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2015-08-04 ...
  • August 4-6, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
This web seminar provides an in-depth overview of diesel engine noise including combustion and mechanical noise sources. In addition, the instructor will discuss a system approach to automotive integration including combining sub-systems and components to achieve overall vehicle noise and vibration goals.
2015-06-22
Event
The diesel NVH session is focused on issues related to making diesel engines achieve better NVH characteristics. Topics include both analytical and experimental techniques for developing low noise diesel engines and components. Related topics covered in this session include linear and torsional vibration of diesel engines, as well as features intended to reduce diesel specific intake and exhaust noise problems, such as turbocharger whine.
2015-06-01 ...
  • June 1-5, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Engineering Academies
This Academy covers the diesel engine engineering principles and practices necessary to effectively understand a modern diesel engine. Types of engines addressed include naturally aspirated, turbocharged, pre-chamber, open chamber, light duty, and heavy duty. It is an intensive learning experience comprised of lecture and structured practical sessions, including a team-solved case study problem. Evening sessions are included. Attendees will receive a copy of the textbook, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, by lead instructor Magdi K. Khair and W. Addy Majewski.
2015-05-14 ...
  • May 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-04-23 ...
  • April 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications.
2015-04-22
Event
This session covers topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
2015-04-21
Event
Mixed mode with auto ignition but inhomogeneous charge. Injection-controlled but with EOI before SOC. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and PPC injection strategies are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
2015-04-21
Event
This session covers topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 16-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Charlotte, North Carolina
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1718
Jan Macek, Zdenek Zak, Oldrich Vitek
Aiming at high low-end ICE torque with turbocharged and massively downsized engines revitalized high pulsation exhaust manifolds, which improve exhaust gas energy transfer especially while engine runs at reduced speed. The lack of turbine maps if twin scroll or divided scroll is used for radial turbine stator entry is well-known. The remedy is not simple. The measurements of maps for twin-entry turbines are costly and time consuming. Any lookup-map based interpolation suffers from lack of physical fundamentals, since the mixing processes take place inside a turbine at governing pressure differences significantly different from turbine inlet pressures. The paper describes a way to a 1-D central streamline model of a radial turbine flow suitable for twin-scroll description based on approximation to real physics of flow mixing and energy transformation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1719
Daniel Pachner, Lukas Lansky, David Germann, Markus Eigenmann
Turbocharger maps measured on the gas stand are commonly used to represent turbine and compressor performance. The maps are useful source of information for mean value modeling, engine calibration optimization, virtual sensing and feedback control design. For some tasks, representing the maps by fitted functional forms can be more convenient than using the interpolation of the map data directly. The functional representation usually allows for wider extrapolation ranges and more reliable application of numerical optimization methods. Several functional forms have been proposed for compressor map modeling, often based on empirical polynomial models. However, most successful models are based rational polynomials of dimensionless head and flow parameters (Winkler, Jensen). The turbines are usually modeled as orifices, or orifices with variable cross-section in case of variable nozzle (VNT) turbines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1716
Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek, Jiri Klima, Martin Vacek
The proposed paper deals with an optimization of a highly-turbocharged large-bore gas SI engine. Only steady state operation (constant engine speed and load) is considered. The results are obtained by means of simulation using complex 0-D/1-D engine model including the control algorithm. Different mixture composition concepts are considered to satisfy TA Luft norm (different levels of TA Luft NOx limit are evaluated) – fresh air and external cooled EGR is supposed to be the right way while optimal EGR level is to be found. Considering EGR circuit, 5 different layouts are tested to select the best desing. As the engine control is relatively complex (2-sage turbocharger group, external EGR, compressor blow-by, controlled air excess), 5 different control means of boost pressure were considered. Each variant (based on above mentioned possibilities) is optimized in terms of compressor/turbine size (swallowing capacity) to obtain the best possible BSFC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1717
Li-Chun Chien, Matthew Younkins, Mark Wilcutts
Dynamic skip fire is a control method for internal combustion engines in which engine cylinders are selectively fired or skipped to meet driver torque demand. Each cylinder is operated at or near its best thermal efficiency and flexible control of acoustic and vibrational excitations is achieved. In this type of engine operation, fueling, and possibly intake and exhaust valves of each cylinder are actuated on an individual firing opportunity basis. The implementation and benefits of this system have been described in several previous papers. This paper describes engine thermofluid modeling for this type of operation for purposes of air flow and torque prediction. Airflow dynamic and thermodynamic results for skip fire engine operation are presented and compared with experimental data under several different firing sequences. Unique impacts of dynamic skip fire on air estimation, and performance parameters are discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0403
Ning Ding, Ming Chen, Zheng Xu
Recently, with fast improvement of the numerical technique and the computer hardware becoming cheaper and more powerful, it’s a clearly tendency that more and more detailed chemical kinetics model will represent empirical reaction models in engine in-cylinder combustion simulation. In fact, the incorporation of detailed chemical kinetics into Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can improve the accuracy of prediction of combustion time delay, heat release rate and emissions for diesel combustion simulations compared to empirical reaction models. However, the use of detailed chemical reaction mechanisms could significantly increase the computational time. The computational time of the chemistry part is the most time consuming compared to the solution of the transport equations. Typically, as the size of the mechanism increases, the computational time spent in the chemistry part of the engine simulation code increases as the square or cube [5] of the number of species.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1750
