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Training / Education
2015-08-04
This web seminar provides an in-depth overview of diesel engine noise including combustion and mechanical noise sources. In addition, the instructor will discuss a system approach to automotive integration including combining sub-systems and components to achieve overall vehicle noise and vibration goals.
Event
2015-06-22
The diesel NVH session is focused on issues related to making diesel engines achieve better NVH characteristics. Topics include both analytical and experimental techniques for developing low noise diesel engines and components. Related topics covered in this session include linear and torsional vibration of diesel engines, as well as features intended to reduce diesel specific intake and exhaust noise problems, such as turbocharger whine.
Training / Education
2015-03-26
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takashi Onishi
1. The main issues and conclusions. All of diesel engines over 19 kW horse power in North America, which are mainly used for agriculture, landscape and construction application, are required to reduce further Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particle Matter (PM) by EPA emission regulation. Especially, it is necessary to reduce PM emission up to one-tenth as conventional. In addition to improve combustion in the engine, it is needed to add the engine exhaust-gas aftertreatment device to reduce PM emission. Then it is essential to prevent increasing NOx emission by improving combustion. We developed the 1.5 L non-road IDI (In-Direct Injection) diesel engine with mechanical fuel injection system, which met EPA Tier 4 regulation. This paper introduces the techniques to achieve lower exhaust emissions, those are newly-developed exhaust-gas aftertreatment system. 2. The process by which the conclusions were reached. Techniques for lower exhaust emissions It is important for small industrial diesel engines to be compact to install machineries.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mohd Al-Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Misato Nakagiri, Naoya Uwa, Yuzuru Nada, Seiji Miyashiro
High boosting technology is commonly applied to diesel engines in recent years. One the other hand, the study of spray behavior at ignition delay period is still an important role in diesel combustion. This study is focused on effect of ambient condition on diesel spray during ignition delay period. The study investigates both macro-scale and micro-scale dynamic behaviors of diesel spray affected by ambient density and temperature at early stage of injection. The experiment uses dual nano-spark shadowgraph method and rapid compression machine with constant volume chamber to understand dynamic behavior of evaporation diesel spray. This technique enables to capture images of both macro- and micro-scale structure of diesel spray using a still camera. Further, this system has two sparks that send high intensity light toward spray. When the sparks produce the luminescence at short time interval, images of the same diesel spray at different timing can be captured on separated films. The images show droplets formation, atomization and evaporation at spray boundary.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Keiya Nishida, Kuichun LI, Takeru Matsuo, Daisuke Shimo, Wu Zhang
Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray tes rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volulme vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injectino system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the Diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray. Discussion was made on the mechanisms behind these spray behaviors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giancarlo Chiatti, Erasmo Recco, Ornella Chiavola, Silvia Conforto
In the last years environmental issues of IC engines have promoted the need to assess new strategies in order to obtain a reduction not only of pollutants emission in atmosphere, but also of noise radiation. Engine noise can be classified into aerodynamic noise of intake and exhaust systems and surface radiated noise. Sources identification and analysis is essential to evaluate the individual contribution (injection, combustion, piston slap, turbocharger, oil pump, valves) to the overall engine noise with the aim of selecting appropriate noise reduction strategies. In previous papers, the attention was addressed towards the combustion related noise emission. The research activity was aimed at selecting the optimal placement for the microphone in which the signal was characterized by a strong correlation with the in-cylinder pressure development during the combustion process. The analysis and the processing of the sound emission allowed to isolate the acoustic contribution mainly due to the combustion event.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Francisco Payri, José Javier Lopez, Benjamin Pla, Diana Graciano Bustamante
Direct injection compression ignited (CI) engines are today’s most efficient engine technology, granting efficiencies exceeding 40% for their optimal operation point. In addition, a strong technological development has allowed the CI engine to overcome its traditional weak points: both its pollutant emissions and the gap in specific power regarding its competitor, i.e. the spark ignited engine, have been noticeably reduced. Particularly, the increase in specific power has leaded to the downsizing as an effective method to improve vehicle efficiency. However, the cylinder displacement in current CI engines is barely lower than 0.4 liters and authors do not know any CI engine with a cylinder displacement lower than 0.25 liters. For some applications (urban light duty vehicles, Range Extenders...) it may be interesting to reduce the engine displacement to address power targets around 20kW with high efficiencies. This paper assesses the thermo- and fluid-dynamic limitations which make challenging extending the application of automotive CI engines to the low power region, namely, space limitations for injection and combustion processes, increase of surface-to-volume ratio giving rise to higher heat losses and limits related to the air management, most notably with turbocharging, due to the reduction in turbocharger efficiency with decreasing size.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Yuhei Noguchi, Mutsumi Numata
