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2018-09-17 ...
  • September 17-19, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
2018-03-27 ...
  • March 27-28, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 3-4, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2018-02-20 ...
  • February 20-22, 2018 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • November 6-8, 2018 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2017-11-17
WIP Standard
J431
This SAE Standard covers the hardness, tensile strength, and microstructure and special requirements of gray iron sand molded castings used in the automotive and allied industries. Specific requirements are provided for hardness of castings. Test bar tensile strength/Brinell hardness (t/h) ratio requirements are provided to establish a consistent tensile strength-hardness relationship for each grade to facilitate prediction and control of tensile strength in castings. Provision is made for specification of special additional requirements of gray iron automotive castings where needed for particular applications and service conditions. Note: This document was revised in 1993 to provide grade specific t/h control. In 1999 the document was revised to make SI metric units primary.
2017-11-15
WIP Standard
J2515
A subcommittee within SAE ISTC Division 35 has written this report to provide automotive engineers and designers a basic understanding of the design considerations and high temperature material availability for exhaust manifold use. It is hoped that it will constitute a concise reference of the important characteristics of selected cast and wrought ferrous materials available for this application, as well as methods employed for manufacturing. The different types of manifolds used in current engine designs are discussed, along with their range of applicability. Finally, a general description of mechanical, chemical, and thermophysical properties of commonly-used alloys is provided, along with discussions on the importance of such properties.
2017-11-02
Magazine
700 miles, hands-free! GM's Super Cruise turns Cadillac drivers into passengers in a well-engineered first step toward greater vehicle autonomy. Toyota rethinks the Flagship The 2018 Lexus LS moves to twin-turbo V6 power and piles on the takumi. Honda 2018 Accord: Antidote for crossover fever The all-new, tenth-generation Accord is Honda's best-ever-and makes the case for why crossovers shouldn't take over the planet. Autonomy testing: Simulation to the rescue Autonomous technology development injects new rigors on vehicle-development testing.
2017-10-16
Technical Paper
2017-01-7007
Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Turbocharging has become an important method for increasing the power output of diesel engines. A perfectly matched turbocharger can increase the engine efficiency and decrease the BSFC. For turbocharger matching, engine manufacturers are dependent on the turbocharger manufacturers. In this paper, an analytical model is presented which could help engine manufacturers to analyze the performance of turbocharger for different load and ambient condition using compressor and turbine map provided by turbo manufacturers. The analytical model calculates the required pressure at inlet and exhaust manifold for fixed vane turbocharger with waste gate using inputs like BSFC, lambda, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger efficiency and heat loss, that are available with the engine manufacturer.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5014
Maurilio Pereira Gomes, Igor Santos, Camila Couto, Cristiano Mucsi, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marco Colosio
Abstract This work consists of evaluating the influence of heat treatment on sintered valve seat insert (VSI) obtained with two different high-speed steels powders and one tool steel: AISI M3:2, AISI M2 and AISI D2, respectively. The high-speed / tool steel powders were mixed with iron powders and additives such as manganese sulphide, zinc stearate, graphite and niobium carbide. All the high-speed / tool steel powders had its particle size distribution and morphology analyzed. The heat treatment of the VSI consisted of air quenching followed by double tempering it in seven different and equidistant temperatures, ranging from 100 °C until 700 °C. A data acquisition system with a thermocouple type k attached to the samples was used to determine the air-quenching cooling rate. The mechanical and physical properties measurements were carried out, i.e., apparent density, apparent hardness and crush radial strength.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2384
Ijhar H. Rusli, Svetlana Aleksandrova, Humberto Medina, Stephen F. Benjamin
