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2015-12-09 ...
  • December 9-11, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2015-10-06
Event
This session focuses on the mechanical and mechatronic design of the powertrain and drive train, which includes but is not limited to engines, transmissions, driveshafts, differentials, dropboxes, axles, torque vectoring systems, transmission turning systems, and associated components. Relevant topics include but are not limited to: design/analysis/test methods, novel designs, energy efficiency, materials, coatings and processes, and noise/vibrations of components and sub-systems.
2015-09-22
Event
Established in 1984, this award promotes engineering developments and the presentation of SAE papers on turbomachinery and/or developments that enable or advance the use of turbomachinery. The award honors Cliff Garrett and the inspiration he provided to engineers by his example, support, encouragement, and many contributions as an aerospace pioneer. To perpetuate recognition of Mr. Garrett's achievements and dedication as an aerospace pioneer, SAE administers an annual lecture by a distinguished authority in the engineering of turbomachinery and/or engineering related to creating, enabling, or advancing applications of turbomachinery in power systems, on-highway, off-highway, aircraft, and/or spacecraft uses.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2524
José Lujan, José V. Pastor, Héctor Climent, Manuel Rivas
On actual gasoline turbocharged engines it is common to use a compressor by-pass valve in order to solve the compressor surge problem when the throttle pedal position is released and closes rapidly. The paper deals with a methodology based on experiments to measure the discharge coefficient of an integrated compressor by-pass valve, to understand the possible difference between the steady flow test bench and turbocharger test bench discharge coefficient measurements. To determine if there is some compressor outlet flow field influence due to compressor blades rotation that could modify the discharge coefficient measurement, compared to the steady flow test bench measurements, a fully instrumented turbocharger was used to measure the difference between steady flow test bench and turbocharger test bench discharge coefficients results. Effects of different boundary conditions on turbocharger test bench tests and how they affect the discharge coefficient measurement are also presented.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2531
Marco Leonetti, Michael Bargende, Martin Kreschel, Christoph Meier, Horst Schulze
Due to the demands for today’s passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2455
Slavey Tanov, Zhenkan Wang, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation. To achieve a longer ignition delay, which increases the overall combustion stability, different fuel injection strategies were applied. In this work, the effect of multiple injections and variable flow swirl on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence were investigated. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is conducted to an optical Direct Injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. PRF 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) was used as PPC fuel. The quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry in order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similar as possible to the flow which would exist in a production engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2449
Mark Aaron Hoffman, Zoran Filipi
The limited operational range of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engines is influenced by combustion chamber deposit accumulation and burn-off. Previous works have investigated in-situ combustion chamber deposit thermal properties with the end goal of replicating their increased temperature swing during compression and operability range shift in a manner which is independent of driving cycle. Combustion chamber deposit thermal diffusivity was found to differ depending on the location of deposit accumulation within the combustion chamber. These material property differences have been attributed to the spatially dependent interaction of deposits with the cylinder charge. This work establishes the methodology for determining the impact of directly injected gasoline on in-situ combustion chamber deposit thermal diffusivity.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2430
Andrej Poredos, Peter Tibaut, Cristiano Pecollo, Dario Infanti, Giuseppe Falleti, Francesco Pascuzzi
Significant effort is being spent to improve the power performance and fuel economy of spark ignited engines. As the loading capability of IC engines increases, the thermal and mechanical load increase rapidly. Another aspect is that the amount of CO2 emissions per energy unit is relatively high from fossil fuels. Obviously, this is not desirable from the global climate perspective and has to be reduced. One efficient way of reducing these emissions would be to replace fossil fuels with other fuels, such as biofuels. Another way is to find ways to increase the efficiency of the current IC engines, leading to less CO2 emission for each unit volume of fuel. One of the most important fields related to this objective is heat transfer analysis. From the heat transfer perspective it is of interest to reduce the heat losses in the engine in an attempt to achieve higher mechanical work output.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2448
Mengqin Shen, Vilhelm Malmborg, Yann Gallo, Bjorn B. O. Waldheim, Patrik Nilsson, Axel Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
The conventional diesel combustion offers high thermal efficiencies along with elevated emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the possible ways that help to reduce NOx emissions but can generally result in higher engine-out soot emissions. To better understand the knowledge about particle formation and emission, an insight in the cylinder is necessary. In this work, characteristics of soot particles from in-cylinder gas in a heavy duty engine for low temperature combustion (LTC) compared with conventional combustion were investigated. By using a fast gas sampling valve, gas samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the black carbon mass, soot particle size distribution and particle numbers. Black carbon mass was measured with an aethalometer and the particle size distribution and particle number were measured by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Three levels of EGR were applied.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2523
Calogero Avola, Colin Copeland, Tomasz Duda, Richard Burke, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace
The adoption of two stage serial turbochargers in combination with internal combustion engines can improve the overall efficiency of powertrain systems. In conjunction with the increase of engine volumetric efficiency, two stage boosting technologies are capable of increasing torque and pedal response of small displacement engines. In two stage serial turbocharges, a high pressure (HP) and a low pressure (LP) turbocharger are connected by a series of ducts. The former can increase charge pressure for low air mass flow typical of low engine speed. The latter has a bigger size and can cooperate with higher mass flows. In serial configuration, turbochargers are packaged in a way that the exhaust gases access the LP turbine after exiting the HP turbine. On the induction side, fresh air is compressed sequentially by LP and HP compressors. By-pass valves and waste-gated turbines are often included in two stage boosting systems in order to regulate turbochargers operations.
