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2015-10-22 ...
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
2015-10-19 ...
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-10-06
Event
This session covers advanced technologies and analysis/design/testing techniques related to powertrain performance, emissions, and electronic controls. Topics include system-level and component-level integration and optimization, emissions, fuel economy, combustion, air charging, EGR systems, fuel systems, valvetrains, engine brakes, waste heat recovery, calibration, steady-state and transient performance, engine/powertrain/drivetrain controls, model-based controls, sensors, OBD, and HIL.
2015-09-28 ...
  • September 28, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2406
Gyujin Kim, Kyoungdoug Min
Development of injection technologies such as common-rail direct injection allows multiple injection strategy in Diesel Engine, which can reduce emissions, noises and vibrations. Meanwhile, three dimensional combustion model using CFD can be a good apparatus to visualize the in-cylinder phenomena. RIF (Representative Interactive Flamelet) model shows a good prediction of non-premixed combustion. In RIF model, chemical time scales are considered to be smaller than those of turbulence, which can decouple the equations of heat and mass transfer from flow equations. Furthermore, theses governing equations can be described by one conserved scalar which is called mixture fraction by using the assumption that the flame is sufficient to thin in the direction orthogonal to the flame surface. However, its dependency on the mixture fraction set a limit on the combustion analysis for the single injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2438
Maria Founti, Yannis Hardalupas, Christopher Hong, Christos Keramiotis, Kumara Gurubaran Ramaswamy, Nikolaos Soulopoulos, Alexander Taylor, Dimitrios P. Touloupis, George Vourliotakis
Engine research is focused on fulfilling the demand for high performance and comfort levels, as well as to satisfy tough vehicular exhaust emission regulations. Diesel engines, in particular, dominate the land transportation sector and their performance optimization is essential. In this regard, novel, sophisticated operating modes incorporate a variety of combinations including multiple injection strategies and excessive exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). This diversion from traditional diesel combustion poses difficulties regarding engine control and load flexibility, necessitating fuel-engine synergies identification. Conventional diesel combustion is governed by fuel and air mixing and reaction rates, or in other words, by both kinetically- and mixing- controlled phases. Kinetically-controlled combustion schemes, such as partially-premixed, essentially restrain the diffusion phase, which is largely responsible for soot formation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2400
Andrea Matrisciano, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss
In this work we present a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The previously developed method [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2512
Barouch Giechaskiel, Alessandro Zardini, Giorgio Martini
In 2009 a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European Union vehicle exhaust legislation for diesel passenger cars. The PN method requires measurement of solid particles (i.e. those that do not evaporate at 350°C) above 23 nm. In 2013 the same approach was introduced in the heavy duty engines legislation. The same approach will be added for gasoline direct injection vehicles from 2017. This decision was based on a long evaluation that concluded that there is no significant sub23nm fraction for this technology. In this paper we examine the suitability of the current PN method for mopeds and motorcycles. Emission levels of >10 mopeds and motorcycles are presented. Special attention is given to sub23nm emission levels for some of them. The investigation was conducted with PN legislation compliant systems with counters measuring above 23nm and 10nm.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2515
Christophe Barro, Sushant Pandurangi, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Philipp Elbert, Yuri M. Wright
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in NOx emissions. However, an accurate, widely applicable rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. In past research, the underlying mechanisms have been investigated in engine experiments, in constant volume chambers and also using detailed 3D CFD-CMC simulations. It has been observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly due to two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. Those studies do not show a significant temperature rise caused by the post injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2514
Marco Piumetti, Samir Bensaid, Nunzio Russo
A set of nanostructured CeO2-based catalysts with different topological and textural properties (CeO2-nanocubes, CeO2-nanocubes over ZSM-5-type zeolite, CeO2-nanorods, mesoporous CeO2 and CeO2-SCS) has been prepared to investigate the shape-dependency activity of ceria towards soot combustion under different reaction. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared materials have been studied using complementary techniques. The best performances, in terms of the total oxidation of soot, have been achieved for the CeO2-nanocubes, due to the abundance of coordinative unsaturated atomic sites on the exposed surfaces. However, better results, in terms of the onset of soot oxidation, have been obtained for high-surface-area materials, thus reflecting the key role of surface area at low temperatures. Activity tests have suggested the surface-sensitivity of soot oxidation over the prepared ceria-based materials, when the reaction temperature was above 410 °C or 370 °C.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2516
Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Daniel Schreiber
Particulate matter (PM)in diesel exhaust is captured in diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Since increased PM load in the filter and thus increased pressure drop across the filter deteriorates the engine performance, the filter load of the DPF has to be removed during a process referred to as regeneration. Measures for successful regeneration aim at accelerating soot oxidation and increase fuel consumption. Regeneration lay-out and thus fuel consumption increase is strongly depending on the oxidation behavior of soot. The aim of the present study is the investigation of soot oxidation characteristics. Therefore particle filters have been loaded with soot using the exhaust gas of small heavy duty vehicle operated under defined conditions on an engine dynamometer. The particle filters have been then dismantled and fragmented on their constituting segments. Each filter segment has been regenerated individually in a specifically designed test bench.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2519
Richard Cornwell, Huntly Thomas, Joshua Dalby, Phil Carden, Brian Knight, Andrew Ward, Grace Carr
Fuel consumption, and the physical behaviours behind it, have never been of greater interest to the automotive engineering community. The enormous design, development and infrastructure investment involved with a new engine family which will be in production for many years demands significant review of the base engine fundamental architecture. Future CO2 challenges are pushing car manufacturers to consider alternative engine configurations. As a result, a wide range of diesel engine architectures are available in production particularly in the 1.4 to 1.6L passenger car market, including cylinder size, number of valves per cylinder, and bore:stroke ratio. In addition, the 3 cylinder engine has recently entered the market, despite its historic NVH concerns. Ricardo has performed a generic architecture study for a midsize displacement engine in order to assess the pros and cons of each engine configuration.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2448
Mengqin Shen, Vilhelm Malmborg, Yann Gallo, Bjorn B. O. Waldheim, Patrik Nilsson, Axel Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
The conventional diesel combustion offers high thermal efficiencies along with elevated emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the possible ways that help to reduce NOx emissions but can generally result in higher engine-out soot emissions. To better understand the knowledge about particle formation and emission, an insight in the cylinder is necessary. In this work, characteristics of soot particles from in-cylinder gas in a heavy duty engine for low temperature combustion (LTC) compared with conventional combustion were investigated. By using a fast gas sampling valve, gas samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the black carbon mass, soot particle size distribution and particle numbers. Black carbon mass was measured with an aethalometer and the particle size distribution and particle number were measured by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Three levels of EGR were applied.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2497
Pierpaolo Napolitano, Carlo Beatrice, Chiara Guido, Nicola Del Giacomo, Leonardo Pellegrini, Pietro Scorletti
The present paper describes the results of a research activity aimed at studying the potential effects determined by the use of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blends as fuels in modern diesel engines. Five fuels were tested on a light duty four-cylinder diesel engine, Euro 5 version, installed on a dyno test bench. The set of fuels comprised a commercial EN590-compliant diesel fuel and four experimental fuels formulated ad hoc to investigate the effect of the cetane provided by the HVO. The experimental campaign included both dynamic test conditions, running the engine along the New European Driving Cycles (NEDC), and steady-state operating engine points, six at partial speed/loads conditions, representative of the urban and extra-urban part of the engine homologation cycle, and one at full load condition at 3500 rpm engine speed.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2505
Maria Rosaria Gaballo, Maria Giodice, Alberto Diano, Fabio Fersini, Francesco Miccolis, Soenke Mannal, Stefan Motz
World of diesel becomes technically more and more complex due to the increasingly restrictive legislation e.g. with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and RDE (real driving emissions evaluations). Simulation provides a mechanism for the investigation and optimization of diesel engine performances, evaluation and investigation of innovative new engine concepts, RDE evaluation, after-treatment design and optimization, by that contributing to solve above mentioned challenges. Besides these generally valid capabilities of simulations our model development is focused additionally on the mission to use right sized models to reduce usage of resources and by that making simulation an even more rapid and cost effective method In this contribution we present our approach for simulation as an advanced integrated tool capable to answer challenging questions towards emission and fuel consumption reduction in future legislation frameworks.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2508
Joschka Schaub, Thorsten Schnorbus, Thomas Koerfer, Stefan Pischinger