Abstract In aftertreatment system design, flow uniformity is of paramount importance as it affects aftertreatment device conversion efficiency and durability. The major trend of downsizing engines using turbochargers means the effect of the turbine residual swirl on the flow needs to be considered. In this paper, this effect has been investigated experimentally and numerically. A swirling flow rig with a moving-block swirl generator was used to generate swirling flow in a sudden expansion diffuser with a wash-coated diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) downstream. Hot-wire anemometry (HWA) was used to measure the axial and tangential velocities of the swirling flow upstream of the diffuser expansion and the axial velocity downstream the monolith. With no swirl, the flow in the catalyst monolith is highly non-uniform with maximum velocities near the diffuser axis. At high swirl levels, the flow is also highly nonuniform with the highest velocities near the diffuser wall.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2406
Wu Yang, Xiuting Yin, Zhang Song Zhan, Huixian Shen, Huibin Qing, Qingqiang Zeng, Liyun Kang
Abstract This work addresses the problem of fatigue strength prediction of crankshaft fillet rolling processes to improve its accuracy. It is empirical to usually consider the effect of fillet rolling process on crankshaft fatigue performance. The fatigue performance of rolling process is mainly determined by induced compressive residual stresses, increased hardness and reduced roughness. Because the first two factors are difficult to measure the arc surface of fillet rolled cranks, it is difficult to predict the enhanced rate of crankshaft rolled performance to baseline unrolled’s. In this work a prediction method of fatigue strength for ductile cast iron crankshafts rolling process is presented. This method indirectly predicts the effect of the increased hardness on fatigue performance by the resonant bending fatigue test and modelling of crankshaft fillet rolling dynamic for the induced compressive residual stress.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2411
Henry Guo, Wenchuan Jia, DeDong Xie
Abstract A smart waste gate (WG) turbocharger controls boost by bypassing turbine flow through the WG port which allows optimizing both low and high speed engine performance. However, the WG port in the turbine housing involves much complex geometry which leads to potentially higher thermal stress and plastic strain if design is improper. This paper first presents the common thermal cracking problems at port zone and then shows finite element analysis (FEA) results for one design. The predicted location correlates well with the observed failure port location. A design study with key parameters for the port is conducted under same boundary conditions. Key parameters include height H, inner diameter D and inner diameter fillet r of the port. Totally 13 designs are analyzed under packaging and performance limitation. Accumulated plastic strain (APS) from FEA is used to evaluate different designs. Curves are plotted to show the relationship between APS and design parameters.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2433
Fengqin Huang, Wenxin CAI, Zhiming Zhang, Wenlong Zhang, Laifeng Shi, Xin Li, Bernhard Kaltenegger, Daniele Suzzi, Werner Schrei, Karl Weihrauch
Abstract Nowadays high thermal efficiency engine is the mainstream of the gasoline engine development, and the control of the design period is strict, which lead to the cylinder head design become more and more difficult. How to get the optimal design of cylinder head quickly is an important research topic by design professionals in the current, which not only meets the performance requirements, but also guarantees the requirement of reliability. The sub-model method is high efficient and high precision in solving the complex problem of stress and strain, which widely used in truss, road, bridge and large container. Using this technology in the local structure optimization of the cylinder head, will shorten the cycle of structure optimization significantly, and get the optimal design of cylinder head quickly. In this paper, Firstly, the cylinder head global FE model was set up.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2426
Zhiming Zhang, Weimin Wang, Jiangtao Wang, Jiming Zhang, Yuanda Chen, Wenlong Zhang, Guofang Yang, Fugui Fan, Wenxiang Zhang, Fengqin Huang, Xiangwang Li
Abstract In recent years, Turbo-charged GDI technology is more and more widely used, which can meet the high demand of the engine performance and efficiency, but the resulting reliability and NVH issues also need to be paid attention to [1]. Traditional NVH performance improvement is mostly based on the experience design and repeatable test, which lead to longer development period, high cost, and also ineffective results. NVH performance simulations play more important role in engine vibration and noise prediction along with the development of the simulation technology[2][3]. The force response analysis is usually used to evaluate the NVH performance of the engine structure under the standard excitation. However, dynamic analysis of the crank train, valve train, and piston can be carried out based on the AVL software family, also the vibration and airborne noise of whole engine can be predicted directly at different speed and load [4].