2015-08-24 ...
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2015-07-27 ...
  • July 27-29, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 9-11, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
2015-07-20 ...
  • July 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the factors in the cylinder kit assembly of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel engines that affect oil consumption, ring and cylinder bore wear, and blow-by. This course includes background and the evolution of designs and materials currently employed in modern engines as well as providing an overview of computer models, designs, and material systems that can be utilized to optimize the performance of new engines. An overview of the trends in materials and designs employed in U.S., European and Japanese engines will be presented.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2243
Yang Liu, Pingjian Ming, Wenping Zhang, Xinyu Zhang
Abstract Turbocharger is an important part of the turbocharged diesel engine. Due to the increase of mass flow rate and pressure ratio, aerodynamic noise of turbocharger has become more apparent. And turbocharger noise becomes one of the major noise sources of the main engine system of the ship. In the paper, the aerodynamic noise is predicted by using Computational fluid mechanics (CFD) and indirect boundary element method (IBEM) based on Lighthill acoustic analogy theory. Unsteady viscous flow in the centrifugal Compressor is simulated with finite volume method using the single stator and rotor blade passages and the characteristic of compressor is agreed well with the experimental value. The flow field characteristics and frequency spectrum of the fluctuating pressure are analyzed which agree well with the theoretical value. Dipole is the main noise source in compressor and the datum of pressure fluctuation at rotor blade are extracted.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2254
Wen-Bin Shangguan, Xiao Feng
Abstract The driving pulley is often used as a Torsional Vibration Damper (TVD) for the crankshaft in the front end accessory drive (FEAD) system. Although the crankshaft torsional vibrations are dampened, they are transmitted to the belt transmission and therefore to the driven accessories. The isolation pulley is a new device to reduce the belt tension fluctuation by isolating the belt transmission from the crankshaft torsional vibrations. A five-pulley system with isolation pulley is presented and a non-linear model is established to predict the dynamic response of the pulleys, tensioner motion, tension fluctuation and slippage. The model works in the time domain with Runge-Kutta time-stepping algorithm. The numerical simulation results of harmonic excitations show that the amplitudes of the belt tension fluctuation and the vibrations of each component are reduced significantly. Moreover, the effect of isolation pulley parameters on the system natural frequencies is demonstrated.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2307
Neil Figurella, Rick Dehner, Ahmet Selamet, Keith Miazgowicz, Ahsanul Karim, Ray Host
Abstract The effect of aerodynamically induced pre-swirl on the acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor is studied experimentally on a steady-flow turbocharger facility. Accompanying flow separation, broadband noise is generated as the flow rate of the compressor is reduced and the incidence angle of the flow relative to the leading edge of the inducer blades increases. By incorporating an air jet upstream of the inducer, a tangential (swirl) component of velocity is added to the incoming flow, which improves the incidence angle particularly at low to mid-flow rates. Experimental data for a configuration with a swirl jet is then compared to a baseline with no swirl. The induced jet is shown to improve the surge line over the baseline configuration at all rotational speeds examined, while restricting the maximum flow rate. At high flow rates, the swirl jet increases the compressor inlet noise levels over a wide frequency range.
