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Viewing 1 to 30 of 6677
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2017-04-04
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2016-11-30 ...
  • November 30-December 2, 2016 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0061
Da Wang, Dingchao Qian, Bo Wang
This article summarized the development methods and technical experiences on Formula Student race car engines acquired by Jilin University during 2011 and 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and are modified to turbocharged engine within the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple researches have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These researches covered areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the selection and control of boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system on the turbocharger, etc.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used, and two ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0060
Ashish Jain, Sahil Kapahi
A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the powertrain is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUM Lap software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modelled using 1D simulation on RICARDO Wave.
2016-10-26
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2016-10-26
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-10-26
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2340
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Haifeng Liu
An experimental study is carried out to investigate the effects of the proportion between high-pressure and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation on engine operation. The boosting system is a series 2-stage turbocharger with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) as the high-pressure stage. The HP-portion in dual loop EGR (DL-EGR) is swept from 0 to 1 while the intake pressure and EGR rate are fixed by adjusting the rack position of VGT. The results show that the HP-portion in DL-EGR and rack position of VGT both have great influence on the amount of exhaust enthalpy and the overall turbocharger efficiency which are critical in achieving an optimum trade-off in pumping losses and indicated thermal efficiency. For the conditions with insufficient exhaust enthalpy, pure HPL-EGR or pure LPL-EGR both have the potential to achieve satisfactory fuel efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2349
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Jham Tikoliya
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to decrease weight of the current design without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road/engine load cases and severe environmental conditions. The topic was chosen because of interest in higher payloads, lower weight, and higher efficiency. Automotive cylinder head must be lighter in weight, to meet increasingly demanding customer requirements. The design approach for cylinder head has made it difficult to achieve this target. A designer might make some judgment as to where ribs are required to provide stiffness, but this is based on engineering experience and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the stand-alone head.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2185
Jialin Liu, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Zeyu Zou, Mingfa Yao
In this work, both the ‘SCR-only’ and ‘EGR+SCR’ technical routes are compared and evaluated after the optimizations of both injection strategy and turbocharging system over the World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC) in a heavy duty diesel engine. Moreover, the emissions and fuel economy performance of different turbocharging systems, including wastegate turbocharger (WGT), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), two-stage fixed geometry turbocharger (WGT+FGT) and two-stage variable geometry turbocharger (VGT+FGT), are investigated over a wide EGR range. The NOx reduction methods and EGR control strategies for different turbocharger systems are proposed to improve the fuel economy. The requirement of turbocharging system at various NOx emissions and their potential to meet future stringent emission regulations are also discussed in this paper.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2275
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin Fletcher, Jeremy Styer, William Lam, Gregory Guinther
There has been a global technology convergence by engine manufacturers as they strive to meet or exceed the ever-increasing fuel economy mandates that are intended to mitigate the trend in global warming associated with CO2 emissions. While turbocharging and direct-injection gasoline technologies are not new, when combined they create the opportunity for substantial increase in power output at lower engine speeds. Higher output at lower engine speeds is inherently more efficient, and this leads engine designers to overall smaller engines. Lubricants optimized for older engines may not have the expected level of durability with more operating time being spent at higher specific output levels. Additionally, a phenomenon that is called low-speed preignition has become more prevalent with these engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2187
Haifeng Liu, Huixiang Zhang, Hu Wang, Xian Zou, Mingfa Yao
