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Event
2015-06-22
The diesel NVH session is focused on issues related to making diesel engines achieve better NVH characteristics. Topics include both analytical and experimental techniques for developing low noise diesel engines and components. Related topics covered in this session include linear and torsional vibration of diesel engines, as well as features intended to reduce diesel specific intake and exhaust noise problems, such as turbocharger whine.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara, Takayuki Fuyuto
A combustion method called Noise Cancelling Spike (NC-Spike) Combustion has been reported in the co-author’s previous paper, which reduces combustion noise in pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) with split injection. This NC-Spike Combustion uses interference of the following “spike” of pressure rise (heat release) on the preceding peak of pressure rise. The overall combustion noise was reduced by lowering the maximum frequency component of the noise spectrum. The period of this frequency is two times of the time interval between the two peaks of the pressure rise rate. This maximum load range of conventional PCCI combustion is limited by the combustion noise, since the maximum pressure rise rate increases as the amount of injected fuel increases. The NC-Spike Combustion has a potential to extend of the operating range of PCCI combustion. In this paper, we investigates feasibility and controllability of the two-peak heat release rate during high temperature heat release by adding fuel in the adiabatic compression process of pre-mixed gas.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Carmelina Abagnale, Maria Cristina Cameretti, Raffaele Tuccillo
ABSTRACT
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takashi ONISHI
1. The main issues and conclusions. All of diesel engines over 19 kW horse power in North America, which are mainly used for agriculture, landscape and construction application, are required to reduce further Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particle Matter (PM) by EPA emission regulation. Especially, it is necessary to reduce PM emission up to one-tenth as conventional. In addition to improve combustion in the engine, it is needed to add the engine exhaust-gas aftertreatment device to reduce PM emission. Then it is essential to prevent increasing NOx emission by improving combustion. We developed the 1.5 L non-road IDI (In-Direct Injection) diesel engine with mechanical fuel injection system, which met EPA Tier 4 regulation. This paper introduces the techniques to achieve lower exhaust emissions, those are newly-developed exhaust-gas aftertreatment system. 2. The process by which the conclusions were reached. Techniques for lower exhaust emissions It is important for small industrial diesel engines to be compact to install machineries.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giancarlo Chiatti, Erasmo Recco, Ornella Chiavola, Silvia Conforto
In the last years environmental issues of IC engines have promoted the need to assess new strategies in order to obtain a reduction not only of pollutants emission in atmosphere, but also of noise radiation. Engine noise can be classified into aerodynamic noise of intake and exhaust systems and surface radiated noise. Sources identification and analysis is essential to evaluate the individual contribution (injection, combustion, piston slap, turbocharger, oil pump, valves) to the overall engine noise with the aim of selecting appropriate noise reduction strategies. In previous papers, the attention was addressed towards the combustion related noise emission. The research activity was aimed at selecting the optimal placement for the microphone in which the signal was characterized by a strong correlation with the in-cylinder pressure development during the combustion process. The analysis and the processing of the sound emission allowed to isolate the acoustic contribution mainly due to the combustion event.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giovanni Bonandrini, Rita Di Gioia, Luca Venturoli, Domenico papaleo, Lucio Postrioti, Leonardo Zappalà
Diesel engine technology is continuously focused on higher performances and lower fuel consumption. Reduced costs and lower emission levels are key factors in engine development too, in particular for small diesel engine, both for on-road and non-road application. Nowadays, common rail injection systems with electronic actuation of the injector are widely used in diesel engines, due to the high flexibility in terms of calibration and the possibility to use advanced injection strategies. In fact, in order to fulfill emission legislation requirements, to improve engine performance and to reduce fuel consumption, the amount and timing of the injected fuel have to be controlled with high precision. Nevertheless, conventional common rail systems are quite complicated mainly due to the complex indirect actuation of the injector, and the engine fuel consumption can be penalized in low and medium load conditions due to the recirculation of significant quantities of pumped fuel at high pressure.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuzuru Nada, Yusuke Komatsubara, Pham Thang, Fumiya Yoshii, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
In this study, we investigated relationship between flame behaviors and NOx emissions using a rapid compression machine incorporating a small combustion chamber with a bore diameter of 60 mm and a displaced volume of 100 cc. A total gas sampling device was used to measure the NOx concentration in total gases existing in the combustion chamber at a designated time, which allows the evaluation of NOx production rate in combustion process. Temporal temperature distributions in the chamber were measured with high speed 2-color thermometry. Two types of injectors with 4 and 8 injection holes were used in the experimental trials. Gas oil (JIS #2) was used as the fuel, and injected into the chamber at pressures of 100 MPa and 160 MPa. Ambient pressures at fuel injection timing were set to 4 MPa and 8 MPa in order to investigate the effect of supercharging on combustion behaviors in the chamber. The temperature of ambient air was kept constant at 850 K in all experimental trials. A NOx concentration measured with the total gas sampling device increases at a stage of diffusion combustion following after a premixed combustion stage.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Keiya Nishida, Kuichun LI, Takeru Matsuo, Daisuke Shimo, Wu Zhang
Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray tes rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volulme vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injectino system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the Diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray. Discussion was made on the mechanisms behind these spray behaviors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Francisco Payri, J. Javier Lopez, Benjamin Pla, Diana Graciano Bustamante
Direct injection compression ignited (CI) engines are today’s most efficient engine technology, granting efficiencies exceeding 40% for their optimal operation point. In addition, a strong technological development has allowed the CI engine to overcome its traditional weak points: both its pollutant emissions and the gap in specific power regarding its competitor, i.e. the spark ignited engine, have been noticeably reduced. Particularly, the increase in specific power has leaded to the downsizing as an effective method to improve vehicle efficiency. However, the cylinder displacement in current CI engines is barely lower than 0.4 liters and authors do not know any CI engine with a cylinder displacement lower than 0.25 liters. For some applications (urban light duty vehicles, Range Extenders...) it may be interesting to reduce the engine displacement to address power targets around 20kW with high efficiencies. This paper assesses the thermo- and fluid-dynamic limitations which make challenging extending the application of automotive CI engines to the low power region, namely, space limitations for injection and combustion processes, increase of surface-to-volume ratio giving rise to higher heat losses and limits related to the air management, most notably with turbocharging, due to the reduction in turbocharger efficiency with decreasing size.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Yuhei Noguchi, Mutsumi Numata
Simultaneous reductions of NOx and particulate emissions as well as the improvements in the thermal efficiency and the engine performance with emulsified blends of water and diesel fuel are reported. A reduction in combustion temperature and promotion of premixing with larger ignition delays due to vaporization of the water in the fuel has been suggested as the mechanism. However, details of the combustion process and the mechanism of the emission reduction is not fully elucidated. In this research diesel like combustion of emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video and analyzed with a 2-D two color method. The shadowgraph images were also recorded and the rate of heat release was obtained from pressure data in the combustion chamber. An emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel (JIS. No. 2) with 26 vol% water and 4 vol% surfactant was used as the test fuel, and the diesel fuel in the emulsion without water and the surfactant was used as a reference.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giovanni Vichi, Isacco Stiaccini, Alessandro Bellissima, Ryota Minamino, Lorenzo Ferrari, Giovanni Ferrara
A condition monitoring activity consists in the analysis of several informations from the engine and the subsequent data elaboration to assess its operating condition. By means of a continuous supervision of the operating conditions the performance of an internal combustion engine can be maintained at a high level with both long availabilities and design-level efficiencies. The growing use of turbocharger (TC) not only in automotive field but also for off-road small vehicles or for small stationary applications, suggests to use the TC speed as a possible feedback of engine operating condition. Indeed, the turbocharger behaviour is connected to the thermo and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit: this feature suggests that the turbocharger speed could give useful data about the engine cycle. In this study the authors describe a theoretical and numerical analysis focused on the turbocharger speed in a four stroke turbo-diesel engine. The purpose of this study is to highlight whether the turbocharger speed allows one to detect the variation of the engine parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mohd Al Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Misato Nakagiri, Naoya Uwa, Yuzuru Nada, Seiji Miyashiro
High boosting technology is commonly applied to diesel engines in recent years. One the other hand, the study of spray behavior at ignition delay period is still an important role in diesel combustion. This study is focused on effect of ambient condition on diesel spray during ignition delay period. The study investigates both macro-scale and micro-scale dynamic behaviors of diesel spray affected by ambient density and temperature at early stage of injection. The experiment uses dual nano-spark shadowgraph method and rapid compression machine with constant volume chamber to understand dynamic behavior of evaporation diesel spray. This technique enables to capture images of both macro- and micro-scale structure of diesel spray using a still camera. Further, this system has two sparks that send high intensity light toward spray. When the sparks produce the luminescence at short time interval, images of the same diesel spray at different timing can be captured on separated films. The images show droplets formation, atomization and evaporation at spray boundary.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Arnone, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Lorenzo Dal Bello, Agnese Magno
The present paper describes the results of an experimental activity performed on a small diesel engine for quadricycles, a category of vehicles that is widespreading in Europe and is recently spreading over Indian countries. The engine is a prototype three-cylinder with 1000 cc of displacement and it is equipped with a direct common-rail injection system that reaches a maximum pressure of 1400 bar. The engine was designed to comply with Euro 4 emission standard that is a future regulation for these vehicles. It is worth underline that the engine can meet emission limits just with EGR system and an oxidation catalyst, without DPF. Various blends of biodiesels, 50%volume with diesel fuel, were tested; pure biofuels were also used. The investigation was performed at several engine speeds, at medium and full load, respectively. Combustion characteristics of biofuels were analysed by means of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. Gaseous emissions were measured at the exhaust. A smoke meter was used to measure the particulate matter concentration.
