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2018-09-11 ...
  • September 11-12, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 18-19, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Gothenburg, Sweden
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
2018-08-15 ...
  • August 15, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
2018-08-14 ...
  • August 14-15, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2018-06-05 ...
  • June 5-7, 2018 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
This web seminar provides an in-depth overview of diesel engine noise including combustion and mechanical noise sources. In addition, the instructor will discuss a system approach to automotive integration including combining sub-systems and components to achieve overall vehicle noise and vibration goals.
2018-06-04 ...
  • June 4-8, 2018 (8:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Engineering Academies
This Academy covers the diesel engine engineering principles and practices necessary to effectively understand a modern diesel engine. Types of engines addressed include naturally aspirated, turbocharged, pre-chamber, open chamber, light duty, and heavy duty. It is an intensive learning experience comprised of lecture and structured practical sessions, including a team-solved case study problem. Evening sessions are included. Attendees will receive a copy of the textbook, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, by lead instructor Magdi K. Khair and W. Addy Majewski.
2018-03-27 ...
  • March 27-28, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 3-4, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2018-03-26 ...
  • March 26-27, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • August 9-10, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Greenville, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engine failures can occur in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to understand the types of variables and inputs that can affect engine reliability and then determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0120
Go Asai, Yusuke Watanabe, Shuntaro Ishiguro, Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi
To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
2017-10-16
Technical Paper
2017-01-7007
Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Turbocharging has become an important method for increasing the power output of diesel engines. A perfectly matched turbocharger can increase the engine efficiency and decrease the BSFC. For turbocharger matching, engine manufacturers are dependent on the turbocharger manufacturers. In this paper, an analytical model is presented which could help engine manufacturers to analyze the performance of turbocharger for different load and ambient condition using compressor and turbine map provided by turbo manufacturers. The analytical model calculates the required pressure at inlet and exhaust manifold for fixed vane turbocharger with waste gate using inputs like BSFC, lambda, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger efficiency and heat loss, that are available with the engine manufacturer.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2339
Pi-qiang Tan, Yuan Li
Abstract With increasingly severe atmospheric environmental problems, diesel car emissions have attracted broad attention for its main contribution to air pollutant. Alternative fuels become a hot research point in vehicle for rapidly consuming of fossil oil resources. Biodiesel and GTL (gas to liquid) fuels are two typical alternative fuels for diesel fuel. Low blend ratio (≤10%) biodiesel and GTL fuels can be used in a diesel engine without modifying the engine’s configuration. It is important to investigate the difference of low blend ratio biodiesel and GTL fuels used in the same diesel car and to find the optimum one. Gaseous and particle emissions from a light duty diesel car with B10 (10% biodiesel from cooking oil +90% diesel, v/v) and G10 (10% GTL fuel +90% diesel, v/v) was investigated. It was equipped with high pressure common rail system, cooled EGR and DOC and was tested on a chassis dynamometer under NEDC mode.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2327
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
Abstract Fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing processes play a dominant role on engine performance and emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Understanding of microscopic spray characteristics is essential to predict combustion phenomena. The present work investigated near nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuels in a constant volume chamber. Waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels were applied and the results were compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. The tested fuels were injected by a solenoid injector with a common-rail injection system. A high-speed camera with a long distance microscopic lens was utilized to capture the near nozzle flow. Meanwhile, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer to compare atomization characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2331
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability with better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of non-edible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems. In Asian countries like India, great need of edible oil as a food so cannot use these oils as alternative fuels for diesel engine. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. This research prepared micro emulsions of ethanol and Jatropha vegetable oil in different ratio and find out the physico-chemical parameters to compare with mineral diesel oil.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2373
Jun Kaniyu, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura, Takaaki Kitamura
Abstract Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2372
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Shun Oooka, Lin Jiang, Jun Goto, Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata
Abstract To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2365
Murugesa Pandian M, Anand Krishnasamy
Abstract Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve higher thermal efficiencies along with ultra low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions. Small single cylinder diesel engines of air-cooled type are finding increasing applications in the agriculture pump-set and small utility power generation owing to their lower cost and fuel economy advantages. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under RCCI combustion mode with a newly designed cylinder head to accommodate a high pressure, fully flexible electronically controlled direct diesel fuel injection system, a low pressure gasoline port fuel injection system and an intake air pre heater.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2364
Jiaqiang Li, Yunshan Ge, Chao He, Jianwei Tan, Zihang Peng, Zidi Li, Wei Chen, Shijie Wang
Abstract Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2363
Murugesa Pandian M, Anand Krishnasamy
Abstract Advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) modes are most promising to reduce green house gas emissions owing to fuel economy benefits apart from simultaneously reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. Various LTC strategies have been proposed so far and each of these LTC strategies have their own advantages and limitations interms of precise ignition control, achievable load range and higher unburned emissions. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under different LTC strategies including Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2369
Prakash Arunachalam, Martin Tuner, Per Tunestal, Marcus Thern
