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Event
2014-04-28
WIP Standard
2014-04-14
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d. Selection of technology e.
Event
2014-04-10
This session covers powertrain control processes related to achieving stringent market fuel economy, emissions, performance, reliability, and quality demands of hybrid and electric powertrains. Topics include the control, calibration, and diagnostics of the engine, powertrain, and supporting electromechanical subsystems related to energy management.
Standard
2014-04-03
This document covers all-metal, self-locking nuts, plate nuts, and gang channel nuts made of a corrosion and heat resistant nickel alloy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tae-il Yoo, Hanhee Park, Gubae Kang, Seongyeop Lim
Abstract Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability. Therefore, accomplishing both fuel economy and good NVH performance has become a significantly challenging task in eco-friendly vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ashish Vora, Haotian Wu, Chuang Wang, Yili Qian, Gregory Shaver, Vahid Motevalli, Peter Meckl, Oleg Wasynczuk, Haiyan Zhang
Abstract Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition. It describes the team's efforts towards developing a complete vehicle model of a Parallel-through-the road PHEV which can leverage SIL and HIL simulation platforms for control development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rashad Mustafa, Mirko Schulze, Peter Eilts, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) are facing increasing challenges in optimizing the energy flow through a vehicle system, in order to improve both fuel economy and vehicle emissions. Energy management of HEV's is a difficult task due to the complexity of the total system in terms of electrical, mechanical and thermal behavior. In this paper, an advanced control strategy for a parallel hybrid vehicle is developed. Four main steps are presented, particularly to achieve a reduction in fuel consumption. The first step is the development of a highly complex HEV model, including dynamic and thermal behavior. Second, a heuristical control strategy is developed to determine the HEV modes and third, a State of Charge (SoC) leveling is developed with the interaction of a fuzzy logic controller. It is proposed to calculate the load point shifting of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the desired battery SoC. Fourth, novel multi-objective optimization techniques, such as a genetic algorithm, are used for the optimization of the fuzzy logic controller and the heuristical control strategy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Trevor Crain, Joshua Wilke, Brendan Boyer, Trevor Fayer, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract The University of Washington Advanced Vehicle Works team has spent the last two years designing and integrating a Parallel Through The Road (PTTR) PHEV drive system into a stock Chevy Malibu as part of the EcoCAR 2 Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition. This paper presents the integration efforts performed throughout year 2 in an effort to produce a 65% “buyoff ready” prototype vehicle. EcoCAR2 challenges 16 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The architecture chosen by the team to address these goals is a PTTR PHEV which provides all-electric operation to displace petroleum usage, four wheel drive mode to improve utility performance for consumers, and an efficient charge-sustaining mode using 20% biodiesel (B20). The PTTR architecture is the lowest cost architecture to provide all of these benefits, and it does so without compromising the safety or performance of the platform.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Amanda Hyde, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels. The model accounts for rotational dynamics and inertias of the torque generating components, gearboxes, and wheels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bashar Alzuwayer, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Pierluigi Pisu, Pietro Giovenco, Paul Venhovens
Predicting fuel economy during early stages of concept development or feasibility study for a new type of powertrain configuration is an important key factor that might affect the powertrain configuration decision to meet CAFE standards. In this paper an efficient model has been built in order to evaluate the fuel economy for a new type of charge sustaining series hybrid vehicle that uses a Genset assembly (small 2 cylinders CNG fueled engine coupled with a generator). A first order mathematical model for a Li-Ion polymer battery is presented based on actual charging /discharging datasheet. Since the Genset performance data is not available, normalized engine variables method is used to create powertrain performance maps. An Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) has been implemented to determine how much power is supplied to the electric motor from the battery and the Genset. Finally the simulator has been tested for different driving cycles and the results which include fuel consumption, battery state of charge and the vehicle drivability performance are shown.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mariaeugenia Salas Acosta, Krishan Bhatia, Eric Constans, Jennifer Kadlowec, Thomas Merrill, Hong Zhang
Abstract The Rowan University Mechanical Engineering program is studying the use of a long-term (five semester) design project on student learning and concept retention. The project, a bench-scale hybrid electric powertrain system, is designed, analyzed and fabricated by students in five modules, starting in their sophomore year and culminating in their final semester as seniors (see prior ASEE publication [1]). This complex project has been selected in order to integrate the core mechanical engineering courses: Mechanical Design, Thermodynamics, System Dynamics and Control, and Fluid Mechanics. A bench-scale hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain has sufficient complexity to involve all Mechanical Engineering disciplines and the simplicity to be built by students over the course of five semesters. In addition, hybrid-electric technology is at the cutting-edge of automotive technology, and has been found to hold a special fascination for most mechanical engineering students. A “faculty prototype” has been built and tested, both as a demonstration and for educational purposes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vinay Ranganath, Nitin Bhiwapurkar, Haresh Bhere