2015-05-15
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9081
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian, Srivathsan Puzhuthivakkam Rengarajan, Terrin P Babu, Vignesh Natarajan, Harikrishnan Kanagasabesan
Abstract Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings (FG-TBC) increases the performance of high temperature components in gasoline engines by decreasing the thermal conductivity and increasing the unburned charge oxidation in the flame quenching area with the increase in temperature near the entrance of the crevice volume between the piston and the liner during the compression and the early part of the expansion strokes. In this study, a 3-D finite element steady state thermal and structural analysis are carried out on both uncoated and functionally graded NiCrAlY/YSZ/Al2O3 coated gasoline engine piston using a commercial code, namely ANSYS. The effects of coating on the thermo mechanical behaviours of the piston are investigated. It has been shown that the maximum surface temperature of the ceramic coated piston is improved approximately by 7% for the Al-Si alloy.
2015-04-23
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2015-04-23
Event
In this session, research and development of small engine technology, including two-stroke cycle, will be covered. Topics include combustion, scavenging, emissions, fuel systems, control, and NVH.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-22
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines as a plant in engine controls
2015-04-17
Video
Inside the turbocharger of your family car is a special material that was also used in the skin of NASA's X-15 rocket plane. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at Inconel, a material commonly used in turbocharger rotors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1715
Farouq Meddahi, Alain Charlet, Yann Chamaillard, Christian Fleck
Abstract Compressor models play a major role as they define the boost pressure in the intake manifold. These models have to be suitable for real-time applications such as control and diagnosis and for that, they need to be both accurate and computationally inexpensive. However, the models available in the literature usually fulfill only one of these two competing requirements. On the one hand, physics-based models are often too complex to be evaluated on line. On the other hand, data-based models generally suffer insufficient extrapolation features. To combine the merits of these two types of models, this work presents an extended approach to compressor modeling with respect to thermo- and aerodynamic losses. In particular, the model developed by Martin et al. [1] is augmented to explicitly incorporate friction, incidence and heat transfer losses. The resulting model surpasses the extrapolation properties of data-based models and facilitates the generation of extended lookup tables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1717
Li-Chun Chien, Matthew Younkins, Mark Wilcutts
Abstract Dynamic skip fire is a control method for internal combustion engines in which engine cylinders are selectively fired or skipped to meet driver torque demand. In this type of engine operation, fueling, and possibly intake and exhaust valves of each cylinder are actuated on an individual firing opportunity basis. The ability to operate each cylinder at or near its best thermal efficiency, and to achieve flexible control of acoustic and vibrational excitations has been described in previous publications. Due to intermittent induction and exhaust events, air induction and torque production in a DSF engine can vary more than conventional engines on a cycle-to-cycle basis. This paper describes engine thermofluid modeling for this type of operation for purposes of air flow and torque prediction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1723
Dieter Gabriel, Thomas Hettich
Abstract Fuel economy legislation is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston material change from aluminum to steel is enabling advancements in both demands. Furthermore, steel material properties lead to increased piston strength, robustness and durability. All this can be achieved at a lower compression height compared to an aluminum reference piston. Therefore, piston mass can be reduced despite the increase in material density. Since steel pistons require cooling of the combustion bowl region and the ring belt just like the aluminum counterpart, MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The TopWeld® concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1721
Harold Edward McCormick, John Crain, William Pisoni, Manas Lakshmipathy
Abstract Variances in cylinder bore surface finish influence oil consumption, wear, and scuffing. Recently published studies indicate oil consumption is a significant contributor to pre-ignition in small high power density engines and natural gas engines. Implementation of a three dimensional Surface Finish Analysis System to quantify the honed surface provides multiple benefits in engine development. The resultant improved cylinder bore surface can be utilized to minimize development time. Three Dimensional surface finish analyses provide higher quality surface finish data permitting fewer measurements with increased statistical confidence when compared to the historic industry standard, Two Dimensional Profilometer finish data. The three dimensional analysis systems build on the advantages already established by a Volvo, Mercedes, and Volkswagen 14-year program.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1726
Ajay Paul John, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Piston is a critical component of the engine as it exposed to high inertial and thermal loads. With the advent of high performance engines, the requirement of the piston to perform in extreme conditions have become quintessential. Piston scuffing is a common engine problem where there is a significant material loss at the piston and the liner, which could drastically affect the performance and the longevity of the components. This detrimental phenomenon would occur if the piston is not properly designed taking into consideration the thermal and structural intricacies of the engine. A water-cooled gasoline engine which had significant wear pattern on its piston skirt and liner was considered for this study. The engine block was made of aluminum alloy with a cast iron sleeve acting as liner. The piston-liner system was simulated through a commercially available numerical code which could capture the piston's primary and secondary motion.
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