Model-based control strategies along with an adapted calibration process become more important in the overall vehicle development process. The main drivers for this development trend are an increasing number of vehicle variants and more complex engine hardware, which is required to fulfill the more and more stringent emission legislation and fuel consumption targets. Upcoming fundamental changes in the homologation process with EU 6C covering an extended range of different ambient conditions are suspected to intensify this trend. One main cause for the increased calibration effort is the use of various aftertreatment technologies amongst different vehicle applications requiring numerous combustion modes. The different combustion modes range from heating modes for active Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration or early SCR light-off and rich combustion modes to purge the NOx storage catalyst (NSC) to partially premixed normal combustion modes.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2388
Jordan Rudloff, Alessio Dulbecco, Gregory Font
New generation Diesel engine becoming increasingly complex to be able to satisfy the always severer constraints on pollutant emissions, during the calibration phase of the engine, manufacturers have to account for a large number of variables to reach their targets expressed in terms of drivability, fuel consumption, in-cylinder pollutant emissions. Furthermore, due to the increasingly synergy between engine combustion chamber and exhaust after-treatment technologies, it is essential to consider global optimization approaches to obtain optimum conditions to meet high conversion efficiencies in after-treatment systems. In that context, engine system simulation approaches are very flexible tools that allow to create virtual innovative powertrains and perform, in a quite short time and with reduced cost, a large number of tests over a wide range of operating conditions. Moreover, they give access to detailed physical information, which is not easily available from experiments.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2394
Fadila Maroteaux, Charbel Saad, Fabrice Aubertin, Pauline Canaud
Mainly due to environmental regulation, future Engine Control Unit (ECU) will be equipped with in-cylinder pressure sensors. The introduction of this innovative solution has increased the number of involved variables, requiring an unceasing improvement in the modeling approaches and in the computational capabilities of Engine Control Unit (ECU). Hardware in the Loop (HIL) test system therefore has to provide in-cylinder pressure in real time from an adequate model. This paper describes a synthesis of our study targeted to the development of in-cylinder crank angle combustion model excluding look up tables, dedicated to HIL test bench. The main objective of the present paper is a comprehensive analysis of a reduced combustion model, applied to a direct injection Diesel engine at varying engine operating range, including single injection and multi injection strategies.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2396
Philippe Moreau, Patricia Valerio, Alain Brillard, Valerie Tschamber, Jean-Francois Brilhac, Yves Hohl, Regis Vonarb, L. Germanese, B. Courtalon
We aim at presenting an experimental and modelling methodology developed at LGRE to characterize soot oxidation in the presence of different atmospheres (NO2, NO2/O2), simulating passive regeneration which occur in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The thermal reactivity of different types of soot has been studied and compared. Soot are produced from a prototype Liebherr engine and on an engine dynamometer at R&D Moteurs company, under two engine cycles (Specific Liebherr Machine Cycle and NRTC) and for three different fuels (EN590, B10, US). The experimental work was carried out in a fixed bed reactor, which allows simulating the conditions which prevail in a DPF. Small soot masses (15-30mg) were deposited on the quartz frit of the reactor and submitted to a gas flow (NO2 or NO2/O2), under different temperature ramps from 5°C/min to 50°C/min and in temperature ranges 200°C-900°C. The mole fractions of NO2, NO, CO2 and CO at the reactor outflow were measured by infrared analyzers.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2395
Xavier Tauzia, Alain Maiboom, Guanqin Ma
In this paper, a new 1D combustion model is presented. It is expected to combine good predictive capacities with a contained CPU time, and could be used for engine design. It relies on a eulerian approach, based on Musculus 1D transient spray model. The latter has been extended to model vaporizing, reacting sprays. The general features of the model are first presented. Then various sub models (spray angle and dilatation, vaporization, thermodynamic properties) are detailed. Chemical kinetics are described with a global scheme to keep computational time low. The spray discretization (mesh) and angle model are first discussed through a sensitivity analysis. The model results are then compared to experiments from ECN data base (SANDIA) realized in constant volume bombs, for both inert and reacting cases. Some detailed analysis of model results are performed, including comparisons of vaporizing and non-vaporizing cases, as well as inert and reacting cases.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2398
Ivan Arsie, Roberto Di Cianni, Rocco Di Leo, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare
Nowadays the high competition reached by the automotive market forces OEMs towards innovative solutions. Strict emission standards and fuel economy targets make the work hard to be accomplished. Therefore modern engines feature complex architecture and embed new devices for EGR, turbocharging (e.g. multi-stage compressors), gas after-treatment (e.g. SCR) and fuel injection (either high or low pressure). In this context the Engine Management System (EMS) plays a fundamental role to optimize engine operation. The paper deals with fuel spray and combustion simulation by a multi-zone phenomenological model aimed at the steady-state optimal tuning of the injection pattern. The fuel spray model simulates the fuel-air mixture formation, the in-cylinder gas mixture evolution and accounts for fuel-wall impingement, which usually occurs in case of low-medium injection pressure or advanced injection timing.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2418
Zheming Li, Xin Yu, Guillaume Lequien, Ted Lind, Marcis Jansons, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter
The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature flame front usually has been used to detect the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. OH* chemiluminescence is self-radiation from the exited states OH (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information. However, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the ground state and it only shows the OH distribution in a thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. So in this work a relatively thick laser sheet (3 mm) was employed to partially compensate the 3D geometry effects from two techniques. In diesel engine, the cycle-to-cycle variation is usually very significant. In order to subtract this cycle-to-cycle variation influence from the comparison of these two techniques, a simultaneous measurement is needed. They were performed in a heavy duty optical diesel engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2425
Mario Milanese, Ilario Gerlero, Carlo Novara, Giuseppe Conte, Maurizio Cisternino, Carmen Pedicini, Vincenzo Alfieri l, Stefano Mosca
Diesel engines manufacturers need to improve engine performances and fuel economy complying with the stricter future emission legislations. Several technologies are now available to achieve such reductions for diesel engines, e.g. exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems together with variable geometry turbines (VGT). These technological solutions lead to high engine control complexities, requiring demanding efforts in terms of time and cost for the control design and calibration. Furthermore these issues will increase significantly in the next generation diesel engines with multi-stage EGR and VGT. The challenge is to design highly performing engine control systems able to deal with nonlinear and multivariable problems allowing technological feasibility and cost limitation. This paper examines the adoption of a MIMO nonlinear reference tracking feedback control developed by the joint work between General Motor Powertrain Europe and Modelway.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2470
Daniel Pearce, Yannis Hardalupas, A.M.K.P Taylor
ABSTRACT
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2389
Mirko Baratta, Roberto Finesso, Daniela Misul, Ezio Spessa
The potential of internal EGR (iEGR) and external EGR (eEGR) in reducing the engine-out NOx emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine has been investigated by means of a refined 1D fluid-dynamic engine model developed in the GT-Power environment. The engine is equipped with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) systems. The activity was carried out in the frame of the CORE (CO2 Reduction for Long Distance Transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The engine model integrates an innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate), which is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach, and a multi-zone thermodynamic model for the simulation of the in-cylinder temperatures. NOx emissions are calculated by means of the Zeldovich thermal and prompt mechanisms.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2464
Daniele Farrace, Ronny Panier, Martin Schmitt, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) provide instantaneous values indispensable to conduct statistical studies of relevant fluctuating quantities for diesel sprays. However, numerous realizations are generally necessary for LES to derive statistically averaged quantities necessary for validation of the numerical framework by means of measurements and for conducting sensitivity studies, leading to extremely high computational efforts. In this context, the aim of this work is to explore and validate alternatives to the simulation of 20-50 single realizations at considerably lower computational costs, by taking advantage of the axisymmetric geometry and the Quasi-Steady-State (QSS) condition of the near nozzle flow at a certain time after start-of-injection (SOI).
2015-08-24 ...
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2015-08-18 ...
  • August 18-19, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
2015-08-04 ...
  • August 4-6, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
This web seminar provides an in-depth overview of diesel engine noise including combustion and mechanical noise sources. In addition, the instructor will discuss a system approach to automotive integration including combining sub-systems and components to achieve overall vehicle noise and vibration goals.
2015-06-24
Event
The diesel NVH session is focused on issues related to making diesel engines achieve better NVH characteristics. Topics include both analytical and experimental techniques for developing low noise diesel engines and components. Related topics covered in this session include linear and torsional vibration of diesel engines, as well as features intended to reduce diesel specific intake and exhaust noise problems, such as turbocharger whine.
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