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Event
2015-06-22
The diesel NVH session is focused on issues related to making diesel engines achieve better NVH characteristics. Topics include both analytical and experimental techniques for developing low noise diesel engines and components. Related topics covered in this session include linear and torsional vibration of diesel engines, as well as features intended to reduce diesel specific intake and exhaust noise problems, such as turbocharger whine.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-20
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Event
2014-11-19
Papers in this session will pertain to studies of naturally aspirated and boosted diesel engines including their design, emission control, NVH, fuel system, fuel type, aftertreatment, combustion quality, or engine control.
Training / Education
2014-11-07
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications. The majority of the day will be dedicated to the common rail system itself, beginning with a comprehensive overview of the complete system. The instructor will then introduce the main subsystems, including hydraulics and controls. Finally, the subsystems will then be broken-down into their respective components.
Training / Education
2014-11-06
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010. To help meet emissions requirements, the catalyst industry has developed exhaust emission reduction technologies with impressive levels of performance. These technologies include hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR), NOx absorber catalysts, and urea SCR. This seminar will begin with an explanation of NOx formation in diesel engines and in-cylinder methods for reducing these emissions. The aftertreatment systems for NOx reduction will be explained and the advantages and disadvantages of these emission reduction technologies will be discussed.
Event
2014-10-20
Mixed modes with both flame propagation and slow auto ignition. Distinct from SI knock: autoignition is desired and will not ruin the engine. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, and SACI mode change are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL 110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-20
Classical diesel engine combustion with relatively short ignition delay, including papers dealing with low CR and high EGR calibrations. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and mode change are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-20
Mixed mode with auto ignition but inhomogeneous charge. Injection-controlled but with EOI before SOC. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and PPC injection strategies are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
Event
2014-10-20
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-20
This session covers topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
Event
2014-10-20
This session covers the Power Cylinder: piston, piston rings, piston pins, and connecting rods. The papers include information on reducing friction and increasing fuel economy, improving durability by understanding wear, and decreasing oil consumption and blow-by.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abdelouahad AIT MSAAD, Mustapha MAHDAOUI, Elhoussin AFFAD, mhamed mouqallid
The simulation of combustion in internal combustion engines (ICE) is very important for an accurate prediction of engine performance and pollutant formation. These engines simulation help to gain a better understanding of the coupling between the various physical and chemical processes. The objective of the present paper is to study turbulent combustion in IC engine. A lagrangian eulerian model coupled with presumed pdf is used to study the problems of chemical kinetics and the k-ε model is used for the modeling of the turbulence. We got the reduced mechanism through the reduction of detailed mechanism of the methane (GRI 3.0) combustion by using the Principal Component Analyses (PCAF). It is considered the first point for the application of the Computational Singular Perturbation method (CSP). We used this method (CSP) to reduce the detailed mechanism of the methane already reduced by PCAF to a mechanism containing 9-STEP. The validation of this reduced mechanism has been made by the comparison between the results of reduced and detailed mechanism of methane GRI 3.0; for major species, pollutants species and temperature at high pressure and lean mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vijay Prakash Chougule
Abstract: In present experimental work a computerized Multi cylinder 1.2L Diesel engine with data acquisition system was used to study the effects of oxygen enriched air intake on combustion parameters. A method to reduce emissions of smoke and other pollutants from diesel engines is to enhance the oxygen supply to their combustion chamber. This can be accomplished by enriching the intake air stream with oxygen. The test performed to evaluate the combustion characteristics and engine performances of C.I Engine. Engine testing is performed with the oxygen concentration of intake air ranging from 21% to 27% by volume. Increasing the oxygen content with the air leads to faster burn rates and the ability to burn more fuel at the same stoichiometry. Added oxygen in the combustion air leads to shorter ignition delays and offers more potential for burning diesel. Experimental studies concerning the oxygen-enrichment of intake air, have revealed large decrease of ignition delay, drastic decrease of soot emissions as well as reduction of CO and HC emissions while, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) remained unaffected and increasing of power output is feasible.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Aayush Mehrotra, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, Simhachalam Juttu