Abstract Humid air motor (HAM) is an engine operated with humidified inlet charge. System simulations study on HAM showed the waste heat recovery potential over a conventional system. An HAM setup was constructed, to comprehend the potential benefits in real-time, the HAM setup was built around a 13-litre six cylinder Volvo diesel engine. The HAM engine process is explained in detail in this paper. Emission analysis is also performed for all three modes of operation. The experiments were carried out at part load operating point of the engine to understand the effects of humidified charge on combustion, efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were conducted without EGR, with EGR, and with humidified inlet charge. These three modes of operation provided the potential benefits of each system. Exhaust heat was used for partial humidification process. Results show that HAM operation, without compromising on efficiency, reduces NOx and soot significantly over the engine operated without EGR.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen
Abstract The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fraction (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2393
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll
Abstract Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2398
Bei Liu, Xiaobei Cheng, Jialu Liu, Han Pu, Li Yi
Abstract Partially-premixed low-temperature combustion avoids the soot and NOx generation area on the Ф-T diagram to reduce both engine NOx and soot emissions. Compared with the HCCI combustion mode, partially-premixed combustion (PPC) has better combustion controllability. The purpose of controlling the combustion phase can be achieved by adjusting injection timing and strategy. Based on a 4 cylinder turbocharged diesel engine, this paper aims at investigating the influence of injection strategy to the engine combustion and emission formation under the condition of single injection and split injection PPC strategy respectively, in which the primary purpose focus on the emission characteristics of particles. Results show that the early-injection PPC formed by single injection can reduce the quantity, quality and geometric mean diameter (GMD) of particles obviously.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2383
Guoyang Wang, Jun Zhang, Bo Yang, Chuandong Li, Shi-Jin Shuai, Shi Yin, Meng Jian
Abstract Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2382
Tul Suthiprasert, Sirichai Jirawongnuson, Ekathai Wirojsakunchai, Tanet Aroonsrisopon, Krisada Wannatong, Atsawin Salee
Abstract The diesel dual fuel engine emits CH4 in the exhaust gas. This makes the exhaust gas more difficult to treat comparing to the exhaust gas from the conventional engine since CH4 requires high exhaust temperature to oxidize. In addition, another parameter such as exhaust flow rate, specie concentrations, especially CO, C3H8, and H2O have tremendous impact on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst performance on reducing CH4. This research is aimed to propose a kinetic model based on Langmuir Hinshelwood mechanisms that includes several terms such as CH4, C3H8, CO, O2, and H2O concentrations in order to gain a better understanding on the catalytic reaction and to provide a simulation with an accurate prediction. The model’s kinetic parameters are determined from the experiment by using synthetic gas. The composition of synthetic gas is simulated to be similar to the real exhaust gas from diesel dual fuel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2381
Kristian Hentelä, Ossi Kaario, Vikram Garaniya, Laurie Goldsworthy, Martti Larmi
In the present study, a new approach for modelling emissions of coke particles or cenospheres from large diesel engines using HFO (Heavy fuel oil) was studied. The model used is based on a multicomponent droplet mass transfer and properties model that uses a continuous thermodynamics approach to model the complex composition of the HFO fuel and the resulting evaporation behavior of the fuel droplets. Cenospheres are modelled as the residue left in the fuel droplets towards the end of the simulation. The mass-transfer and fuel properties models were implemented into a cylinder section model based on the Wärtsilä W20 engine in the CFD-code Star CD v.4.24. Different submodels and corresponding parameters were tuned to match experimental data of cylinder pressures available from Wärtsilä for the studied cases. The results obtained from the present model were compared to experimental results found in the literature.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Abstract Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vector used in the worldwide transport sector. But conventional fuel and engine technologies are often criticized, especially Diesel engines with the recent “Diesel gate”. Engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants in the transport sector. Compression ignition engines with gasoline-like fuels are a promising way for both NOx and particulate emissions abatement while keeping lower tailpipe CO2 emissions from both combustion process, physical and chemical properties of the low RON gasoline. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigation of pollutants and After-Treatment Systems (ATS) is mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied soot behavior to define the rules for the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) when used with a low RON gasoline in a compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2403
Yanzhao An, R Vallinayagam, S Vedharaj, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Alaaeldin Dawood, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson
Abstract In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2410
Ji Gao, Tie Wang, Dandan Sun, Jing Qiao, Yizhuo Feng
Abstract As the explosion proof diesel engine (EPD) of underground trackless tyred vehicle dynamic mechanical device, due to its good dynamic and economic performance, the diesel has been widely applied. The flame arrester can prevent the exhaust system from tempering, but the increased resistance will seriously affect the performance of diesel. Through the comparison of the CFD-FLUENT fluid simulation on flow and pressure field, the results show that the corrugated flame arrester performs better on reducing the exhaust back pressure than flat flame arrester and ensures the explosion-proof effect. The bench test of explosion proof diesel engine on intake and exhaust system is conducted, analysing the effect of the exhaust resistance under different speeds of diesel engine on the power, economy and emission of TY4100QFB type diesel engines with equivalent flow area , different specifications of flat versus corrugated flame-arrester in the course of external characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2430
Yingmin Wang, Tao Cui, Fujun Zhang, Sufei Wang, Hongli Gao
Abstract Considering the randomness and instability of the oil pressure in the lubrication system, a new approach for fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine lubrication system based on support vector machine optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM) model and centroid location algorithm has been proposed. Firstly, PSO algorithm is chosen to determine the optimum parameters of SVM, to avoid the blindness of choosing parameters. It can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. The results show that the classify accuracy of PSO-SVM is improved compared with SVM in which parameters are set according to experience. Then, the support vector machine classification interface is fitted to a curve, and the boundary conditions of fault diagnosis are obtained. Finally, diagnose algorithm is achieved through analyzing the centroid movement of features. According to Performance degradation data, degenerate trajectory model is established based on centroid location.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2429
Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Abstract Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
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