based on the experiments at constant load, the coefficient of friction decreased with increase in rpm and the wear rate first increased and then decreased.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Michael Franke, Shirish Bhide, Jack Liang, Michael Neitz, Thomas Hamm
Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust aftertreatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine. This paper describes options and potentials to improve the base engine for future commercial and industrial engines.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Balakrishnan Natesan
Abstract Phosphorous is an important alloying element in powder metallurgy applications. It is used in P/M parts for effective Sintering, dimensional stability, improved machinability, corrosion resistance etc. However it does have some negative effects on properties of P/M parts. The purpose of the paper is to study the effect of phosphorous on PM gear of Mix A and Mix B having identical composition differing only in phosphorous content. The samples were detailed on each stage, viz. sintering & Heat treatment. In addition 2 defective samples were studied to observe the extent to which phosphorous may deteriorate the P/M Gear.
Event
2014-09-24
This session will contain papers describing progress in new engine concepts relating to both airbreathing and non-airbreathing congiurations. Of particular interest are concepts which will improve performance, safety, noise, emissions and cost.
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