One of the major challenges for automotive industry today is to reduce tailpipe emission without compromising on fuel economy especially with the EURO 6, RDE, LEV III emissions & CO2 norms coming up from year 2016 & beyond. In case of diesel engines, with the emission norms becoming more & more stringent worldwide it's becoming more & more difficult to improve tradeoff between NOx & PM emissions at engine level itself. After treatment systems give some edge in terms of tail pipe emission reduction but not on the cost, FE & system simplicity front. For diesel engines the compression ratio and design of the bowl geometry plays a crucial role in controlling emission & CO2. While reducing the reduced compression ratio gives benefit NOx & PM emissions, HC & CO emissions and the cold start ability are a major issue. The objective was to make a study of different bowl geometries that would help achieve this target of improving NOx vs PM tradeoff with minimum or no impact of HC, CO, fuel economy and noise.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jacob Benjamin Jeppesen, Jean-Luc Dubois, Jean-Francois Devaux
As a result of research made during the EuroBioRef, five alternative biodiesel fuels have been produced and tested. The fuels was tested in a 1,6L light duty high-speed road going turbocharged engine with an EGR system, without a catalyst. The engine was configured with standard injectors and standard ECU settings. The test was performed on an eddy current dynamometer in four modes. The five fuels was produced by ARKEMA and other partners. The fuels was based on organic residue generated during production of other high value products. For the test, the fuels was blended with a reference diesel at a 30%vol rate. During the tests, engine data was logged, including intake airflow, temperatures of relevant parts, speed, load, fuel flow and emissions. The logged emissions included CO, CO2, O2, HC, NOx. Also a pressure indicator was mounted on the combustion chambers. Analysis show that the NOx level was slightly increased for Esterol A, Methyl Undecylenate and POM-methyl 2.8. It also showed that CO level was higher for POM-Methyl 2.8 and 3-Methylheptane during mode 4.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Denis W. Gill, Herwig Ofner, Carsten Stoewe, Karl Wieser, Ernst Winklhofer, Masaaki Kato, Takamasa Yokota, Jost Weber
For nearly twenty years, DiMethyl Ether has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines. Not only does it have a high Cetane number, it burns absolutely soot free and produces lower NOx exhaust emissions than the equivalent diesel. However, the physical properties of DME such as its low viscosity, lubricity and bulk modulus have negative effects for the fuel injection system, which have both limited the achievable injection pressures to about 500 bar and DME’s introduction into the market. To overcome some of these effects, a common rail fuel injection system was adapted to operate with DME and produce injection pressures of up to 1000 bar. To understand the effect of the high injection pressure, tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with CFD simulation and single cylinder engine tests using high pressure cooled EGR at different NOx levels. The optical tests were designed to assess the impact of the high vapour pressure of DME on the onset of cavitation in the nozzle hole which restricts the flow rate and how variations in nozzle hole shape could improve the flow characteristics.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Haifeng Liu, Zunqing Zheng, Lang Yue, Lingcun Kong, Mingfa Yao
To investigate effects of fuel volatility on combustion and emissions in a diesel engine, a high-volatility fuel of n-heptane was blended into diesel fuel with different volumetric fractions (0%, 40%, 70%, 100%) to formulate fuels with different volatility. A wide range of EGR rates from 0% to 65% were investigated, which covered both the conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion. Experiments under two engine load conditions, ~5.2 bar and ~10.5 bar gross IMEP were performed at 1500 rpm, which represented a lower and a higher load, respectively. The injection timing was fixed at -8oCA ATDC for all test cases. Since the tested fuels had approximately the same cetane number and ignition delay, the effects of fuel volatility were decoupled from that of cetane number. Results showed that even if the ignition delay and combustion duration were nearly the same for all tested fuels, the premixed combustion fractions were increased for higher volatility fuels due to the improvement on mixing process during the ignition delay period.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xinyan Wang, Hua Zhao, Hui Xie, Bang-Quan He
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to stabilize the hybrid combustion process, the port fuel injection (PFI) combined with gasoline direct injection (GDI) strategy is proposed in this study to form the in-cylinder fuel stratification to enhance the early flame propagation process and control the auto-ignition combustion process. The effect of bowl piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on the fuel stratification characteristics is investigated in detail using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulations. Three bowl piston shapes with different bowl diameters and depths were designed and analyzed as well as the original flat piston in a single cylinder PFI/GDI gasoline engine. A typical engine operating load of IMEP=3.6 bar was selected to evaluate the effect of piston shapes on the in-cylinder conditions, including flow conditions, fuel stratification patterns, thermal conditions and fuel evaporation ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Takayuki Fuyuto, Masahiro Taki, Reiko Ueda, Yoshiaki Hattori, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara
In the co-author’s previous papers, a combustion system which reduces emissions, noise and fuel consumption using premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) with split injection of fuel was reported (SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0906). This concept consists of premixed combustion of 1st injected fuel and accelerated oxidation by 2nd injected fuel and reduces higher combustion noise and HC/CO emissions from conventional PCCI combustion with early single injection. The 1st injection of larger quantity of fuel ends before TDC and the 2nd injection of smaller quantity starts around TDC. Although achieving this combustion system requires the optimization of the timing of the 2nd injection, the detailed mechanism of reducing noise and emissions has not been explained. In this paper, the authors revealed this mechanism of emissions and noise reduction by the second injection using in-cylinder visualizations, numerical simulations and combustion noise spectra analysis. In-cylinder visualizations and numerical simulations showed that the increase of smoke and CO at advanced 2nd injection timing was induced by the inhibited oxidation of rich flame.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Katsufumi Kondo, Junya Takahashi, Tetsuya Aizawa
Wall-deposition of soot particles occurs due to the interaction between spray flame and cylinder liner wall/piston surface, which can potentially affect soot morphology after the in-flame formation/oxidation processes and before the exit from engine cylinder. In order to investigate these effects, flame wall impingement was simulated in a constant volume combustion vessel and thermophoretic soot sampling was conducted for Transmission Electron Microscopic analysis. A TEM grid for the sampling was exposed to a single-shot diesel spray flame multiple times and the variation of soot morphology (concentration, primary particle diameter and aggregate gyration radius) among the multiple exposures was compared. Furthermore, a newly designed impingement-type sampler vertically exposed the grid to the spray flame and sampled soot particles under different boundary condition from that of conventionally used skim-type sampler. The morphology of soot particles sampled by the impingement- and skim-type samplers were compared.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim Van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation. Formulation adjustments were necessary to deal with the impacts of lower sulfur diesel fuel, increased engine operating temperatures leading to more oxidation, increased levels of soot contamination as a result of EGR, and reductions in maximum allowable sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus for the benefit of exhaust gas after-treatment devices that were necessary to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter emissions. It seems that the industry has reached the point of diminishing returns where it comes to reducing emissions. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as API 10W-30 and even 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Damien Browne, Mark Dewey, Mike Sutton, Sarah Graham
Final Version Internal review completed: Fuel economy continues to be a significant driver of engine lubricant development. The cost of vehicle ownership, energy security and the need to limit greenhouse gas emissions are all factors in driving legislation that promotes vehicle fuel economy. These factors, as well as rising fuel costs, are forcing large fleet operators such as bus companies to investigate every possible area for improving the efficiency of their fleets. One area of interest for these companies is engine lubricants which are known to have a significant effect on the overall efficiency of a vehicle. Particularly since the incremental cost of such lubricants for the efficiency benefit obtained is a very good economic decision. One of the primary methods for delivering this benefit is by lowering the viscosity of the engine oil. However, the additive chemistry also plays an important role by maintaining the durability of the engine but also further improving the fuel efficiency by reducing the friction within the engine itself.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
James A. McGeehan
By 2014, all new on-highway diesel engines in North America, Europe, and Japan will employ diesel particulate filters (DPF) in the exhaust in order to meet particulate emission standards. If the pressure across the DPF increases due to incombustibles remaining after filter regeneration, the exhaust backpressure will increase, and this in turn reduces fuel economy and engine power, and increases emissions. Due to engine oil consumption, over 90% of the incombustibles in the DPF are derived from inorganic lubricant additives. These components are derived from calcium and magnesium detergents, zinc dithiophosphates (ZnDTP), and metal-containing oxidation inhibitors. They do not regenerate as they are non-volatile metals and salts. Consequently, the DPF has to be removed from the vehicle for cleaning. Ashless oil could eliminate the need for cleaning. This study initially focused on development of ashless oil, but eventually concluded that this oil could not meet the valve-train wear requirements of the API CJ-4, SN/ACEA E9 oil categories.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Oliver P. Taylor, Richard Pearson, Richard Stone, Phil Carden, Helen Ballard
Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselization. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller but significant incremental efficiency benefits such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. Fuel economy improvements which achieve this through the development of advanced engine lubricants are very attractive to vehicle manufacturers due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio. For an engine with components which operate predominantly in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, the most significant lubricant parameter which can be changed to improve the tribological performance of the system is the lubricant viscosity. Low viscosity lubricants are increasingly being specified by vehicle manufacturers who are now more frequently working directly with the lubricant supplier to design fluids specific to their requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Buyu Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai, Hong-Qiang Yang, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang, Hongming Xu
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (-200 ~ -20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (-5 ~ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP. Attributed to the “spray- combustion- spray- combustion” process, the emissions can be controlled by adjusting the first and second injection timing, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amine Labreche, Fabrice Foucher, Christine Rousselle
Recent works have demonstrated the possibility of operating compression ignition engine with high resistance to auto-ignition fuels, as gasoline. By using gasoline and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in compression ignition combustion, the engine can reach higher efficiencies than conventional Spark Ignition systems with low particulate (PM) and NOx emissions than classical compression ignition engine. One of the promising strategies to reach this combustion is Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion. It consists on combining a high level of EGR and split the mass of fuel on two injections. The first one is sited in the compression stroke to provide time for gasoline and air to form a lean mixture over a long mixing time. The second fuel injection held near TDC (Top Dead Center) ignites the charge and controls the combustion phasing. In this work, the first injection is maintained at 30 CAD before TDC and the second one was swept between 10 CAD before TDC and 5° after TDC, for demonstrating the ideal second injection positioning.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Clemens Brückner, Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Konstantinos Boulouchos
In diesel engines, recent investigations have shown a trend reversal for NOx emissions at very cold in-cylinder conditions. It has been shown that decreasing the in-cylinder temperature initially leads to a reduction in NOx emissions, while further reducing the temperature eventually results in an increase of NOx [1]. This effect clearly contradicts the expected trend predicted by the adiabatic flame temperature, limiting the applicability of Miller valve timing to reduce NOx emissions in large engines. For the case of reduced inlet charge temperature it is proposed in literature that the increase of NOx is due to the increased amount of premixed burn [2]. An increased portion of premixed combustion arises from more fuel being mixed prior to ignition as a result of longer ignition delay. Thus, a reduction of ignition delay by means of split injection is expected to suppress the trend reversal. The objective of this study is the detailed investigation of the effects of split injection on engine out NOx emissions for very early inlet valve closure (i.e. extreme Miller), high boost pressures and cold end-of-compression in-cylinder conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Haifeng Liu, Yongzhi Li, bowen Yan
As is well known, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is one of the key technologies to satisfy increasingly stringent emission regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines. There are different EGR modes in term of the method that EGR is implemented, and the effects on engine performance and emissions may varied to some extent as different EGR mode being employed. So the optimization of EGR mode and its control is very important in realizing high efficiency clean combustion. In current study, three external EGR system, named HPL-EGR (high-pressure loop EGR), LPL-EGR (low-pressure loop EGR) and DL-EGR (dual loop EGR) respectively, were established in a two-stage turbocharged common-rail heavy-duty diesel engine, and experimental investigation on the effects of EGR and combustion phasing (CA50 timing) on combustion characteristics, performance and emissions were conducted. Results show that as the HPL-EGR rate is increased, the NOx emission and PMEP (pumping mean effective pressure) decreases sharply, but the compressor efficiency deteriorates and the intake temperature and throttling losses increase when the intake throttle opening starts to be decreased to further raise the HPL-EGR ratio.
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