Stijn Broekaert, Thomas De Cuyper, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are a promising alternative to traditional spark- and compression-ignition engines. The HCCI combustion principle makes it possible to achieve both a high thermal efficiency and near-zero emissions of NOx and soot. This is obtained by introducing a lean premixed fuel-air mixture into the combustion chamber and letting it auto-ignite due to the temperature rise during the compression stroke. The main drawbacks of HCCI combustion are the lack of direct control over the start of combustion and a limited operating range. Trying to overcome these drawbacks and further optimizing the engine, solely using an experimental approach is very time consuming. Therefore simulation tools are being developed. An important model required by these simulation tools, is a model that calculates the heat transfer from the bulk gas to the walls of the combustion chamber.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1752
Alex Melin, David Kittelson, William Northrop
In recent years, there has been growing interest in using alternative cycles to the standard Otto cycle in an effort to improve efficiency and lower emissions of spark-ignition engines. One such proposed concept is the 5-stroke engine. The 5-stroke uses two types of cylinders, a combustion cylinder and expansion cylinder with a transfer port between them. Excess pressure in the combustion cylinder can be further expanded by using a second expansion cylinder to harness additional work; a practical implementation of the Atkinson Cycle. Since the expansion cylinder runs on a two-stroke cycle, an additional increase in efficiency can result by connecting two combustion cylinders to one expansion cylinder in a three cylinder configuration. Although previous work has investigated the performance of prototype 5-stroke engines compared to1-D modeling results, none have conducted a thorough study on the interactions of various design parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1753
Mario Vila Millan, Stephen Samuel
Nanofluids and thermal management strategy for Automotive Application Mario Vila Millan, Stephen Samuel Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom Stringent emission norms introduced by the legislators over the decades have forced the automotive manufacturers to improve the fuel economy and emission levels of their engine continuously. This constant improvement leads to increased use of smart systems where components are controlled by the engine management systems to get a desired and optimized performance. Therefore, the emission levels of the modern engines are significantly lower than pre-1990 engines. However, the improvement in fuel economy is marginal when compared to that of the scale of improvement achieved for reducing emission levels. For example, approximately 30% of the total energy in the fuel is still being wasted through the cooling systems in the modern engines during normal operating conditions. This is even worse during the engine warm up.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1745
Cemil Bekdemir, Rik Baert, Frank Willems, Bart Somers
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a promising combustion concept in terms of controllability and load range compared to other high efficiency low pollutant emission concepts, such as Homogeneous and Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI/PCCI). Up to now, these RCCI strategies mainly rely on the combination of two liquid fuels: a diesel like and gasoline like fuel. Recently, this concept also became interesting from an operational cost perspective since one of the fuels can be natural gas (CNG). This is especially interesting for the partial substitution of diesel fuel in the heavy-duty market, as it bears the potential of decreasing CO2 and soot emissions on top of RCCI’s general potential of high thermal efficiency and low engine-out NOx emission. Engine control development requires fast models that capture the main features and trends of the processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1748
Hrishikesh A. Saigaonkar, Mohammadreza Nazemi, Mahdi Shahbakhti
In this study the effects of variable valve timing on the performance of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are analyzed by developing an accurate and computationally efficient modeling approach for HCCI engine cycle. A full engine cycle model called Sequential Model for Residual affected HCCI (SMRH) is developed using a multi-zone thermo-kinetic combustion model coupled with flow dynamics models. The SMRH utilizes CHEMKIN-PRO and GT-Power software along with an in-house exhaust gas flow model. Experimental data from a single cylinder HCCI engine is used to validate the model for different operating conditions. Validation results show a good agreement with experimental data for predicting combustion phasing, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), thermal efficiency as well as CO emission. The experimentally validated SMRH is then used to investigate the effects of intake and exhaust valve timing on residual affected HCCI engine combustion and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1749
Hung Nguyen Ba, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
In a linear engine, the piston motion is not restricted by a crankshaft mechanism, but it is determined by the interaction between the gas and load forces. Therefore, the compression ratio of the linear engine is variable and it allows the engine to operate with the HCCI combustion. However, it is difficult to obtain a high compression ratio as well as a HCCI combustion from motoring mode of the linear engine due to lack of a crankshaft. In this paper, an idea using SI-HCCI transition to achieve the HCCI combustion is proposed. The spark ignition (SI) mode is used first to increase compression ratio before the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode is activated by turning off spark plugs. The operation of the linear engine is modeled and simulated by dynamic and thermodynamic models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0808
Tadanori Yanai, Shouvik Dev, Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Neat n-butanol combustion and emissions characteristics were investigated in a compression ignition engine by comparing two fuelling techniques. The engine tests were conducted on a single-cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.2 : 1. n-Butanol port fuel injection (PI) system was installed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics. An in-house common-rail fuel injection system was used to conduct the direct injection (DI) tests for comparative studies. In the DI case, the ignition timing could be controlled by injection timing even with long ignition delay. The pressure rise rate of the DI could be lowered to less than that of the PI case by retarding the injection timing at the same operating condition without using EGR. The NOx of the DI was higher than that of the PI. However, by using EGR, the NOx was reduced to around 20 ppm, similar to the PI level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0807
Khanh Cung, Jaclyn Johnson, Seong-Young Lee
Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard’s mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition and growth of small PAH, assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) up to coronene.
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