The combustion in low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines can be characterized as large spatial and temporal scales combustion. One of the most effective measures to reduce NOx emissions is to reduce the local maximum combustion temperature. In the current study, multi-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted to explore the potential of Miller cycle, high compression ratio coupled with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and WEF (water emulsified fuel) to improve the trade-off relationship of NOx-ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption) in a low-speed two-stroke marine engine. The results show that the EGR ratio could be reduced combined with WEF to meet the Tier III emission regulation. The penalty on fuel consumption with EGR and WEF could be offset by Miller cycle and high geometric compression ratio.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2177
Kevin L. Hoag, Barrett Mangold, Terrence Alger, Zainal Abidin, Christopher Wray, Mark Walls, Christopher Chadwell
A unique single cylinder engine was used to assess engine performance and combustion characteristics at three different strokes, with all other variables held constant. The engine utilized a production four-valve, pentroof cylinder head with an 86mm bore. The stock piston was used, and a variable deck height design allowed three crankshafts with strokes of 86, 98, and 115mm to be tested. The compression ratio was also held constant. The engine was run with a controlled boost-to-backpressure ratio to simulate turbocharged operation, and the valve events were optimized for each operating condition using intake and exhaust cam phasers. EGR rates were swept from zero to twenty percent under low and high speed conditions, at MBT and maximum retard ignition timings. The increased stroke engines demonstrated efficiency gains under all operating conditions, as well measurably reduced 10-to-90 percent burn durations.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2333
Akio Kawaguchi, Hiroki Iguma, Hideo Yamashita, Noriyuki Takada, Naoki Nishikawa, Chikanori Yamashita, Yoshifumi Wakisaka, Kenji Fukui
From the environmental and energy security point of view, drastic fuel efficiency improvement of engines is required. Cooling heat loss is one of the most dominant losses among the various engine losses to reduce. Since the 1980s, many attempts to reduce cooling heat loss by insulating the combustion chamber wall have been carried out, most of which have not been successful. Charge air heating by the constantly high temperature insulating wall is a significant issue of these attempts, because it deteriorates charging efficiency, fuel/air mixture in diesel engines, and the tendency of knock occurrence in gasoline engines. Toyota has developed a new concept heat insulation methodology, which can reduce cooling heat loss through the combustion chamber wall, without sacrificing any other engine performances. Surface temperature of insulation coat on combustion chamber wall changes rapidly, according with the fluctuating temperature of in-cylinder gas.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2348
Rudolf Wichtl, Michael Schneider, Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder
The required CO2 reduction by legislation represents a major challenge to the OEMs now and in the future. The use of fuel consumption saving potentials of friction causing engine components can make a significant contribution. Boundary potential aspects of a combustion engine offer a good opportunity for estimating fuel consumption potentials. As a result, the focus of development is placed deliberately on components with great potential. Friction investigations using the motored method are still state of the art. The disadvantages using this kind of friction measurement method are incorrect engine operating conditions like cylinder pressure, piston and liner temperatures, piston secondary movement and warm deformations which can lead to incorrect measurement results compared to a fired engine. In the last few years two new friction measurement methods came up, the so called “floating liner” method and a motored friction measurement with external charging.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2341
Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, R Pradeepak
When a scooter is put on main stand, it keeps the vehicle from falling as it rests against the engine crankcase. As the main stand is operated it transmits a large amount of load to the crankcase, thus creating a necessity to check the durability of the later. Practical tests showed that continuous application of the main stand resulted in the failure of its pivot area on the crankcase. This raised questions not just on the feasibility of the crankcase design in terms of durability, but also on the main stand design in terms of a load transmitting member. However, as the project was at its later stage, crankcase design could not be altered; thus it asked for a main stand design optimization. The base main stand model was thus taken for MBD simulation and loads were generated for further FEA analysis. The meshed crankcase model was taken in a commercially available FEA code for checking its durability.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2332
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
For an innovative opposed-piston diesel engine (OPE) with two-stroke operation mode, it attracted much more attention than ever in some developed countries all over the world, attributed to the unique advantages of higher power density that beneficial to downsize IC engine, as well as the potential of reducing fuel consumption further for outstanding thermal efficiency. To achieve fast actual application and ensure the feasibility at concept design stage, the performance characteristic of OPE crankshaft system was investigated, and thus theoretical analytic model of crankshaft system for OPE was established. The averaged output torque of crankshaft system was considered as an objective function in this optimization model, and then basic constraints were imposed according to actual kinematics property of OPE crank train. The effect of all structural design variables on averaged output torque of OPE crankshaft were analyzed, respectively.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2339
