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2015-07-20 ...
  • July 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but...
2014-12-03 ...
  • December 3-5, 2014 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • June 3-5, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 9-11, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%. This web seminar will explore...
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that cool flame reactions were induced by increasing boost pressure when gasoline with a Research Octane Number of approximately 91 was used as the test fuel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0100
Ken Naitoh, Takuma Okamoto, Tomoaki Kubota, Kan Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki Nojima, Taro Tamura
An inexpensive, lightweight, and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve thermal efficiency over 50% for small engines was proposed in our previous reports, which is achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center, avoiding contact with the chamber walls and piston surfaces. The colliding of pulse jets can maintain high pressure ratio for various air-fuel ratios, whereas traditional homogeneous compression engines due to piston cannot get high pressure ratio at stoichiometric condition. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that higher compression in this engine results in less combustion noise because of encasing effect. Here, a small prototype engine having supermulti-jets colliding with pulse and strongly-asymmetric double-piston system is examined by using computational experiments. Pulse can be generated by the double piston system of a short stroke of about 40mm. Computations at some loads and engine speeds show a potential of high thermal efficiency over 60%, because there is very less heat loss on combustion chamber and piston surface.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0061
Rama Subbu, Baskar Anthony Samy, Piyush Mani Sharma, Prasanna Mahendiran
Abstract Ride comfort, driving stability and drivability are vital factors in terms of vehicle performance and customer satisfaction. Crankshaft unbalance is a source for the vibration that reduces the vehicle performance and it needs to be controlled to some extent such that the vehicle performance will be improved. The IC engine is made up of reciprocating and rotating parts. They produce unbalance forces during their operation and produces vibration in Vehicle. The vibration reduction will be possible by minimizing these unbalance forces and by optimizing the crankshaft of the two wheeled vehicle engine design. Many researches were made to find the causes for the vibration and to reduce it. But still there is a research gap on the testing and simulation of engine components (crankshaft, connecting rod and piston assembly). In this study, an attempt is made to represent the engine vibrations and its isolation to provide a gate way for the future work on it. This study shows the various steps carried out on the multibody modeling of the IC engine components including engine crankshaft and their orientations.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0034
Saager Paliwal, Alex S. Bare, Katherine J. Lawrence, Marc Anderson, Glenn Bower
Abstract This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as a coating, as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a four-stroke spark-ignited carbureted engine as a possible technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture and tested at low, medium and high loads. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared: addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine. Operating the engines on standard gasoline in a laboratory, emission gases were transferred via a heated line to be analyzed by an FTIR.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0011
Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pascal Tribotte, Gaetano De Paola, Cyprien Ternel
Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT). New simulations results recommend VNT as it offers a higher potential to reduce BSFC with increase power and low end torque output than the original matching.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0013
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo Bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
Abstract To downsize a spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE), keeping suitable power levels, the application of turbocharging is mandatory. The possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound, ETC) can be considered, as demonstrated by a number of studies and the current application in the F1 Championship, since it allows to extend the boost region to the lowest ICE rotational speeds and to reduce the turbo lag. As well, some recovery of the exhaust gas residual energy to produce electrical energy is possible. The present paper shows the first numerical results of a research program under way in collaboration between the Universities of Pisa and Genoa. The study is focused on the evaluation of the benefits resulting from the application of ETC to a twin-cylinder small SI engine (900 cm3). Starting from the experimental steady flow performance of turbine and compressor, the complete model of a turbocharged engine has been created using the one-dimension code AVL BOOST.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0091
Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Although metallic compounds are widely known to affect combustion in internal combustion engines, the potential of metallic additives in engine oils to initiate abnormal combustion has been unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of combustion chamber deposits derived from engine oil additives on combustion in a spark-ignited engine. We used a single-cylinder four-stroke engine, and measured several combustion characteristics (e.g., cylinder pressure, in-cylinder ultraviolet absorbance in the end-gas region, and visualized flame propagation) to evaluate combustion anomalies. To clarify the effects of individual additive components, we formed combustion products of individual additives in a combustion chamber prior to measuring combustion characteristics. We tested three types of metallic additives: a calcium-based detergent, a zinc-based antiwear agent, and a molybdenum-based friction modifier. Measurements of combustion characteristics after deposit formation revealed that the deposits derived from the calcium and zinc compounds facilitated auto-ignition and increased knock intensity.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0112
Christian Zinner, Reinhard Stelzl, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Leiber, Thomas Schabetsberger
Abstract There are several reasons for equipping an internal combustion engine with a turbo-charger. The most important motivation for motorcycle use is to increase the power to weight ratio. Focusing on the special boundary conditions of motorcycles, like the wide engine speed range or the extraordinarily high demands on response behavior, automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred directly to this field of application. This led to the main question: Is it possible to design a turbo-charged motorcycle engine with satisfactory drivability and response behavior? The layout of the charged motorcycle engine was derived by simulation and had to be verified by experimental investigations. Main components, like the turbo charger or the waste gate control as well as the influence of the increasing back pressure on the combustion, were verified by test bench measurements. Afterwards the operation strategy in general was investigated and applied to the prototype engine. The importance of the response behavior led to frequent transient measurements on the engine test bench to allow for changes.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0110
P S Satyanarayana, Balasubramanian Loganathan, V Lakshminarasimhan, A Ramesh, S Sujatha
In this work, a new mechanical cam phaser (MCP) system is developed. This MCP system is simple, reliable, and cost-effective, and also offers good control. Phasing of either intake, exhaust or both intake and exhaust cam can be achieved with this system. A prototype of the mechanical cam phaser has been tested on a motored rig to validate its dynamic characteristics. The system was tested onto a small two wheeler engine and this paper describes the newly developed MCP mechanism and its effects on the performance of a small two wheeler engine.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0126
Giovanni Vichi, Isacco Stiaccini, Alessandro Bellissima, Ryota Minamino, Lorenzo Ferrari, Giovanni Ferrara
Abstract A condition monitoring activity consists in the analysis of several information from the engine and the subsequent data elaboration to assess its operating condition. By means of a continuous supervision of the operating conditions the internal combustion engine performance can be maintained at design-level in the long term. The growing use of turbocharger (TC) in automotive field suggests to use the TC speed as a possible feedback of engine operating condition. Indeed, the turbocharger behavior is influenced by the thermo and fluid-dynamic conditions in the cylinder exhaust port: this feature suggests that the TC speed could provide useful data about the engine cycle. In this study the authors describe a theoretical and numerical analysis focused on the TC speed in a four stroke turbo-diesel engine. The purpose of this study is to highlight whether the TC speed allows one to detect the variation of the engine parameters. In addition, when the TC speed alone is not sufficient to detect the variation in the engine operating conditions, the proper set of additional, easy-to-measure, engine parameters is studied to univocally identify the causes of the variation.
2014-11-10 ...
  • November 10-12, 2014 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • March 16-18, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • July 27-29, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 9-11, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
***Note: The November 2014 offering is being taught by Syed Shahed & Kevin Hoag. The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching...
2014-10-22
Event
This session describes design, performance, and operating characteristic of crucial peripheral devices, intake and exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures and features.
