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2017-11-14 ...
  • November 14-16, 2017 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5014
Maurilio Pereira Gomes, Igor Santos, Camila Couto, Cristiano Mucsi, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marco Colosio
This work consists of evaluating the influence of heat treatment of sintered valve seat insert (VSI) manufactured with three different high-speed steels: AISI M3:2, AISI M2 and AISI D2. The high-speed powders were mixed with iron powders and additives such as manganese sulphide, zinc stearate, graphite and carbides. All the used powders had the particle size distribution and morphological aspects analyzed. The heat treatment of the VSI’s consisted of air quenching followed by double tempering in seven different equidistant temperatures (from 100 ºC until 700 ºC). A data acquisition system using thermocouple type K was used to determine the quenching process and mainly the cooling ratio. The physical properties were carried out through the measurement of the VSI’s bulk density and hardness. The metallurgical evaluation consisted of etching the VSI’s and then analyzing it with optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2303
Yan Wang, Xudong Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yong Wang, Guoxiu Li, Yusong Yu
Abstract Fuel spray impingement is a common phenomenon during the combustion processes of a DI diesel engine. When liquid droplets impinge on the hot surface of a combustion chamber, a complex heat transfer and mechanical interaction occur between the droplets and combustion chamber. This probably changes the surface topography and microstructure of the impact position. Based on the experimental method, the fuel spray phenomenon and conditions of a surface pit caused by droplet impingement were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the surface pit is formed under specific conditions, i.e., a specific droplet diameter and surface temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of the pit area shows that the microstructure of the pit changed from an original dense and smooth surface to a loose structure. The microstructure of the pit did not show a molten state. The concentration of metal and nonmetallic elements in the pit area changed significantly.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2282
Gen Chen, Wenxin Cai, Jianguang Zhou, Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs, Werner Schrei, Karl Weihrauch
Abstract A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2418
Hong Zhang, Zhuo Wang, Zhouzhensen Hong
Abstract The electric compound turbocharger(ECT) which integrates a high speed motor into a turbocharger rotor shaft can be used transiently to accelerate the turbocharger more quickly in response to an acceleration requirement. It can utilize the exhaust gas energy fully to improve the engine fuel efficiency and benefit for engine with lower emissions. The key technique of ECT is to solve the reliability problems when an electrical motor is integrated into a turbocharger shaft between the turbine and compressor wheels will increase the burden for the bearing support and affect the turbocharger shaft rotation characteristics. In order to know the dynamics behavior of higher load bearing system is explored for reliability, this paper focus on the nonlinear rotor dynamics characteristics of ECT rotor bearing system.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2421
Dongkang Cheng, Xiaori Liu
Abstract With the enhancement of power density, the thermal load of internal combustion engine becomes an increasingly serious problem, the influence of heat load on the frictional power loss of piston ring is more prominent. A mixed lubrication model is established for the piston ring-cylinder liner system of a diesel engine, the influence of temperature change on the frictional power loss of piston ring-cylinder liner system is investigated. The maximum temperature ranges of the first ring, the second ring and the oil ring are 40 degrees Celsius independently, and the maximum temperature range of the cylinder liner is 20% of its temperature. The results show that: The temperature of cylinder liner has obviously influence on the oil film temperature, while the temperature of piston rings has little influence.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2422
Na Li, Fenlian Huang, Yuhua Bi, Yueqiang Xu, Lizhong Shen, Dewen Jia
Abstract The assembly of con rod bearing and crankpin is a key friction pair which offers an important guarantee for stable operation of diesel engine. Specific to the non-road 2-cylinder diesel engine developed independently and based on the theory of thermoelastohydrodynamic lubrication as well as multi-body dynamics, this paper establishes a multi-body dynamics model for con rod big end bearings of the 2D25 horizontal diesel engine and makes a research on the influence of bearing width, bearing clearance, and oil inlet position and diameter upon lubrication of con rod bearing, taking into consideration that of the surface appearance of bearing bush and the elastic deformation of bearing bush and axle journal upon the same. Research results show that bearing width and bearing clearance are the major factors that influence lubrication characteristics of con rod bearing while oil inlet position and diameter only have a small influence on such characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2423
Xiaoming Ye, Yan Fu, Wei Li, Yuze Jiang, Shixin Zhu
Abstract As the key components of internal combustion engine(ICE), the crankshaft main bearings are used to support the crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism whose rotary motion realizes the energy conversion from heat energy to mechanical power in cylinder. The lubrication performances and wear life of crankshaft main bearings directly affect ICE working efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is very important to study the lubrication performances of crankshaft main bearings. In this paper, a 16V marine diesel engine was studied. Based on the AVL-Designer software platform, a dynamic model of crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism and a hydrodynamic lubrication model of crankshaft main bearing were built. The numerical analyses were carried out on the lubrication performances of crankshaft main bearings under different speed conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2424
Shemin Zhang, Huaping Li, Tao Chen, Nan Jiang, Xinzhen Tan, Limei Deng, Qingsong Xia, Paul Kapus, Mingtang Ma, Wei Li, Junqiang Zhang, Qingjun Ma, Yong Xia
Abstract In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2426
Zhiming Zhang, Weimin Wang, Jiangtao Wang, Jiming Zhang, Yuanda Chen, Wenlong Zhang, Guofang Yang, Fugui Fan, Wenxiang Zhang, Fengqin Huang, Xiangwang Li
Abstract In recent years, Turbo-charged GDI technology is more and more widely used, which can meet the high demand of the engine performance and efficiency, but the resulting reliability and NVH issues also need to be paid attention to [1]. Traditional NVH performance improvement is mostly based on the experience design and repeatable test, which lead to longer development period, high cost, and also ineffective results. NVH performance simulations play more important role in engine vibration and noise prediction along with the development of the simulation technology[2][3]. The force response analysis is usually used to evaluate the NVH performance of the engine structure under the standard excitation. However, dynamic analysis of the crank train, valve train, and piston can be carried out based on the AVL software family, also the vibration and airborne noise of whole engine can be predicted directly at different speed and load [4].
