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2015-10-22 ...
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
2015-09-21 ...
  • September 21-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2392
Vincenzo De Bellis, Luigi Teodosio, Daniela Siano, Fabrizio Minarelli, Diego Cacciatore
In this paper, a high performance V12 spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to fully characterize its behavior in terms of both average and cycle-by-cycle performance parameters, for different operating conditions. In particular, for each considered point, a spark advance sweep is actuated, starting from a knock-free calibration, up to intense knock operation. Trains of 300 consecutive pressure cycles are acquired for each of the 12 cylinders, together with the main overall engine performance, including air flow, fuel flow, torque, pollutant emissions, and fuel consumption. Acquired data are statistically analyzed to derive the distributions of main indicated parameters (combustion phasing and duration, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure - IMEP, etc.) in order to find proper correlation with averaged quantities, collecting the findings of all the considered operating points and all the cylinders.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2393
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabrizio Minarelli, Diego Cacciatore
The results of the experimental analyses described in the Part 1 of the paper, are here employed to build up an innovative numerical approach for the 1D modeling of combustion and knock of a high performance 12-cylinders spark-ignition engine. The whole engine is schematized in detail in a 1D framework simulation, developed in the GT-PowerTM environment. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the combustion process, turbulence phenomenon and the knock occurrence. In particular, the knock onset is evaluated by a TRF chemical kinetic scheme, coupled to the combustion model and able to detect the presence of auto-ignition reactions in the end-gas zone. A refined in-cylinder heat transfer model is adopted, based on a modified Woschni correlation. Wall temperature distributions are computed based on a proper specification of the heat transfer coefficients of the cooling water and lubricant oil.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2402
Irufan Ahmed, Golnoush Ghiasi, A. Gnana Sagaya Raj, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan, Jann Koch, Karel Steurs, Yuri M. Wright
Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an integral part in analyzing engine in-cylinder processes since it provides detailed information on flow and combustion inside internal combustion engines, hence allowing for improvements during the development of modern engine concepts. The predictive capability of simulation tools depends largely on the accuracy, fidelity and robustness of the various model used, in particular concerning turbulence and combustion, and, in some cases, two-phase flow. Almost all combustion models currently used in engine design require some level of parameter tuning to obtain a reasonable match between measured and computed in-cylinder pressure evolution. However, if the model parameters are closely tied to the physics of the problem then one might be able to eliminate this model tuning, specifically for the combustion sub-modeling part.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2428
Ferdinando Taglialatela Scafati, Francesco Pirozzi, Salvatore Cannavacciuolo, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro
Future emission regulations require the development of gasoline combustion engines with improved efficiency in order to obtain, other than a strong reduction of the toxic emissions, also a reduction of fuel consumption and hence carbon dioxide emissions. The greatest fuel consumption benefit is achieved by means of systems such as the gasoline direct injection combustion with unthrottled lean stratified operation. In this mode, the fuel is injected later in the compression stroke allowing stable combustion of ultra-lean mixtures. However, use of gasoline stratified charges can lead to several problems. In particular, due to the excess oxygen in the combustion stroke, the NOx emission levels are generally higher than in a PFI engine or homogeneous charge direct injection. Moreover, short time for mixture preparation and spray wall impingements are responsible for high cycle-to-cycle variability and high particle emissions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2527
Daniela Siano, Giovanni Ferrara, Giulio Lenzi, Danilo D'Agostino, Andrea Fioravanti
In an Internal Combustion Engine, the design of the intake system is a very critical aspect since it affects both the engine power output and noise emissions at the intake side. In particular, downsized VVA engines typically produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels since, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load, a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized. In this work, the acoustic performance of the intake air filter of a commercial VVA engine is numerically and experimentally analyzed. In particular, a FEM model of the system is realized in order to compute the Transmission Loss (TL) parameter of the base device. The numerical analysis is performed considering the absence or the presence of a mean flow inside the device, and accounts of fluid-structure interaction, which gives the possibility to determine the effect of structure participation on the TL profile.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2513
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Vit Beranek, Jitka Stolcpartova, Martin Pechout, Vojtech Klir
*** This paper is also relevant to session ICENA303, Alternative and Advanced Fuels *** This work reports on the effects of using butanol, an alternative to ethanol, in an unmodified production direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. Butanol, a higher alcohol that can be produced from biomass by fermentation, is an emerging alternative fuel viewed as more compatible with gasoline engines and fuel systems than ethanol. In this work, a Euro 5 Ford Focus car with a 1.0-liter Ecoboost DISI engine has been tested on a chassis dynamometer using WLTP and Artemis driving cycles, and on the road on a one-hour test loop containing urban, rural and motorway driving. Two isomers of butanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-propanol, were each blended with gasoline at 25% volume corresponding to 5% oxygen by weight or 15% ethanol (E15). Non-oxygenated gasoline and E15 were used as reference fuels. The vehicle performed well in terms of cold start, driveability, and general performance.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2432
Michela Costa, Paolo Sementa, Ugo Sorge, Francesco Catapano, Guido Marseglia, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Knocking combustion in spark ignition engines is an abnormal combustion phenomenon strongly affecting performance and thermal efficiency. The possibility to have abnormal combustions in a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine is linked to the outcome of the mixture formation process. Present work explores possible advantages deriving from the use of split injections in increasing the engine power output and reducing the tendency to knock. Due to the recent development of gasoline injection systems, multiple injections are today regarded as a valuable tool to improve the in-chamber evaporation process and simultaneously reduce undesired effects deriving from an excessive spray impact over walls. Combustion stability is enhanced, unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions are limited.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2471
