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2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-04
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2017-04-04
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2016-11-30 ...
  • November 30-December 2, 2016 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0061
Da Wang, Dingchao Qian, Bo Wang
This article summarized the development methods and technical experiences on Formula Student race car engines acquired by Jilin University during 2011 and 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and are modified to turbocharged engine within the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple researches have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These researches covered areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the selection and control of boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system on the turbocharger, etc.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0078
Mark R. Mataczynski, Paul Litke, Benjamin Naguy, Jacob Baranski
Aircraft engine performance is degraded with increasing altitude according to the resultant reduction in air pressure, temperature, and density. One way to mitigate this problem is through turbo-normalization of the air being supplied to the engine. Supercharger and turbocharger components suffer from a well-recognized loss in efficiency as they are scaled down in order to match the reduced mass flow demands of small-scale Internal Combustion Engines. This is due in large part to problems related to machining tolerance limitations, such as the increase in relative operating clearances, and increased relative blade thickness. As Internal Combustion Engines decrease in size, they also suffer from efficiency losses owing primarily to thermal losses. This amplifies the importance of maximizing the efficiency of all sub-systems in order to minimize fuel consumption and enhance overall aircraft performance.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0077
Roland Baar, Valerius Boxberger, Maike Sophie Gern
On a worldwide scale, turbocharged four-cylinder engines are the most used ones in automotive industries. Three-cylinder engine is a technical alternative because of its higher thermodynamic potential that is due to higher cylinder displacement. Following this trend, the interest in two-cylinder engines is growing. These do have special demands concerning uniformity and dynamics of oscillating masses and firing order, but also very different conditions for the turbocharger. With two-cylinder engines, the pulsating influence grows and changes the operation of the turbine. In this paper different boosting technologies are compared in small engine applications. Besides of turbochargers the potentials and limits of superchargers and electric chargers as well as their combinations are compared. These technologies show dissimilarities concerning power supply, operation range and efficiency, and these effects have different meaning in small engines.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0009
Yuki Takamura, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keito Agui, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used, and two ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0060
Ashish Jain, Sahil Kapahi
A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the powertrain is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUM Lap software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modelled using 1D simulation on RICARDO Wave.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0079
Daisuke Fukui, Yoshinari Ninomiya
With the remarkable rise of gas price and the global air pollution, measures to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emission have become the urgent need in the motorcycle industry following automobile. For the improvement of the engine thermal efficiency that is one of those problems, there is a well-known fact that various research and development are continued from the past. We recognize that the coexistence of the high mobility and fuel efficiency performance of the Community-Based small motorcycles are demanded in the developed country not only developing countries. And we recognize that the coexistence of driveability and emission control of recreation and sports motorcycles is demanded. However, in the development of the engines for small motorcycles, due to differences in engine speed range, emission control, cost, infrastructure, we need some different approaches from the automobile engines which are full of advanced technologies.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed piston engine for the use in a Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for the generation of electrical power. With its arrangement, the piston freely oscillates between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. A linear alternator converts the kinetic energy of the moving piston into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: One the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0081
Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari, Alessandro Bellissima, Go Asai
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures. The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. Unfortunately, the cost and the intrusiveness of the sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make it not suitable for mass production applications. Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control. For turbocharger engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that its instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0087
Satoshi Ichihashi
Motorcycle usage area keeps expanding in the world. Motorcycle filling with various fuels in all countries and regions has to compliance with emissions and fuel consumption regulations as UN-GTR No.2 (WMTC). In general, motorcycle engine has large bore diameter and high compression ratio due to demands of high performance. Poor fuel quality may cause damage to engine mainly by knocking. Knock control systems performing high-frequency vibration detection strategy like knock sensor, which are equipped on several sport-touring motorcycles, can not come to wide use for reasons of complex construct and cost. This research aims to develop a new concept of combustion control for common motorcycle as an instead.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0085
Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari, Alessandro Bellissima, Go Asai
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures. The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. Unfortunately, the cost and the intrusiveness of the sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make it not suitable for mass production applications. Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control. For turbocharger engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that its instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0043
Bernhard J. Graf, Christian Hubmann, Markus Resch, Mehdi Mehrgou
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0022
David Weiss, Simon Beno, Chris Jordan, Pradeep Rohatgi
Cylinder liners exert a major influence on engine performance, reliability, durability and maintenance. Various combinations of non-metallic reinforcements and coatings have been used to improve the tribological performance of sleeves or surfaces used in compressors and internal combustion engines in four stroke, two stroke and rotary configurations. In this paper we report the use of a hybrid composite containing silicon carbide and graphite in an aluminum alloy matrix to improve the performance of various small engines and compressors. Material properties of the base material, as well as comparative dynamometer testing, are presented.
2016-10-25
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-10-25
Event
This session will cover conceptual, modeling and experimental studies relating to advanced turbochargers/superchargers and advanced boosting systems to achieve increased power density, better fuel economy, and reduced emissions.