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2429
Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Abstract Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2420
Bertrand Kerres, Andreas Cronhjort, Mihai Mihaescu, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2406
Wu Yang, Xiuting Yin, Zhang Song Zhan, Huixian Shen, Huibin Qing, Qingqiang Zeng, Liyun Kang
Abstract This work addresses the problem of fatigue strength prediction of crankshaft fillet rolling processes to improve its accuracy. It is empirical to usually consider the effect of fillet rolling process on crankshaft fatigue performance. The fatigue performance of rolling process is mainly determined by induced compressive residual stresses, increased hardness and reduced roughness. Because the first two factors are difficult to measure the arc surface of fillet rolled cranks, it is difficult to predict the enhanced rate of crankshaft rolled performance to baseline unrolled’s. In this work a prediction method of fatigue strength for ductile cast iron crankshafts rolling process is presented. This method indirectly predicts the effect of the increased hardness on fatigue performance by the resonant bending fatigue test and modelling of crankshaft fillet rolling dynamic for the induced compressive residual stress.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2411
Henry Guo, Wenchuan Jia, DeDong Xie
Abstract A smart waste gate (WG) turbocharger controls boost by bypassing turbine flow through the WG port which allows optimizing both low and high speed engine performance. However, the WG port in the turbine housing involves much complex geometry which leads to potentially higher thermal stress and plastic strain if design is improper. This paper first presents the common thermal cracking problems at port zone and then shows finite element analysis (FEA) results for one design. The predicted location correlates well with the observed failure port location. A design study with key parameters for the port is conducted under same boundary conditions. Key parameters include height H, inner diameter D and inner diameter fillet r of the port. Totally 13 designs are analyzed under packaging and performance limitation. Accumulated plastic strain (APS) from FEA is used to evaluate different designs. Curves are plotted to show the relationship between APS and design parameters.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2417
Houchuan Fan, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Nan Jiang, Dayong Qu, Yi Zheng, Yinghong Zheng
An electronic waste-gated turbocharger for automotive application can accurately control the boost pressure and can also effectively reduce the turbo-lag. It improve the transient responsive performance of engine and the acceleration performance, which make vehicle have a better adaptation to the complex traffic environment. A detail analysis of aerodynamic working principle is the foundation for the optimal control strategy of electronic waste-gated turbocharger. The study, in which the influence of the valve opening on the performances of electronic waste-gated turbocharger turbine under the condition having periodic pulse exhaust gas of engine, has the practical application value. This paper discusses the unsteady performances and mass flow characteristics of a turbocharger turbine with an electronic waste-gate under different valve opening conditions using numerical simulation method, based on a unified periodic pulse inlet wave.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2414
Dongsheng Zhang, Qilong Lu, Michael Kocsis, Ian Gilbert, Marc Megel, Xihao Liu, Jiaxin Gu, Qingyan Liu, Yanming He
The new BAIC engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged PFL gasoline from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd (BMPC) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance with high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulation. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers, improving intake and exhaust design, optimizing combustion chamber design, and minimizing mechanical friction losses. Cooled LP-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently increase compression ratio and improve thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped elevate low-speed torque.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2254
Sirui Huang, Changpu Zhao, Yayong Zhu
In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with intake air humidification have to be conducted in this paper. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and intake air humidification against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different air humidifying rates with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2252
Weihua Sun, Wei Du, Xuefei Dai, Xiangdong Bai, Zhiping Wu
Getting real cylinder pressure is the basis of engine combustion analysis. Because of the advantages of good thermal performance, fast response, small size, high accuracy, large range and so on, piezoelectric quartz sensor is widely used in the measurement of the cylinder pressure. But this kind of sensor can only get the dynamic cylinder pressure which may not represent the real one. In this situation, the cylinder pressure needs to be corrected by some method. It also could cause great result divergences of the combustion analysis by using different cylinder pressure correction methods. This paper aims to acquire a proper cylinder pressure correction method by carrying out the theory analysis based on ideal gas equation and experiment research of cylinder pressure on a turbocharged eight-cylinder diesel engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2280
Yuzuru Nada, So Morimoto, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Ryu Kaya, Hideaki Nakano, Shinichi Kobayashi
