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Event
2015-04-27
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Event
2014-10-22
This session covers new production and near-production hybrid powertrains, hybrid architecture, and testing.
Event
2014-10-22
This session covers powertrain control processes related to achieving stringent market fuel economy, emissions, performance, reliability, and quality demands of hybrid and electric powertrains. Topics include the control, calibration, and diagnostics of the engine, powertrain, and supporting electromechanical subsystems related to energy management.
Event
2014-10-22
This session covers new production and near-production hybrid powertrains, hybrid architecture, and testing.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Gerhard Kokalj, Patrick Schatz, Christoph Zach
The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term “hybrid vehicle” can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a plethora of vehicles that call themselves “hybrid”. This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required. The functional variability of hybrid technology, however, permits a range of possible implementations and the control calibration tasks themselves need to be well structured concerning hand-over, traceability and robustness.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Stefan Geng, Thomas Schulte
Hybrid electric powertrains are developed for reducing the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide. In order to achieve a reduction in comparison to conventional vehicles, an improved efficiency of the overall system is required. It depends on the powertrain topology, its components and the applied control strategy. For testing and improving the control strategy in terms of the overall system efficiency, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation can be applied. Thereby, a real-time simulation of the powertrain is used to emulate the behavior of the actuator and sensor signals in order to operate the corresponding electronic control units in a virtual test environment [1], [2]. The development of real-time capable powertrain models is a time-consuming task, due to high dynamics and switching frequencies of the electrical subsystem, comprising the electric drive, inverter and battery and due to the immense diversity of powertrain configurations, comprising the transmission, the combustion engine, the electric drives, etc.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abdelmajid Ait Taleb, Ali Chaaba, Mohamed Sallaou
In the field of machinery, epicyclic gear trains play a fundamental role in power transmission lines. Their use is very wide and varied and they can realize the function of a mechanism as a “differential" or as a mechanism to reduce or increase speeds. For example, the epicyclic gear trains equip a large number of vehicles transmission such as electric and hybrid cars and heavy vehicles, these epicyclic gear trains are integrated especially in continuously variable power split transmissions. The mechanical efficiency assessment of transmissions integrating one or more epicyclic gear trains requires the knowledge of the efficiencies of components setting up the transmission, in particular that of the epicyclic gear trains. The efficiency of these mechanisms is commonly defined as the ratio of the output power by the input one. For a planetary gear train with three active shafts, which operates as a differential system, the definition of the efficiency will not change, but, it is necessary first to identify the powers flow running between its links.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fuyuan Yang, Lei Du, Changsheng Yao, Jiaen Du, Ping Yu
The efficiency of traction motor affects the overall efficiency of city buses which most of time creep among jammed city traffic. The low speed and torque operating condition deviate from the high-efficiency region of electric motor. This paper discusses whether it is possible to improve the motor efficiency by a two-speed transmission and if so, to what extent. In this paper, based on the China Bus Urban Cycle, an 8-meter electric bus is studied, and the comparison of motor efficiency between two different configurations is made: direct drive and drive through a two-speed transmission. In the ‘direct drive’ configuration, the traction motor drives the main reducer directly, while in the other configuration installed a two-speed transmission between. Apart from that, all other specifications are the same. The study is conducted via modeling and simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. In the simulation of both configurations, models of driver, traction motor, two-speed transmission, the I-curve of braking forces distribution and vehicle controller are built.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jonathan Hall, Hannes Marlok, Michael Bassett, Marco Warth