Xue-Qing Fu, Bang-Quan He, Hua Zhao
Downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of conventional spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but it easily leads to knocking combustion of SI engines at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally- aspirated (NA) 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a NA 1.6 L gasoline engine with the maximum speed of 6000 rpm, a one-dimensional model for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a turbocharger with waste gate or/and a supercharger paralleled with bypass valve was established and validated by experimental results. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism was used to predict knocking combustion.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2336
Ken Naitoh, Soichi OHARA, Yuichi ONUMA, Kentaro kojima, Kenya Hasegawa, Tomoya SHIRAI
Combustion experiments obtained for a small single-point auto-ignition gasoline engine having strongly-asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles with pulse collide around the combustion chamber center, showed both a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of today’s diesel engine and also a silent combustion comparable to that of today’s spark-ignition gasoline engines, at the condition of low road and 2000rpm. While this gasoline engine having a medium level of point compression generated by a negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves, steady-state experiments of combustion at air-fuel ratios between 20:1 and 40:1 (lean conditions) show apparent increase of exhaust temperature over 100 degrees and pressures over 1.5 MPa, even at the situations without any plugs.
2016-10-05 ...
  • October 5-6, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2016-10-03
Journal Article
2016-01-9044
Eric Gingrich, Daniel Janecek, Jaal Ghandhi
Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the impact in-cylinder pressure oscillations have on piston heat transfer. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. Measurements were made in a light-duty single-cylinder research engine operated under low temperature combustion regimes including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Conventional Diesel (CDC). The HCCI data showed a correlated trend of higher heat transfer with increased pressure oscillation strength, while the RCCI and CDC data did not. An extensive HCCI data set was acquired. The heat transfer rate - when corrected for differences in cylinder pressure and gas temperature - was found to positively correlate with increased pressure oscillations.
2016-10-03 ...
  • October 3-5, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8066
Marco Maurizi, Daniel Hrdina
Total cost of ownership is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston compression height reduction in combination with carbon based piston pin coatings is enabling advancements in both demands. MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The MonoLite concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process. Especially an optimum design and position of the cooling gallery as well as durability for very high peak cylinder pressures can be matched. This is particularly advantageous for complex combustion bowl geometries that are needed in modern diesel engines to meet fuel economy and emission requirements. The MonoLite steel piston technology offers a superior compression height reduction potential compared to typical friction welded designs.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8091
Shuanlu Zhang, ZhenFeng Zhao, Changlu Zhao, Fujun Zhang, Yuhang Liu
A new method for driving the hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. This method achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. Principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine is analyzed and the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Then energy balance method is used to design the main parameters of the novel engine. High pressure and secondary high pressure of the hydraulic system are constrained by the combustion parameters and therefore parameters are analyzed. In order to verify the effectiveness of energy balance method, the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and engine working principle. The transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. In addition, the effectiveness of the simulation is proofed by dimensionless analysis. It indicates that energy balance method realizes the basic performance of hydraulic free piston engine.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8100
Jordan Kelleher, Nikhil Ajotikar
Piston cooling nozzles/jets play several crucial roles in the power cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Primarily, they help with the thermal management of the piston and provide lubrication to the cylinder liner and the piston’s wrist pin. In order to evaluate the oil jet characteristics from various piston cooling nozzle (PCN) designs, a quantitative and objective process was developed. The PCN characterization began with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulent model to analyze the mean oil velocity and flow distribution at the nozzle exit/tip. Subsequently, the PCN was tested on a rig for a given oil temperature and pressure. A high-speed camera captured images at 2500 frames per second to observe the evolution of the oil stream as a function of distance from the nozzle exit. An algorithm comprised of standard digital image processing techniques was created to calculate the oil jet width and density.
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