In our previous studies, we have developed natural gas engines operating under lean conditions to improve thermal efficiency and emission characteristics. We applied a sub-chamber injection system to our engines, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate stoichiometric mixture in the sub-chamber from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. The results obtained from engine tests demonstrated excellent performance of our engines in view point of efficiency and NOx emissions. However, we have poor knowledge of mixture distributions in the combustion chambers to understand the mechanism of the improvements. The aim of this paper is to clarify the mixture formation in combustion chambers by means of numerical simulations in the combustion chamber with and without the sub-chamber at a variety of operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2341
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
Abstract Countries from every region in the world have set aggressive fuel economy targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To meet these requirements, automakers are using combinations of technologies throughout the vehicle drivetrain to improve efficiency. One of the most efficient types of gasoline engine technologies is the turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The market share of TGDI engines within North America and globally has been steadily increasing since 2008. TGDI engines can operate at higher temperature and under higher loads. As a result, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have introduced additional engine tests to regional and OEM engine oil specifications to ensure performance of TGDI engines is maintained. One such engine test, the General Motors turbocharger coking (GMTC) test (originally referred to as the GM Turbo Charger Deposit Test), evaluates the potential of engine oil to protect turbochargers from deposit build-up.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2384
Ijhar H. Rusli, Svetlana Aleksandrova, Humberto Medina, Stephen F. Benjamin
Abstract In aftertreatment system design, flow uniformity is of paramount importance as it affects aftertreatment device conversion efficiency and durability. The major trend of downsizing engines using turbochargers means the effect of the turbine residual swirl on the flow needs to be considered. In this paper, this effect has been investigated experimentally and numerically. A swirling flow rig with a moving-block swirl generator was used to generate swirling flow in a sudden expansion diffuser with a wash-coated diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) downstream. Hot-wire anemometry (HWA) was used to measure the axial and tangential velocities of the swirling flow upstream of the diffuser expansion and the axial velocity downstream the monolith. With no swirl, the flow in the catalyst monolith is highly non-uniform with maximum velocities near the diffuser axis. At high swirl levels, the flow is also highly nonuniform with the highest velocities near the diffuser wall.
2017-10-03 ...
  • October 3-4, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • March 27-28, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 3-4, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2017-09-27 ...
  • September 27-29, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
CURRENT
2017-09-19
Standard
J1857_201709
Although not limited to, these flywheels are normally used on trucks considered as Medium-Duty (Class 6 and 7), as well as Heavy-Duty (Class 8) trucks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2141
Fengmei Li, Peng Ke
Abstract For the ice protection of the engine air induction part manufactured with low thermal conductivity composite material, the combined heating method using interior impingement and exterior air film has certain advantages. To study the influence of the external jet air film on the impingement characteristics of droplets, the numerical simulation method of three dimensional water droplet impingement based on Eulerian method was developed and verified by experimental data from references. The droplets impingement characteristics under three different blowing ratios and two different velocities were then investigated based on the configuration of 3D cylinder with two parallel jet holes.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0013
Nicolas Perrot, Pascal Chesse, Rémi Dubouil, Guillaume Goumy
Abstract Today turbochargers are used by car manufacturers on Diesel engines and on an increasing number of gasoline engines, especially in the scope of downsizing. This component has to be well understood and modeled as simulation is widely used at every step of the development. Indeed development cost and time have to be reduced to fulfill both customers’ wishes and more stringent emissions standards. Current turbocharger simulation codes are mostly based on look-up tables (air mass flow and efficiency) given by manufacturers. This raises two points. Firstly, the characteristics are known only in the same conditions as manufacturers’ tests. Secondly, the turbine efficiency given by turbochargers manufacturers is the product of the isentropic efficiency and the turbocharger mechanical efficiency. This global efficiency is suitable for the calculation of the power transferred to the compressor.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0017
Emanuele Servetto, Andrea Bianco, Gennaro Caputo, Giuseppe Lo Iacono
Abstract Large pressure pulsations and a non-uniform distribution of charge air temperature along the intake manifold were detected on a large-bore marine Dual-Fuel engine. These two phenomena were found to impact negatively on the knock resistance of individual cylinders, when the engine is operated in gas-mode. As it happens with marine gas engines, the cylinder most prone to knocking drives the engine tuning for all the others, thus reducing the overall fuel conversion efficiency. In order to effectively tackle this issue, a comprehensive study was carried out, which included both experimental testing and fluid-dynamics simulation. A detailed GT-POWER 1D engine model was built, representing the laboratory 8L (i.e. inline eight-cylinder) engine configuration. The model was extensively correlated against measurements at different speeds and loads and it proved capable of closely reproducing both the pressure fluctuations and the temperature gradient along the intake manifold.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0019
Alexander Mason, Aaron W. Costall, John R. McDonald
Abstract Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.
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