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Training / Education
2014-12-03
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%. This web seminar will explore turbocharging for gasoline and diesel (heavy and light duty) engines, including the fundamentals of turbocharging, design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Training / Education
2014-11-10
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls. The limitations and future possibilities of today's systems will be covered, as well as details on how emerging technologies will impact engine/vehicle performance.
Event
2014-10-22
This session describes design, performance, and operating characteristic of crucial peripheral devices, intake and exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures and features.
Event
2014-10-21
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
Book
2014-10-15
Mehrdad Zangeneh
Legislative requirements to reduce CO2 emissions by 2020 have resulted in significant efforts by car manufacturers to explore various methods of pollution abatement. One of the most effective ways found so far is by shortening the cylinder stroke and downsizing the engine. This new engine then needs to be boosted, or turbocharged, to create the full and original load torque. Turbocharging has been and will continue to be a key component to the new technologies that will make a positive difference in the next-generation engines of years to come. Concepts in Turbocharging for Improved Efficiency and Emissions Reduction explores the many ways that turbocharging will deliver concrete results in meeting the new realities of sustainable, green transportation. This collection of very focused technical papers, selected by Mehrdad Zangeneh, PhD., a professor of thermo-fluids at University College in London, provides an assessment of several novel designs intended to improve fuel consumption and cap emissions, while maintaining torque at all speeds.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ian S. Park, Andrew M. Williams
Modelling of turbochargers based on steady state operating maps for turbine and compressor rotors is widely recognized to have limitations arising from flow pulsations and heat transfer effects that are not well accounted for by interpolation and extrapolation from the mapped data. With implementation of low pressure exhaust gas recirculation systems and multi-stage boosting, the inlet conditions of centrifugal compressors vary more widely than traditional single stage compression systems. Understanding the impact of the inlet conditions on irreversibilities, and therefore efficiency complements existing works on pulse flow and heat transfer effects in informing the engine modelling community. This research experimentally explores the effect of inlet pressure and temperature on the total-total efficiency of a steady flow centrifugal compressor across a range of conditions in isolation of pulse flow effects and with negligible heat transfer. The results suggest that for any given corrected mass flow rate and total-total pressure ratio the isentropic efficiency is dependent on inlet conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Elias Sundström, Bernhard Semlitsch, Mihai Mihaescu
This paper focuses on numerical analysis of the flow in a ported-shroud centrifugal compressor at stable and unstable near-surge operating conditions. A production turbocharger compressor which is widely used in the heavy automotive sector is considered. A systematic approach is taken to assess the flow solver employed and to characterize the flow field under steady-state and unsteady conditions. The computational data are compared with available experimental measurements, which represent an idealized installation. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is used initially on successively refined grids and cell types to assess the dependency of the computed flow solution to the mesh resolution used. The RANS method used is based on the integral formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation with the time-dependent part set to zero. Convection and diffusion terms are approximated in finite volumes with averaged values over cell faces. The SST k-omega two-equation model is used, assuming isotropy of turbulence with no curvature correction option.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
S. Loganathan, M. Anand, V. Vikraman, R. Vikas
Fuel Economy & CO2 Reduction in IC Engines is the key driving factor for the Product performance & Customer satisfaction all around the world. The Stringent CO2 Limits calls for Engine Friction Reduction, Engine Downsizing & other Alternative measures. The challenges were to measure the component level Friction Contribution on the Engine & to select the critical contribution parameter & to optimize the same. Oil pump is one such important engine parasitic load which takes up engine power through crankshaft to deliver oil flow rate according to engine demand. The proper functioning of the Oil pump is considered with required engine Oil pressure along with optimum power consumption over various operating speed and temperature. Hence the various Oil pump critical design metrics are reviewed for two cylinder common rail diesel engine to have optimal power consumption and without reduction the Oil pressure at the engine oil gallery. Then the design should is validated with the engine testing against the current and optimized design to deploy the same.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jose Serrano, Pablo Olmeda, Francisco Arnau, Artem Dombrovsky