In 2012 MAHLE Powertrain unveiled a range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) demonstrator, which is based on a series hybrid configuration, and uses a battery to store electrical energy from the grid. Once the battery state of charge (SOC) is depleted a gasoline engine (range extender) is activated to provide the energy required to propel the vehicle. As part of the continuing development of this vehicle, MAHLE Powertrain has logged vehicle data in real world driving situations with the aim of understanding the actual usage a REEV under non-laboratory test conditions. The vehicle is instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure physical parameters, for example coolant temperatures, as well as CAN-based data from the engine and vehicle management systems. The logged data has been analysed, using in-house tools, to establish the effect of environmental factors such as ambient temperature, human behavioural characteristics and variation in usage patterns on the efficiency and operational behaviour of the REEV system as a whole.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Albert Albers, Kevin Matros, Matthias Behrendt, Johannes Henschel, Heidelinde Holzer, Wolfram Bohne
A Full-Hybrid-Electric-Vehicle provides the option of operating purely on an electric basis. However, under certain conditions an additional start of the combustion engine is required. The engine mainly needs to be started in case the electric power of the hybrid system is exceeded, the state of charge of the battery is low, or further systemic reasons (e.g. a high heating request, a cold high-voltage battery). The engine-start influences the dynamics, the comfort as well as the efficiency of the vehicle and is therefore highly relevant for the customer satisfaction. For an ideal engine-start from a customer’s point of view it is essential to choose an appropriate starting-system (e.g. starter motor with pinion, starter motor with belt, starting clutch) in combination with an appropriate starting-strategy (e.g. restrain of power, gear shift). This article is a result of a research cooperation between IPEK - Institute of Product Engineering at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and BMW AG.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Nobunori Okui, Tetsuya Niikuni
Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are researched and expected to reduce CO2 emissions in the future. Market share of HEVs are 26.5% at 2012 year in Japan. Especially, market share of small passenger HEVs are 29.7%. HEVs were increased about 4 times compared to 2008 year. Also, small delivery hybrid trucks are increased in the class of heavy-duty vehicles. Performances of hybrid trucks in fuel economy which are shown in catalog specifications are relatively better than that of normal diesel tracks that have no hybrid systems. Nevertheless, hybrid trucks’ users report that advantages of fuel economy by hybrid trucks at the real traffic conditions are little. In this research, the cause of low improvement in fuel economy by hybrid trucks at the real traffic conditions and the examination data was investigated. Firstly, a simulation model of a hybrid truck was constructed and the model was validated with results measured by an actual hybrid truck with chassis dynamo meter.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Hu Zhang, JianWei Zhang, Konghui Guo
The current control performance of PMSM hub motor directly affects the power performance and driving stability of the 4WD electric vehicle. A high-performance current controller which is essential to meet these requirements of the 4WD electric vehicle, and thus various current control scheme have been proposed,Compared with other current control schemes,The predict deadbeat current control (PCC) provides the potential for achieving the fastest transient response, more precise current control and the lowest current ripple. However, The stability and steady-state performance of the traditional PCC suffer from uncertainties of unpredictable parameter variations and external disturbances. To overcome these drawbacks, This paper presents an improved predictive current control which improve the stability and robustness of the current control system under parameter variations and system disturbances by means of a current observer and an disturbance observer that works in parallel with the deadbeat algorithm,therefore preserving the typical fast response of the predictive law.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Boru Jia, Zhengxing Zuo, Huihua Feng, Guohong Tian, A. P. Roskilly
Free-piston engine generator (FPEG) is a novel type of energy conversion device, which integrates a linear combustion engine and a linear electrical machine into a single unit. As an alternative to conventional engines, FPEG is a promising power generation system due to its simplicity and high thermal efficiency and has attracted considerable research interests recently. This paper presents the development for a spark-ignited free-piston engine generator prototype which was rated to 3kW power output, and the designation of major sub-systems is introduced. The electrical linear machine is operated as a linear motor to start the engine and switched to a generator after successful ignition. Closed-loop control strategy was investigated and implemented for the starting process with a constant force provide by the linear machine. Ignition is one of the most crucial problems for the generating process, thus a unique control sub-system to generate ignition signals at the correct ignition timing based on the piston position was completed.
Event
2014-09-23
WIP Standard
2014-08-22
Scope is unavailable.
WIP Standard
2014-08-22
This standard covers all-metal, self-locking, prevailing torque nuts made of corrosion resistant steel.
WIP Standard
2014-08-15
Scope unavailable.
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