Simultaneous reductions of NOx and particulate emissions as well as the improvements in the thermal efficiency and the engine performance with emulsified blends of water and diesel fuel are reported. A reduction in combustion temperature and promotion of premixing with larger ignition delays due to vaporization of the water in the fuel has been suggested as the mechanism. However, details of the combustion process and the mechanism of the emission reduction is not fully elucidated. In this research diesel like combustion of emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video and analyzed with a 2-D two color method. The shadowgraph images were also recorded and the rate of heat release was obtained from pressure data in the combustion chamber. An emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel (JIS. No. 2) with 26 vol% water and 4 vol% surfactant was used as the test fuel, and the diesel fuel in the emulsion without water and the surfactant was used as a reference.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giovanni Vichi, Isacco Stiaccini, Alessandro Bellissima, Ryota Minamino, Lorenzo Ferrari, Giovanni Ferrara
A condition monitoring activity consists in the analysis of several informations from the engine and the subsequent data elaboration to assess its operating condition. By means of a continuous supervision of the operating conditions the performance of an internal combustion engine can be maintained at a high level with both long availabilities and design-level efficiencies. The growing use of turbocharger (TC) not only in automotive field but also for off-road small vehicles or for small stationary applications, suggests to use the TC speed as a possible feedback of engine operating condition. Indeed, the turbocharger behaviour is connected to the thermo and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit: this feature suggests that the turbocharger speed could give useful data about the engine cycle. In this study the authors describe a theoretical and numerical analysis focused on the turbocharger speed in a four stroke turbo-diesel engine. The purpose of this study is to highlight whether the turbocharger speed allows one to detect the variation of the engine parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Luigi Arnone, Lorenzo Dal Bello
The present paper describes the results of an experimental activity performed on a small diesel engine for quadricycles, a category of vehicles that is widespreading in Europe and is recently spreading over Indian countries. The engine is a prototype three-cylinder with 1000 cc of displacement and it is equipped with a direct common-rail injection system that reaches a maximum pressure of 1400 bar. The engine was designed to comply with Euro 4 emission standard that is a future regulation for these vehicles. It is worth underline that the engine can meet emission limits just with EGR system and an oxidation catalyst, without DPF. Various blends of biodiesels, 50%volume with diesel fuel, were tested; pure biofuels were also used. The investigation was performed at several engine speeds, at medium and full load, respectively. Combustion characteristics of biofuels were analysed by means of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. Gaseous emissions were measured at the exhaust. A smoke meter was used to measure the particulate matter concentration.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuzuru Nada, Yusuke Komatsubara, Thang Pham, Fumiya Yoshii, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
In this study, we investigated relationship between flame behaviors and NOx emissions using a rapid compression machine incorporating a small combustion chamber with a bore diameter of 60 mm and a displaced volume of 100 cc. A total gas sampling device was used to measure the NOx concentration in total gases existing in the combustion chamber at a designated time, which allows the evaluation of NOx production rate in combustion process. Temporal temperature distributions in the chamber were measured with high speed 2-color thermometry. Two types of injectors with 4 and 8 injection holes were used in the experimental trials. Gas oil (JIS #2) was used as the fuel, and injected into the chamber at pressures of 100 MPa and 160 MPa. Ambient pressures at fuel injection timing were set to 4 MPa and 8 MPa in order to investigate the effect of supercharging on combustion behaviors in the chamber. The temperature of ambient air was kept constant at 850 K in all experimental trials. A NOx concentration measured with the total gas sampling device increases at a stage of diffusion combustion following after a premixed combustion stage.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giovanni Bonandrini, Rita Di Gioia, Luca Venturoli, Domenico Papaleo, Lucio Postrioti, Leonardo Zappalà
Diesel engine technology is continuously focused on higher performances and lower fuel consumption. Reduced costs and lower emission levels are key factors in engine development too, in particular for small diesel engine, both for on-road and non-road application. Nowadays, common rail injection systems with electronic actuation of the injector are widely used in diesel engines, due to the high flexibility in terms of calibration and the possibility to use advanced injection strategies. In fact, in order to fulfill emission legislation requirements, to improve engine performance and to reduce fuel consumption, the amount and timing of the injected fuel have to be controlled with high precision. Nevertheless, conventional common rail systems are quite complicated mainly due to the complex indirect actuation of the injector, and the engine fuel consumption can be penalized in low and medium load conditions due to the recirculation of significant quantities of pumped fuel at high pressure.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara, Takayuki Fuyuto
A combustion method called Noise Cancelling Spike (NC-Spike) Combustion has been reported in the co-author’s previous paper, which reduces combustion noise in pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) with split injection. This NC-Spike Combustion uses interference of the following “spike” of pressure rise (heat release) on the preceding peak of pressure rise. The overall combustion noise was reduced by lowering the maximum frequency component of the noise spectrum. The period of this frequency is two times of the time interval between the two peaks of the pressure rise rate. This maximum load range of conventional PCCI combustion is limited by the combustion noise, since the maximum pressure rise rate increases as the amount of injected fuel increases. The NC-Spike Combustion has a potential to extend of the operating range of PCCI combustion. In this paper, we investigates feasibility and controllability of the two-peak heat release rate during high temperature heat release by adding fuel in the adiabatic compression process of pre-mixed gas.