These days many research effort on internal combustion engines is centred on optimising turbocharger matching and performance on the engine. In the last years a number of studies have pointed that heat transfer phenomena have a strong effect on turbocharger behaviour. The difficulty of determining the necessary data to take into account such phenomena arises as a consequence of the little information provided by turbocharger manufacturers. In this background, Original Engine Manufacturers (OEM) need general engineering tools able to provide reasonably precise results in predicting the mentioned heat transfer phenomena. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a procedure, applicable to small automotive turbochargers, able to give necessary heat transfer properties that can be used in a lumped 1D turbocharger heat transfer model. Such model must be suitable to work coupled to whole-engine simulation codes (such as GT-Power or Ricardo WAVE) for its usage in a global engine models by the OEM.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
The in-cylinder tumble intensity of GDI engine is crucial to combustion stability and thermal efficiency, required to be changed as the different operation conditions. A variable tumble system (VRS) applied to GDI engine was introduced to meet tumble ratio requirements in various situations. The transient gas exchange of four combustion systems all were investigated during both intake and compression strokes based on CFD simulation, namely (1) Case 1-Intake port B (with flap valve)/Spherical piston top; (2) Case 2-Intake port B (without flap valve)/Spherical piston top; (3) Case 3- Intake port A/Spherical piston top; (4) Case 4- Intake port A/Dented piston top. The simulated results of dynamic tumble ratio showed that during the whole intake process the dynamic tumble ratio of Case1 was obviously higher than other cases under the same boundary conditions, and the maximum value was about 5~6 times higher. The crank angle range, at which the strong tumble motion fully developed, was merely about 70oCA, roughly from 410oCA to 480oCA.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
D. Saravanan, Anish Gokhale, N. Karthikeyan
The demand of Torque from an engine is highly variable, good torque at Partially Open Throttle (POT) condition improves drivability at city driving condition and good torque at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition improves cruising at highway driving condition, conventionally engine produces better torque at one particular operating condition leaving poor drivability at others. The Torque characteristics of an engine depends upon the volumetric efficiency of the engine, volumetric efficiency of a naturally aspirated engine can be improved by tuning the intake manifold, with an overall improvement in volumetric efficiency throughout the engine operating conditions better torque curve can be achieved which facilitates improved combustion and drivability. For improving volumetric efficiency, several technologies were developed and used, among that Dual Intake Manifold system is one where the flow of charge is channelized between longer and shorter flow path depending on the engine operating condition.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ming Chen, Yanjun Wang, Wenrui Wu, Jun Xin
Because of increasing performance and emission demands, turbo charged gasoline engines are becoming popular in the market. These downsized engines have higher thermal loads and experience increased levels of vibration. As a result, thermo mechanical fatigue cracks on exhaust manifold and gasket sealing failure are often observed during engine durability tests, such as thermal shock test. The present paper describes a CAE approach to evaluate the exhaust manifold design. It allows the design engineers to identify structural weakness at the early stage and/or to find the root cause of the exhaust manifold failure. A transient none-linear finite element method is used to calculate the plastic deformation and thermal mechanical behaviors of the exhaust manifold assembly under the thermal shock test cycles, which include rated speed full load, rated speed motored and idle speed conditions. Transient heat transfer simulation is performed to provide thermal boundary conditions for the nonlinear stress/strain analysis.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan, Akbar Ghafourian
Abstract Engine transient operation has attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to its high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle operation. More emissions are expected compared to steady state operating conditions as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has significant influences on engine transients especially at engine start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are investigated in this study. The transient engine scenarios were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in a cold cell within the different ambient temperature ranging between +20 °C and −7 °C. The engine with fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the transient scenarios. Instantaneous engine performances including torque and speed, gaseous emissions such as CO, THC and NOx, and particulate emissions for its number and mass are analyzed during each transient scenario under different ambient conditions.
Event
2014-10-09
Session CV302 focuses on the mechanical design of Powertrain and drive train components, sub-systems, and systems. Relevant topics include but are not limited to: Materials, coatings, and processes Design/Analysis/Test methods Novel designs of Powertrain and drive train components and sub-systems: Noise/Vibrations of Powertrain/drive train components and sub-systems- gear rattle, torsional vibration, sound power, etc. Powertrain and drive train includes but is not limited to engine, mounting, transmission, driveshaft(s),differential(s),dropbox(es), and axles.