Federico Pellegrino, Alessio Dulbecco, Denis Veynante
One of the major objectives of today’s automotive industry is the reduction of pollutant emissions and the increase of the overall efficiency of the powertrain, leading to the development of new concepts of internal combustion engine. The well-known advantages of charge stratification in ultra-lean gasoline engines and engine downsizing suggest that an increase in the diffusion of Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DI-SI) engines is foreseeable in the near future. System simulation is a powerful tool to reproduce the behaviour of the powertrain as a whole, since it allows to investigate the interactions between the different components in both stable and transient conditions. Such a global approach can be exploited effectively only if the relevant physical phenomena are correctly reproduced.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2517
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
The particulates in vehicular exhaust are now under great scrutiny and are subject to legislative limits in many cases. In the EU, direct injection spark ignition (DI SI) engines running on petrol now have limits for particulate emissions set for both mass and number. It is widely acknowledged that current legislative laboratory test procedures in many ways represent a best-case scenario – more aggressive driving cycles and less favourable ambient conditions can increase particulate emissions massively. Ambient temperature is generally the environmental parameter of most importance regarding particulate emissions from an engine, particularly for the reasonably brief periods of operation typical for passenger cars operating from a cold start. Cold start events are challenging for internal combustion engines for various reasons, with multiple emissions impacts for all types of automotive engines.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2459
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The increasing concerns on the global environment issues and on the depletion of fossil fuel reserves have been driving to searching sustainable and environmental friendly fuels. Methane is one of the alternative fuels for addressing these issues. The potential of methane in improving the engine performance was fully exploited when blended with hydrogen or dual fueled with gasoline. In this paper a methane-assisted gasoline injection in a small displacement GDI SI engine was analyzed. Typically, the air-assisted fuel injection system was applied to supply assistant air for the atomization of injected fuel. This configuration allows improving the gasoline combustion thanks not only to the assisted injection, which improves the fuel atomization and consequently the homogenization of the charge, but also to the presence of the methane and its chemical interaction with gasoline heavy hydrocarbon, which allows a more efficient combustion.
2015-05-21
Standard
CPGM2_16CHCAMA
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
2015-05-21
Standard
CPGM1_16CHCAMA
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, application, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the impact of conventional and alternative fuels as well as fuel additives on the operation, performance and emissions of SI engines. Papers focus on the impact of bio-derived fuels (ethanol, butanol and others) on engine design and performance as well as gasoline properties and additives, and their impact.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the SI combustion ignition process and advanced ignition systems. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the dilute SI combustion processes including lean, stratified, and EGR operation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 2 of 2: Low-Speed Preignition
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 1 of 2: Knock
2015-04-22
WIP Standard
J285
This SAE recommended practice provided standard dimensions for liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts and a system for differentiating between nozzels that dispense liquid fuel into vehicles with Spark Ignition (SI) Engines and compression Ignition (CI) Engines for land vehicles. Current legal definitions only distinguish between "UNLEADED Fuel" and "All Other Types of Fuel." These definitions are no longer valid. This document establishes a new set of definitions that have practical application to current automobile liquid fuel inlets and liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts.
2015-04-21
Event
Focuses on SI combustion technologies that employ direct, in-cylinder fuel injection. Topics of particular interest include in-cylinder fuel injection and spray studies, flow/spray interaction and in-cylinder mixture formation studies, and combustion chamber shape optimization. Focus includes "stratified" operation or other modes enabled by DI hardware, DI-specific emissions issues such as particulates and smoke, and technologies enabled by DISI (such as downsizing).
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine SI combustion, knock and emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines as a plant in engine controls
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on basic SI combustion processes including studies of mixture formation, engine efficiency, flame propagation, and emissions formation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0391
Yoshihiro Sukegawa, Kazuhiro Oryoji
Abstract A 3D simulation technique to estimate density of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines is proposed. The technique is based on a two-equation model consisting of coupled conservation equations of soot particle number and mass and fluid transportation equations. The nucleation rate of soot particles was obtained from a database built by simulation of elementary reaction with the proposed technique. Two approaches were explored to obtain the nucleation rate. One involves 0-dimensinal SI simulation and the other involves 1-dimensinal flame propagation simulation. The estimation results were verified with measurement data obtained with a single cylinder SI engine a homogeneous pre-mixed fuel was supplied. It was confirmed that appropriate results could be obtained with the 1-dimensional approach for the nucleation rate model.
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