Training / Education
2014-11-07
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications. The majority of the day will be dedicated to the common rail system itself, beginning with a comprehensive overview of the complete system.
Training / Education
2014-11-06
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010. To help meet emissions requirements, the catalyst industry has developed exhaust emission reduction technologies with impressive levels of performance.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-21
This session covers topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
Event
2014-10-21
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
Event
2014-10-21
Mixed mode with auto ignition but inhomogeneous charge. Injection-controlled but with EOI before SOC. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and PPC injection strategies are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-21
Mixed mode with auto ignition but inhomogeneous charge. Injection-controlled but with EOI before SOC. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and PPC injection strategies are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-20
Mixed modes with both flame propagation and slow auto ignition. Distinct from SI knock: autoignition is desired and will not ruin the engine. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, and SACI mode change are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL 110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
J. Balaji, Ganesh Prasad M. V., L. Navaneetha Rao, Balaji Bandaru, A. Ramesh
This study deals with the development of an internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system for NOx reduction on a six cylinder, turbocharged intercooled, off-road diesel engine based on a modified cam with secondary lift. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation model was developed using a commercial code called AVL Boost. The simulation model was developed using precise geometrical, flow and heat transfer inputs to obtain accurate combustion, performance and NOx emission results. Heat release predictions were done using AVL MCC (Mixing Controlled Combustion) model which consider Vibe functions for estimating pre-mixed combustion. Heat release model was also enhanced in the present work by considering wall impingement of the fuel as given by Lakshminarayanan et al. A new method of estimating the NOx prediction constants as a function of air excess ratio were applied in this study. The NOx prediction accuracy was increased to a level of 90% by a generic polynomial fit between air excess ratio and prediction constants.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Aayush Mehrotra, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, Simhachalam Juttu
One of the major challenges for automotive industry today is to reduce tailpipe emission without compromising on fuel economy especially with the EURO 6, RDE, LEV III emissions & CO2 norms coming up from year 2016 & beyond. In case of diesel engines, with the emission norms becoming more & more stringent worldwide it's becoming more & more difficult to improve tradeoff between NOx & PM emissions at engine level itself. After treatment systems give some edge in terms of tail pipe emission reduction but not on the cost, FE & system simplicity front. For diesel engines the compression ratio and design of the bowl geometry plays a crucial role in controlling emission & CO2. While reducing the reduced compression ratio gives benefit NOx & PM emissions, HC & CO emissions and the cold start ability are a major issue. The objective was to make a study of different bowl geometries that would help achieve this target of improving NOx vs PM tradeoff with minimum or no impact of HC, CO, fuel economy and noise.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Krishna Kumar V., J. Balaji, Balaji Bandaru, L. Navaneetha Rao
BS III CEV (US-TIER III equivalent) emission regulations for off-road diesel engines (i.e. Construction Equipment Vehicles) in India demands a technology up gradation to achieve a large reduction in NOx (>50%) and Particulate Matter (>50%) compared to BS II CEV emission levels. EGR is a widely accepted technology for NOx reduction in off-road engines due to lower initial and operating costs. But EGR has its own inherent deficiency of poor thermal efficiency due to lack of oxygen and further increase in soot adding complexity of meeting PM Emissions. Hence an engine meeting BS III CEV norms without EGR/SCR technologies with low initial investment is most desired solution for Indian off-road segment. This work deals with the development of an off-road diesel engine rating from 56 to 74 kW, focused mainly on in-cylinder optimization with the aid of optimum injection and charging strategies. The three folds of combustion optimization are (1) Combustion bowl geometry selection (2) Fuel injection and spray matching (3) Turbo charger selection with inter cooling.
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