Training / Education
2014-10-06
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
Training / Education
2014-10-02
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sibel Kaya, Barış Ayber
This study is inspired by the calculations and validations required for front wheel drive (FWD)-halfshaft joint selection. To increase design efficiency with decreased response time; a tool is required to validate calculations of strength based on maximum impact torque and endurance life based on corresponding vehicle usage. The tool has been developed to cover both strength and endurance life calculations. It also includes a constant velocity joint (CVJ) size library in order to compare different cases and to be able to see opportunities between different sizes. Validation and correlation has been completed using road load data from actual vehicles and standard load cycle (SLC) rig test results. This study introduces a more efficient methodology that will help the user select a joint that is sized best for strength and cost. After the completion of the study, one can be assured that the joint selected is the proper size-for all kinds of FWD vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Steffen Hoppe, Troy Kantola
Abstract The fundamental drivers in the development of commercial vehicle engines are improved fuel efficiency and the need to meet more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. This strategy presents significant challenges in the development of engine components, particularly piston rings. Within the power cylinder, piston rings are significant contributors to friction losses, with the ring pack contributing up to 25 percent of the total mechanical engine friction loss, and a corresponding fuel consumption of up to four percent. The challenge lies in reducing friction power loss, without compromising oil consumption, while also mastering the increasing thermo-mechanical and tribological demands that piston rings must endure due to increased power density, smoother cylinder bores, reduced lubrication, and the use of alternative fuels. In this context, the robustness of the piston ring running face, as characterized by wear resistance and scuff resistance in particular, plays an increasing role.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Xiangang Wang, Zhangsong ZHAN, Tiegang Hu, Zuohua Huang
Abstract Experiments were conducted in a turbocharged, high-pressure common rail diesel engine to investigate particulate emissions from the engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel blends. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to measure the particle size distribution and number concentration. Heated dilution was used to suppress nuclei mode particles and focus on accumulation mode particles. The experiment was carried out at five engine loads and two engine speeds. Biodiesel fractions of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% in volume were tested. The study shows that most of the particles are distributed with their diameters between 0.02 and 0.2 μm, and the number concentration becomes quite small for the particles with the diameters larger than 0.2 μm. With the increase of biodiesel fraction, engine speed and/or engine load, particle number concentration decreases significantly, while the particle size distribution varies little. The analysis on heat release rate, excess air ratio and exhaust gas temperature were provided to help interpret the particulate emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Pulkit Agarwal, Andrea Vacca, Kelong Wang, Kwang Sun Kim, TaeGul Kim
Abstract Radial piston units find several applications in fluid power, offering benefits of low noise and high power density. The capability to generate high pressures makes radial piston pumps suitable for clamping function in machine tools and also to operate presses for sheet metal forming. This study is aimed at developing a comprehensive multidomain simulation tool to model the operation of a rotating cam type radial piston pump, with particular reference to the lubricating gap flow between the pistons and the cylinder block. The model consists of a first module which simulates the main flow through the unit according to a lumped parameter approach. This module evaluates the features of the displacing action accounting for the detailed evaluation of the machine kinematics and for the mechanical dynamics of the check valves used to control the timing for the connection of each piston chamber with the inlet and outlet port. The estimation of the instantaneous pressure within each displacement chamber is utilized in a second module dedicated to the prediction of the lubricating gap flow between the pistons and the cylinder.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Sukumar T, Murugan Subramanian
Abstract This paper presents a systematic procedure for design and evaluation of snap fit for Quadruple System Protection Valve (QSPV) piston assembly. The QSPV piston is assembled with housing by means of snap joint. Snap joints are a very simple, economical and rapid way of joining two different components. All types of snap joints have in common the principle that a protruding part of one component, e.g., a hook, stud or bead is deflected briefly during the joining operation and catches in a depression (undercut) in the mating component. After the joining operation, the snap-fit features should return to a stress-free condition. The joint may be separable or inseparable depending on the shape of the undercut; the force required to separate the components varies greatly according to the design. It is particularly important to bear the following factors in mind when designing snap joints: Mechanical load during the assembly operation and force required for assembly.
Event
2014-09-24
This session will contain papers describing progress in new engine concepts relating to both airbreathing and non-airbreathing congiurations. Of particular interest are concepts which will improve performance, safety, noise, emissions and cost.
Standard
2014-09-16
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a method of numbering aricraft engine cylinders.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Mark Mataczynski, John Hoke, Daniel Paxson, Marc D. Polanka
Abstract The engines used to power small unmanned aerial systems are often modified commercial products designed for use by hobbyists on small model aircraft at low altitude. For military applications, it is desirable to fly at high altitudes. Maintaining power from the engine at the reduced ambient air pressures associated with high altitudes requires some method of increasing air delivery to the intake manifold. Conventional turbochargers and superchargers are typically very inefficient for the low mass flows associated with small engines. Due to its unique characteristics, a pressure wave supercharger (PWS) can avoid many scaling-related losses. This project designed a small-scale PWS for turbo-normalization of a Brison 95 cc two-stroke engine for a small unmanned aerial vehicle. A larger PWS called the Comprex®, designed by Brown Boveri Company, was simulated using a quasi-one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This code was able to predict the mass flow, temperature ratio, and pressure ratio at each respective port to within 2%, 6% and 18%, respectively when compared to test results.
Standard
2014-08-28
This document covers the mechanisms associated with the power cylinder system which might affect blow-by. It will not discuss in detail the blow-by mechanisms from other systems or engine subsystems.
Standard
2014-08-05
This document describes methodologies to determine the causes of high oil consumption caused by primarily the power cylinder system.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6298

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