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2429
Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Abstract Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2422
Na Li, Fenlian Huang, Yuhua Bi, Yueqiang Xu, Lizhong Shen, Dewen Jia
Abstract The assembly of con rod bearing and crankpin is a key friction pair which offers an important guarantee for stable operation of diesel engine. Specific to the non-road 2-cylinder diesel engine developed independently and based on the theory of thermoelastohydrodynamic lubrication as well as multi-body dynamics, this paper establishes a multi-body dynamics model for con rod big end bearings of the 2D25 horizontal diesel engine and makes a research on the influence of bearing width, bearing clearance, and oil inlet position and diameter upon lubrication of con rod bearing, taking into consideration that of the surface appearance of bearing bush and the elastic deformation of bearing bush and axle journal upon the same. Research results show that bearing width and bearing clearance are the major factors that influence lubrication characteristics of con rod bearing while oil inlet position and diameter only have a small influence on such characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2423
Xiaoming Ye, Yan Fu, Wei Li, Yuze Jiang, Shixin Zhu
Abstract As the key components of internal combustion engine(ICE), the crankshaft main bearings are used to support the crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism whose rotary motion realizes the energy conversion from heat energy to mechanical power in cylinder. The lubrication performances and wear life of crankshaft main bearings directly affect ICE working efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is very important to study the lubrication performances of crankshaft main bearings. In this paper, a 16V marine diesel engine was studied. Based on the AVL-Designer software platform, a dynamic model of crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism and a hydrodynamic lubrication model of crankshaft main bearing were built. The numerical analyses were carried out on the lubrication performances of crankshaft main bearings under different speed conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2417
Houchuan Fan, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Nan Jiang, Dayong Qu, Yi Zheng, Yinghong Zheng
Abstract An electronic waste-gated turbocharger for automotive application can accurately control the boost pressure and effectively reduce turbo-lag. It can improve the transient responsive performance of engine and the acceleration performance of vehicle, which makes vehicle have a better adaptation to the complex traffic environment. A detailed analysis of aerodynamic working principle of electronic wastegate is the foundation for designing the control strategy of electronic wastegate. Putting turbine with electronic wastegate under unsteady condition that simulates the pulse exhaust gas of engine and studying influences of different valve opening on the performance of turbine has the practical value. This paper sets fixed and periodical unsteady conditions and adopts numerical methods to explore the performance of turbine in twin-entry turbocharger and the flow loss of bypass. Steady simulation structure is given for reference.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2418
Hong Zhang, Zhuo Wang, Zhouzhensen Hong
Abstract The electric compound turbocharger(ECT) which integrates a high speed motor into a turbocharger rotor shaft can be used transiently to accelerate the turbocharger more quickly in response to an acceleration requirement. It can utilize the exhaust gas energy fully to improve the engine fuel efficiency and benefit for engine with lower emissions. The key technique of ECT is to solve the reliability problems when an electrical motor is integrated into a turbocharger shaft between the turbine and compressor wheels will increase the burden for the bearing support and affect the turbocharger shaft rotation characteristics. In order to know the dynamics behavior of higher load bearing system is explored for reliability, this paper focus on the nonlinear rotor dynamics characteristics of ECT rotor bearing system.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2420
Bertrand Kerres, Andreas Cronhjort, Mihai Mihaescu, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2421
Dongkang Cheng, Xiaori Liu
Abstract With the enhancement of power density, the thermal load of internal combustion engine becomes an increasingly serious problem, the influence of heat load on the frictional power loss of piston ring is more prominent. A mixed lubrication model is established for the piston ring-cylinder liner system of a diesel engine, the influence of temperature change on the frictional power loss of piston ring-cylinder liner system is investigated. The maximum temperature ranges of the first ring, the second ring and the oil ring are 40 degrees Celsius independently, and the maximum temperature range of the cylinder liner is 20% of its temperature. The results show that: The temperature of cylinder liner has obviously influence on the oil film temperature, while the temperature of piston rings has little influence.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2216
Yumin Fu
