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2015-10-22 ...
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
2015-09-21 ...
  • September 21-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the dilute SI combustion processes including lean, stratified, and EGR operation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the SI combustion ignition process and advanced ignition systems. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the impact of conventional and alternative fuels as well as fuel additives on the operation, performance and emissions of SI engines. Papers focus on the impact of bio-derived fuels (ethanol, butanol and others) on engine design and performance as well as gasoline properties and additives, and their impact.
2015-04-22
WIP Standard
J285
This SAE recommended practice provided standard dimensions for liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts and a system for differentiating between nozzels that dispense liquid fuel into vehicles with Spark Ignition (SI) Engines and compression Ignition (CI) Engines for land vehicles. Current legal definitions only distinguish between "UNLEADED Fuel" and "All Other Types of Fuel." These definitions are no longer valid. This document establishes a new set of definitions that have practical application to current automobile liquid fuel inlets and liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts.
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 2 of 2: Low-Speed Preignition
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 1 of 2: Knock
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on basic SI combustion processes including studies of mixture formation, engine efficiency, flame propagation, and emissions formation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-21
Event
Focuses on SI combustion technologies that employ direct, in-cylinder fuel injection. Topics of particular interest include in-cylinder fuel injection and spray studies, flow/spray interaction and in-cylinder mixture formation studies, and combustion chamber shape optimization. Focus includes "stratified" operation or other modes enabled by DI hardware, DI-specific emissions issues such as particulates and smoke, and technologies enabled by DISI (such as downsizing).
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines as a plant in engine controls
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine SI combustion, knock and emissions.
2015-04-14
Collection
This collection of technical papers cover topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1353
Yanzhe Sun, Tianyou Wang, Zhen Lu, Lei Cui, Ming Jia
Abstract The flow performance of intake port significantly affects engine output power, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions in gasoline engines. Thus, optimal intake port geometry is desired in gasoline engines. To optimize the flow performance of intake port, a new optimization method combining genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed. First, an automatic system for generating the geometry of the tangential intake port was constructed to create various port geometries through inputting the 18 pre-defined structural parameters. Then, the effects of four critical structural parameters were investigated through numerical simulation. On the basis of the computational results, an ANN was used to model the flow performance of the intake port, and a genetic algorithm was simultaneously employed to optimize the flow performance by optimizing the four important structural parameters. Finally, the optimization results were verified through numerical simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1243
Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Fabio Xavier, Michael Rieß, Marc Sens, Andreas Benz
Abstract A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1273
Shunsuke Aritomi, Hiroyasu Kuniyoshi, Kenichirou Tokuo, Satoshi Usui, Atsuji Saito, Yuta Saso
Abstract A recent trend in high-pressure gasoline pumps is increasing the outlet pressure. One of the most important topics for increasing this pressure is improving volumetric efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to quantify the breakdown of efficiency loss factors and to suggest a new design for improving volumetric efficiency. Authors developed a method of quantifying the efficiency loss breakdown of high-pressure gasoline pumps by using 1D fluid pressure simulation results and conducting evaluation experiments regarding sensitivity. Authors separated pump movement into three phases; suction, compression, and delivery. Authors then investigated the loss factors in each phase. As a result, authors obtained an equation for predicting the final output volume. The equation consists of a limit output volume and other types of leakage volumes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1271
Qingyuan Tan, Shui Yu, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Abstract The spark ignition circuit inside an internal combustion engine system is the source which provides the initiation energy required for triggering combustion in a spark ignition (SI) engine in-cylinder air/fuel mixture. Proper spark phasing and adequate spark energy release in spark ignited combustion would yield significant combustion efficiency improvement and affect the in-cylinder production species composition. In this work a simplified spark ignition circuit model constructed based on circuit theorems is proposed. Measurements on how ignition pressure, secondary circuit series resistance and dwell duration would affect the ignition energy migration are presented. Simulations using the proposed model have also demonstrated similar energy migration trends to measurement results which show the influences caused by different secondary series resistance and dwell durations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1286
A. Meghani, J. Allen, J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, D.J. Marshall, J.S. Hoyle, S. McBroom, R. Urista, M. Bazyn
Abstract The paper discusses the effects of various charging system technologies on the performance and fuel consumption of a modern supercharged engine, the Jaguar Land Rover AJ126 3.0 litre V6. The goal of the project was to improve performance and reduce the fuel consumption of the standard engine by researching new technologies around the supercharger. As standard the AJ126 engine uses an Eaton R1320 supercharger with a fixed ratio drive from the crankshaft and no clutch.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Abstract Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Abstract This article experimentally characterizes the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline. The experiments have been conducted for different engine speeds at various throttle positions. The experimental results demonstrated that engine brake power and brake thermal efficiency increased to certain extent and then decreases with the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel blend. The experimental results revealed that heat release and cylinder pressure increased with addition of hydrogen fraction till 20%. It also showed the reduction in HC and CO emissions in comparison with pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1720
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Silvia Marelli, Massimo Capobianco
Downsizing is widely considered one of the main path to reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition internal combustion engines. As known, despite the reduced size, the required torque and power targets can be attained thanks to an adequate boost level provided by a turbocharger. However, some drawbacks usually arise when the engine operates at full load and low speeds. In fact, in the above conditions, the boost pressure and the engine performance is limited since the compressor experiences close-to-surge operation. This occurrence is even greater in case of extremely downsized engines with a reduced number of cylinders and a small intake circuit volume, where the compressor works under strongly unsteady flow conditions and its instantaneous operating point most likely overcomes the steady surge margin. In the paper, both experimental and numerical approaches are followed to describe the unsteady behavior of a small in-series turbocharger compressor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1620
Feilong Liu, Jeffrey Pfeiffer
Abstract Low-pressure, Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LPC EGR) brings significant fuel economy, NOx reduction and knock suppression benefits to a modern, boosted, downsized Spark Ignition (SI) engine. As a prerequisite to design an engine control system for LPC EGR, this paper presents development of a set of estimation algorithms to accurately estimate the flow rate, pressure states and thermal states of the LPC EGR-related components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1618
Ke Fang, Zongyan Li, Andrew Shenton, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Abstract New environmental legislation on emission and fuel efficiency targets increasingly requires good transient engine performance and this in turn means that the previously acceptable static engine calibration and control methodologies based on steady-state testing must be re-placed by dynamical optimization using dynamical models. Although many advances have been made in predictive models for internal combustion engines, the phenomena involved are so many, complex and nonlinear that dynamical black-box models typically employing neural network structures must be determined from system identification through experimental testing. Such identified dynamical models are required to provide high accuracy multiple step-ahead predictions of emissions but must accordingly also be compactly implementable for speed and memory to allow for the required large scale optimization involving possibly many thousands of iterations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0963
Miao Tian, Robin Van Haaren, Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot
Abstract Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead. Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0927
Luca Marchitto, Gerardo Valentino, Simona Merola, Cinzia Tornatore
Abstract The use of alcohols as alternative to gasoline for fuelling spark-ignition (SI) engines is widespread. Growing interest is paid for n-butanol because of its characteristics that are similar to gasoline. If compared with other alcohols, n-butanol has higher energy content and miscibility with gasoline, lower hygroscope and corrosive properties making it an attractive solution for gasoline replacement. Even if several studies have been conduced to characterize the n-butanol combustion within Spark Ignition engines, few data are available on atomization and spray behavior. This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to characterize the velocity vector field of two fuel-sprays injected by a 6-hole nozzle for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. 2D Mie-scattering and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an optically accessible vessel at ambient temperature and pressure.
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