Abstract Induction motor is very much used in mild hybrid vehicles because of its low cost, rugged structure and reliability. To test the induction motor controller in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment efficiently in both motoring and generating modes, generally, an instantaneous dynamic model of induction motor drive is used which requires the instantaneous values of PWM signals of inverter switches and hence a very high sampling frequency of about twenty times the switching frequency is required to effectively capture all the switching information of MOSFETS. This requires a HIL system with very powerful processor which increases the overall cost of system. In this paper, a dynamic average-value model of induction motor drive is developed in MATLAB/Simulink which requires only the duty cycle information instead of instantaneous switching information of PWM signals. Its performance is compared with the instantaneous model which is also developed in MATLAB/Simulink. At different operating conditions, it is shown that the waveforms of motor torque, phase current etc. of average-value motor drive model trace those of instantaneous model even if the sampling frequency of average-value model (10 kHz) is twenty times lesser than that of instantaneous model (200 kHz) for the PWM switching frequency of 10 kHz.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dean Clarke
Abstract Innovation of Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles (HEV) has led to consumer demand for their fuel efficiency and emissions benefits among a growing segment of the population. An HEV is driven by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A distinguishing feature of the HEV is the ability to turn off the IC engine when the power available from the electrical system exceeds that required to propel the vehicle. This results in net cooler operating temperatures of the IC engine and more frequent starts of the engine. This research program was initiated to determine if the HEVs have any special lubrication requirements relative to those used in non-hybrid variety, and to look for opportunities to develop lubricant systems specifically tailored for such vehicles. In the first phase of this program, two hybrid vehicles in taxi service with high mileage accumulation, specifically a 2006 Toyota Prius with 400K odometer mileage and a 2009 Toyota Camry Hybrid with 264K odometer mileage, were inspected for signs of hardware distress or otherwise unusual features.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Keiji Kondo, Takeo Maekawa, Shin Kusase
Abstract This paper proposes a new multi air gap motor with trench-shaped coil. The proposed motor has high torque without rare earth magnets compared to conventional single air gap motors due to its multiple air gap and ferrite permanent magnet (PM) assisted segment rotor poles. Firstly, the basic structure and features of proposed motor is shown: three stator cores, integrated a set of three phase windings, and an annular rotor core with magnetic saliency at three sides and ferrite magnets. Then, the performance of proposed new motor and well-known single air gap IPMSM with rare earth magnet are compared by FEA. Secondly, the simple winding method similar to the conventional motor is clarified. Next, practical design of the 3-D magnetic circuit with laminated steel is discussed. Eddy current generated by the magnetic flux passing through the laminated steel in the core stacking direction is focused, and methods for reducing eddy current loss are shown. Finally, performances of proposed motor are verified by the prototype machine in test bench and actual vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
John Kelly, Peter Scanes, Paul Bloore
Abstract This paper describes the challenges associated with the specification and design of a 48 V Belt Integrated Starter Generator for passenger vehicle applications. The main areas discussed are the vehicle and application variations considered both in terms of electrical and mechanical architecture and how these transfer into the motor design at all levels. The paper focuses in particular on the challenges of balancing the need for the customisation of the motor for different applications against the need to maintain component commonality across design variants to minimise cost, reduce risk and accelerate development cycles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Guang Wu, Xing Zhang, Zuomin Dong
Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with post-transmission parallel configuration attracted considerable attention due to their capacity to operate in either electric vehicle (EV) mode or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) mode. Meanwhile, the added flexibility and multiple operation modes add additional challenges to vehicle control with acceptable drivability, particularly during the mode transition from the EV and HEV, since proper control is needed for the internal combustion engine (ICE), motor and coupling device to achieve smooth and fast transition, under various vehicle operation constraints such as mode-transition duration, vehicle acceleration fluctuation and friction loss of the dry clutch. In addition, the engagement of dry clutch features torque discontinuity due to slip-stick phenomenon and the dynamic behavior of the ICE further increases the nonlinearity of the powertrain system. This research introduces a method for identifying the theoretically optimal drivability during mode transition and feasible control schemes to effectively coordinate different powertrain components and achieve desirable drivability without violating vehicle operation constraints.
WIP Standard
2014-03-26
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides performance station designation and nomenclature systems for aircraft propulsion systems and their derivatives. The systems presented herein are for use in all communications concerning propulsion system performance such as computer programs, data reduction, design activities, and published documents. They are intended to facilitate calculations by the program user without unduly restricting the method of calculation used by the program supplier. The list of symbols presented herein will be used for identification of input and output parameters. These symbols are not required to be used as internal parameter names within the engine subprogram.
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