Abstract This study presents the development of sensor less rough road detection by using frequency analysis of instantaneous crankshaft rotation speed signal. Combustion diagnosis (misfire detection) is enforced by OBD requirement. Eliminating rough road’s effect on misfire detection is critical for getting robust diagnosis result, especially for crankshaft rotation speed based misfire detection. Although some kind of sensor is often used to identify vehicle driving on rough road, sensor less rough road detection method is still attractive for OEM to reduce cost and some approaches have been developed in past years for the aim [1] [2] [3]. This paper presents a new rough road detection approach based on crankshaft rotation speed frequency domain analysis. It firstly collects the signal from vehicle driving with misfire on public road and without misfire on rough road. Fluctuation exists in crankshaft rotation speed under such condition.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2214
Kwee-Yan Teh, Penghui Ge, Yusheng Wang, David Hung
Abstract The large-scale rotating flow structure in an engine cylinder exhibits features that can be described in generic terms of tumble and swirl. The structural details, nevertheless, vary from cycle to cycle due to fluctuating initial and boundary conditions of the flow. Typical analysis of the flow field cyclic variability - by simple root-mean-square, or additional spatial or temporal filtering, or proper orthogonal decomposition - is based on pointwise deviation of the instantaneous velocity from the ensemble mean. However, that analysis approach is not amenable to the evaluation of spatial variation of the flow structure, in position and orientation, within the flow field. To this end, other studies in the past focused instead on quantifying the variation of the vortex center for the dominant tumble or swirl pattern within the flow field.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2252
Weihua Sun, Wei Du, Xuefei Dai, Xiangdong Bai, Zhiping Wu
Abstract The acquisition of more authentic cylinder pressure data is the basis of engine combustion analysis. Due to the multiple advantages, quartz piezoelectric pressure transducers are generally applied to the measurement of the cylinder pressure. However, these transducers can only produce dynamic cylinder pressure data which may be significantly different from the actual values. Thus, the cylinder pressure data need to be corrected through a certain method, while different cylinder pressure correction methods will cause result divergences of the combustion analysis. This paper aims to acquire a proper cylinder pressure correction method by carrying out theoretical analysis based on the polytropic process in the compression stroke as well as the experimental research of the cylinder pressure of a turbocharged eight-cylinder diesel engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2254
Sirui Huang, Changpu Zhao, Yayong Zhu
Abstract In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with intake air humidification have to be conducted. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and intake air humidification against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different air humidifying rates with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2280
Yuzuru Nada, So Morimoto, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Ryu Kaya, Hideaki Nakano, Shinichi Kobayashi
Abstract The aim of this study is to clarify the mixture formation in the combustion chamber of our developed natural gas engine incorporating the sub-chamber injection system, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate rich mixture in the sub-chamber, suitable for ignition, from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. Mixture distributions in chambers with and without sub-chamber were numerically simulated at a variety of operating conditions. The commercial software of Fluent 16.0 was used to conduct simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in an axial 2 dimensional numerical domain considering movements of piston. Non-reactive flow in the combustion chamber was simulated before the ignition timing at an engine speed of 2000 rpm. The turbulence model employed here is standard k-ε model. Air-fuel ratio is set with a lean condition of 30.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2282
Gen Chen, Wenxin Cai, Jianguang Zhou, Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs, Werner Schrei, Karl Weihrauch
Abstract A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2303
Yan Wang, Xudong Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yong Wang, Guoxiu Li, Yusong Yu
Abstract Fuel spray impingement is a common phenomenon during the combustion processes of a DI diesel engine. When liquid droplets impinge on the hot surface of a combustion chamber, a complex heat transfer and mechanical interaction occur between the droplets and combustion chamber. This probably changes the surface topography and microstructure of the impact position. Based on the experimental method, the fuel spray phenomenon and conditions of a surface pit caused by droplet impingement were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the surface pit is formed under specific conditions, i.e., a specific droplet diameter and surface temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of the pit area shows that the microstructure of the pit changed from an original dense and smooth surface to a loose structure. The microstructure of the pit did not show a molten state. The concentration of metal and nonmetallic elements in the pit area changed significantly.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2424
Shemin Zhang, Huaping Li, Tao Chen, Nan Jiang, Xinzhen Tan, Limei Deng, Qingsong Xia, Paul Kapus, Mingtang Ma, Wei Li, Junqiang Zhang, Qingjun Ma, Yong Xia
Abstract In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
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