2014-10-21
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2559
Christopher Bannister
Abstract When evaluating the performance of new boosting hardware, it is a challenge to isolate the heat transfer effects inherent within measured turbine and compressor efficiencies. This work documents the construction of a lumped mass turbocharger model in the MatLab Simulink environment capable of predicting turbine and compressor metal and gas outlet temperatures based on measured or simulated inlet conditions. A production turbocharger from a representative 2.2L common rail diesel engine was instrumented to enable accurate gas and wall temperature measurements to be recorded under a variety of engine operating conditions. Initially steady-state testing was undertaken across the engine speed and load range in order that empirical Reynolds-Nusselt heat transfer relationships could be derived and incorporated into the model. Steady state model predictions were validated against further experimental data. Model predictions for compressor wall temperature show very good correlation with measured data (average 0.4% error, standard deviation 1.27%) and turbine housing temperatures also demonstrate good agreement (average 2.7% error, standard deviation 3.58%).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2558
Qiyou Deng, Richard Burke
Abstract Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations. This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell. Varying frequency sinusoidal signals were applied to the compressor and turbine pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperature to drive the physic model.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2563
Yongqiang Han, Jianjian Kang, Xianfeng Wang, Yang Chen, Zhichao Hu
Abstract In the internal combustion engine (ICE), about 40% of fuel energy is released into the atmosphere through waste gas. To recovery the energy, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been widely used, and lots of previous studies have selected the rotating turbine as the expander of ORC. However, the rotating turbine has disadvantages of high manufacturing cost and narrow applicable range. For the above reasons, a free piston with constant force output which functions as expander in ORC is proposed to recover the waste energy of exhaust gas from internal combustion engine (ICE). In the system, the free piston with constant force output operates reciprocally to output work under the driving of working fluid R245ca, which absorbs heat from waste gas and provides vapor power. As there is approximately 20% of work is wasted to overcome friction between power piston and cylinder in traditional free piston structure, setting clearance between power piston and cylinder can eliminate friction loss in theory, but results in a negative impact of increasing the extent of working fluid's leakage.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2549
Mohd Farid Muhamad Said, Azhar Bin Abdul Aziz, Zulkanain Abdul Latiff, Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, Shahril Nizam Mohamed Soid
Abstract Many efforts have been invested to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles mainly for the local consumers. One of the main techniques to have better fuel efficiency is cylinder deactivation system. In this paper, the main research area is focus on the investigation of cylinder deactivation (CDA) technology on common engine part load conditions within common Malaysian driving condition. CDA mostly being applied on multi cylinders engines. It has the advantage in improving fuel consumption by reducing pumping losses at part load engine conditions. Here, the application of CDA on 1.6 liter four cylinders gasoline engine is studied. One-dimensional (1-D) engine modeling is performed to investigate the effect of intake and exhaust valve strategy on engine performance with CDA. The 1-D engine model is constructed starts from the air-box cleaner up to exhaust system according to the 1.6 liter actual engine geometries. The model is simulated at various engine speeds with full load condition.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2557
Mohamadamin Shamsderakhshan, Shahaboddin Kharazmi
The aim of this paper is to choose the convenient turbocharger for the OM355 naturally aspirated diesel engine and turn it to a turbocharged one. For this, 1D1 computer simulation code is used and simulation results are validated with experimental measurements. Finally, by selecting a proper turbocharger, engine power increases about 50% and specific fuel consumption decreases about 4%. Moreover, effects of exhaust manifold geometry and ambient condition on performance parameters of the turbocharged diesel engine are investigated.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2665
Eiichi Takahashi, Hirokazu Kojima, Hirohide Furutani
Abstract Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was applied to control the pressure-rise rate of homogeneous compression ignition, which is an important obstacle for homogeneous charge combustion engines. DBD can produce nonthermal plasmas and has been generated in air/fuel mixtures to reform some of the fuel molecules found in such mixtures. This generally shortens the ignition delay of compression ignition of the air/fuel premixture. Stratification of the reformed premixture in the combustion chamber was achieved by pulsed DBD irradiation during the induction process. The formation of inhomogeneous distribution of the reformed premixture is expected by the formation of discharge at the end of the intake processes. A demonstrative experiment was conducted by using a rapid compression and expansion machine. A simple plasma reactor was developed and installed at the intake tube. High-voltage, high-frequency pulses were applied to form plasmas. n-Heptane was used as fuel. Characteristic oscillation was observed at the maximum of pressure history in the compression ignition experiment without using plasma.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2703