2016-10-25
Event
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2275
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
There has been a global technology convergence by engine manufacturers as they strive to meet or exceed the ever-increasing fuel economy mandates that are intended to mitigate the trend in global warming associated with CO2 emissions. While turbocharging and direct-injection gasoline technologies are not new, when combined they create the opportunity for substantial increase in power output at lower engine speeds. Higher output at lower engine speeds is inherently more efficient, and this leads engine designers to overall smaller engines. Lubricants optimized for older engines may not have the expected level of durability with more operating time being spent at higher specific output levels. Additionally, a phenomenon that is called low-speed preignition has become more prevalent with these engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2332
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
For an innovative opposed-piston diesel engine (OPE) with two-stroke operation mode, it attracted much more attention than ever in some developed countries all over the world, attributed to the unique advantages of higher power density that beneficial to downsize IC engine, as well as the potential of reducing fuel consumption further for outstanding thermal efficiency. To achieve fast actual application and ensure the feasibility at concept design stage, the performance characteristic of OPE crankshaft system was investigated, and thus theoretical analytic model of crankshaft system for OPE was established. The averaged output torque of crankshaft system was considered as an objective function in this optimization model, and then basic constraints were imposed according to actual kinematics property of OPE crank train. The effect of all structural design variables on averaged output torque of OPE crankshaft were analyzed, respectively.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2349
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Jham Tikoliya
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to decrease weight of the current design without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road/engine load cases and severe environmental conditions. The topic was chosen because of interest in higher payloads, lower weight, and higher efficiency. Automotive cylinder head must be lighter in weight, to meet increasingly demanding customer requirements. The design approach for cylinder head has made it difficult to achieve this target. A designer might make some judgment as to where ribs are required to provide stiffness, but this is based on engineering experience and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the stand-alone head.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2336
Ken Naitoh, Soichi Ohara, Yuichi Onuma, Kentaro Kojima, Kenya Hasegawa, Tomoya Shirai
Combustion experiments obtained for a small single-point auto-ignition gasoline engine having strongly-asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles with pulse collide around the combustion chamber center, showed both a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of today’s diesel engine and also a silent combustion comparable to that of today’s spark-ignition gasoline engines, at the condition of low road and 2000rpm. While this gasoline engine having a medium level of point compression generated by a negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves, steady-state experiments of combustion at air-fuel ratios between 20:1 and 40:1 (lean conditions) show apparent increase of exhaust temperature over 100 degrees and pressures over 1.5 MPa, even at the situations without any plugs.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2333
Akio Kawaguchi, Hiroki Iguma, Hideo Yamashita, Noriyuki Takada, Naoki Nishikawa, Chikanori Yamashita, Yoshifumi Wakisaka, Kenji Fukui
From the environmental and energy security point of view, drastic fuel efficiency improvement of engines is required. Cooling heat loss is one of the most dominant losses among the various engine losses to reduce. Since the 1980s, many attempts to reduce cooling heat loss by insulating the combustion chamber wall have been carried out, most of which have not been successful. Charge air heating by the constantly high temperature insulating wall is a significant issue of these attempts, because it deteriorates charging efficiency, fuel/air mixture in diesel engines, and the tendency of knock occurrence in gasoline engines. Toyota has developed a new concept heat insulation methodology, which can reduce cooling heat loss through the combustion chamber wall, without sacrificing any other engine performances. Surface temperature of insulation coat on combustion chamber wall changes rapidly, according with the fluctuating temperature of in-cylinder gas.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2340
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Haifeng Liu
An experimental study is carried out to investigate the effects of the proportion between high-pressure and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation on engine operation. The boosting system is a series 2-stage turbocharger with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) as the high-pressure stage. The HP-portion in dual loop EGR (DL-EGR) is swept from 0 to 1 while the intake pressure and EGR rate are fixed by adjusting the rack position of VGT. The results show that the HP-portion in DL-EGR and rack position of VGT both have great influence on the amount of exhaust enthalpy and the overall turbocharger efficiency which are critical in achieving an optimum trade-off in pumping losses and indicated thermal efficiency. For the conditions with insufficient exhaust enthalpy, pure HPL-EGR or pure LPL-EGR both have the potential to achieve satisfactory fuel efficiency.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2348
Rudolf Wichtl, Michael Schneider, Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder
Abstract The CO2 reduction required by legislation represents a major challenge to the OEMs now and in the future. The use of fuel consumption saving potentials of friction-causing engine components can make a significant contribution. Boundary potential aspects of a combustion engine offer a good opportunity for estimating fuel consumption potentials. As a result, the focus of development is placed on components with great saving potentials. Friction investigations using the motored method are still state of the art. The disadvantages using this kind of friction measurement method are incorrect engine operating conditions like cylinder pressure, piston and liner temperatures, piston secondary movement and warm deformations which can lead to incorrect measurement results compared to a fired engine. In the past, two friction measurement methods came up, the so called floating liner method and a motored friction measurement with external charging.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2339
Xue-Qing Fu, Bang-Quan He, Hua Zhao
Abstract Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
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