Training / Education
2014-11-07
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications. The majority of the day will be dedicated to the common rail system itself, beginning with a comprehensive overview of the complete system.
Training / Education
2014-11-06
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010. To help meet emissions requirements, the catalyst industry has developed exhaust emission reduction technologies with impressive levels of performance.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-22
This session covers topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
Event
2014-10-20
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
Event
2014-10-20
Mixed modes with both flame propagation and slow auto ignition. Distinct from SI knock: autoignition is desired and will not ruin the engine. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, and SACI mode change are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL 110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-20
Classical diesel engine combustion with relatively short ignition delay, including papers dealing with low CR and high EGR calibrations. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and mode change are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-20
Mixed mode with auto ignition but inhomogeneous charge. Injection-controlled but with EOI before SOC. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and PPC injection strategies are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abdelouahad AIT MSAAD, Mustapha MAHDAOUI, Elhoussin AFFAD, mhamed mouqallid
The simulation of combustion in internal combustion engines (ICE) is very important for an accurate prediction of engine performance and pollutant formation. These engines simulation help to gain a better understanding of the coupling between the various physical and chemical processes. The objective of the present paper is to study turbulent combustion in IC engine. A lagrangian eulerian model coupled with presumed pdf is used to study the problems of chemical kinetics and the k-ε model is used for the modeling of the turbulence. We got the reduced mechanism through the reduction of detailed mechanism of the methane (GRI 3.0) combustion by using the Principal Component Analyses (PCAF). It is considered the first point for the application of the Computational Singular Perturbation method (CSP). We used this method (CSP) to reduce the detailed mechanism of the methane already reduced by PCAF to a mechanism containing 9-STEP. The validation of this reduced mechanism has been made by the comparison between the results of reduced and detailed mechanism of methane GRI 3.0; for major species, pollutants species and temperature at high pressure and lean mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Denis W. Gill, Herwig Ofner, Carsten Stoewe, Karl Wieser, Ernst Winklhofer, Masaaki Kato, Takamasa Yokota, Jost Weber
For nearly twenty years, DiMethyl Ether has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines. Not only does it have a high Cetane number, it burns absolutely soot free and produces lower NOx exhaust emissions than the equivalent diesel. However, the physical properties of DME such as its low viscosity, lubricity and bulk modulus have negative effects for the fuel injection system, which have both limited the achievable injection pressures to about 500 bar and DME’s introduction into the market. To overcome some of these effects, a common rail fuel injection system was adapted to operate with DME and produce injection pressures of up to 1000 bar. To understand the effect of the high injection pressure, tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with CFD simulation and single cylinder engine tests using high pressure cooled EGR at different NOx levels. The optical tests were designed to assess the impact of the high vapour pressure of DME on the onset of cavitation in the nozzle hole which restricts the flow rate and how variations in nozzle hole shape could improve the flow characteristics.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Haifeng Liu, Zunqing Zheng, Lang Yue, Lingcun Kong, Mingfa Yao
To investigate effects of fuel volatility on combustion and emissions in a diesel engine, a high-volatility fuel of n-heptane was blended into diesel fuel with different volumetric fractions (0%, 40%, 70%, 100%) to formulate fuels with different volatility. A wide range of EGR rates from 0% to 65% were investigated, which covered both the conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion. Experiments under two engine load conditions, ~5.2 bar and ~10.5 bar gross IMEP were performed at 1500 rpm, which represented a lower and a higher load, respectively. The injection timing was fixed at -8oCA ATDC for all test cases. Since the tested fuels had approximately the same cetane number and ignition delay, the effects of fuel volatility were decoupled from that of cetane number. Results showed that even if the ignition delay and combustion duration were nearly the same for all tested fuels, the premixed combustion fractions were increased for higher volatility fuels due to the improvement on mixing process during the ignition delay period.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Takayuki Fuyuto, Masahiro Taki, Reiko Ueda, Yoshiaki Hattori, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara
In the co-author’s previous papers, a combustion system which reduces emissions, noise and fuel consumption using premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) with split injection of fuel was reported (SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0906). This concept consists of premixed combustion of 1st injected fuel and accelerated oxidation by 2nd injected fuel and reduces higher combustion noise and HC/CO emissions from conventional PCCI combustion with early single injection. The 1st injection of larger quantity of fuel ends before TDC and the 2nd injection of smaller quantity starts around TDC. Although achieving this combustion system requires the optimization of the timing of the 2nd injection, the detailed mechanism of reducing noise and emissions has not been explained. In this paper, the authors revealed this mechanism of emissions and noise reduction by the second injection using in-cylinder visualizations, numerical simulations and combustion noise spectra analysis. In-cylinder visualizations and numerical simulations showed that the increase of smoke and CO at advanced 2nd injection timing was induced by the inhibited oxidation of rich flame.
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