Xiuliang Zhao, Yong Cheng, Limei Wang
Abstract The surface vibration signals are widely used since they have much combustion information. However, for an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), the measured surface vibration signals are difficult to utilize because they contain non in-cylinder pressure excitation response. The vibration response signals excited by the in-cylinder pressure excitation (ICPE) and the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) are overlapped in both time and frequency domain. That means they cannot be separated effectively by conventional signal processing method. In this paper, a new strategy to extract ICPE response from measured vibration signals by pattern recognition method is proposed. A model is established to describe the RIFE response. Then, the RIFE response could be predicted and subtracted directly from the measured vibration velocity signals. The processing results indicate that a fourth-order model and the data of initial compression stroke can reach satisfactory results. The impact of the speed fluctuation can be ignored.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2783
Oliver M. Smith, Alexander Michlberger, Doug Jayne, Alex Sammut, Mike Sutton
Abstract It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress as modern engine technology continues to evolve. The conventional approach to investigating fundamental power-cylinder tribology employs bench-tests founded on assumptions which allow for simplification of experimental conditions. Coatings, metallurgies, roughness, geometries, loads, speeds and temperatures are all important parameters in simulating tribocouple conditions that underpin fuel economy and durability performance as they exist in the final application.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2596
Bo Hu, Colin Copeland, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Alessandro Romagnoli, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, J.W.G Turner
Abstract Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft. It is anticipated that such a concept has benefits for knock resistance and energy recovery despite suffering higher pumping losses.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2610
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson, Rana Ali, John Williams
Abstract Engine downsizing is a key approach employed by many vehicle manufacturers to help meet fleet average CO2 emissions targets. With gasoline engines in particular reducing engine swept volume while increasing specific output via technologies such as turbocharging, direct injection (DI) and variable valve timing can significantly reduce frictional and pumping losses in engine operating areas commonly encountered in legislative drive cycles. These engines have increased susceptibility to abnormal combustion phenomena such as knock due to the high brake mean effective pressures which they generate. This ultimately limits fuel efficiency benefits by demanding use of a lower geometric compression ratio and sub-optimal late combustion phasing at the higher specific loads experienced by these engines. The lower expansion ratio and retarded combustion in turn increase the exhaust gas temperature, which often leads to a need to add extra fuel that cannot be fully combusted in order to cool and protect engine components from thermal damage.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2602
Patrick Smith, Wai K. Cheng, John Heywood
Abstract The effects of piston top-land crevice size on the indicated net fuel conversion efficiency are assessed in a single cylinder SI engine with 465 cc displacement and 11.2 compression ratio. The operating conditions are at 3.6 and 5.6 bar net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP), and at 1500 and 2000 rpm speeds. The cold crevice volume is varied from 524 mm3 to 1331 mm3 by changing the top land height from 3 to 7 mm, and by changing the top-land clearance from 0.247 to 0.586 mm. For a 100 mm3 increase in the top land crevice volume (estimated hot value), the indicated net fuel conversion efficiency decreases by 0.1 percentage point at 1500 rpm, and by 0.13 percentage points at 2000 rpm. The results are not sensitive to the two NIMEP values tested. These values are consistent with a simple crevice filling and discharge/oxidation model.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2641
Ken Naitoh, Kan Yamagishi, Shouhei Nonaka, Takuma Okamoto, Yoshiaki Tanaka
Supercomputer simulations substantiate a high potential of the new compressive combustion principle based on supermulti-jets colliding with pulse, which was previously proposed by us and can maintain high compression ratio for various air-fuel ratios. An original governing equation extended from the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation lying between the Boltzmann and Langevin equations is proposed and the numerical methodology based on the multi-level formulation proposed previously by us is included. For capturing instability phenomena, this approach is better than direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES). A simple two-step chemical reaction model modified for gasoline is used. A small engine having a semispherical distribution of seventeen jets pulsed is examined here. Pulse can be generated by a rotary plate valve, while a piston of a short stroke of about 65mm is also included. Computations from 2,000 rpm to 20,000rpm at some loads for the present engine having supermulti-jets colliding with pulse and conventional super- or turbo-charged system are done, which show a high thermal efficiency over 60%, because there is very less heat loss on combustion chamber and piston surface.
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