Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 9075
2015-09-21 ...
  • September 21-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the impact of conventional and alternative fuels as well as fuel additives on the operation, performance and emissions of SI engines. Papers focus on the impact of bio-derived fuels (ethanol, butanol and others) on engine design and performance as well as gasoline properties and additives, and their impact.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the SI combustion ignition process and advanced ignition systems. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the dilute SI combustion processes including lean, stratified, and EGR operation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-23 ...
  • April 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications.
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 1 of 2: Knock
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 2 of 2: Low-Speed Preignition
2015-04-21
Event
Focuses on SI combustion technologies that employ direct, in-cylinder fuel injection. Topics of particular interest include in-cylinder fuel injection and spray studies, flow/spray interaction and in-cylinder mixture formation studies, and combustion chamber shape optimization. Focus includes "stratified" operation or other modes enabled by DI hardware, DI-specific emissions issues such as particulates and smoke, and technologies enabled by DISI (such as downsizing).
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on basic SI combustion processes including studies of mixture formation, engine efficiency, flame propagation, and emissions formation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1064
Ahmad Khalfan, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions by using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with an on-board heated FTIR, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Emissions species were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed to enable cold start to occur into congested traffic, typical of the situation of people living alongside congested roads into a large city. The cold start was monitored through temperature measurements of the TWC front and rear face temperatures and lubricating oil temperatures. The emissions are presented to the end of the cold start, defined when the downstream TWC face temperature is hotter than the front face and above 400oC. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic flow impacts on the cold start.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1243
Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Fabio Xavier, Michael Rieß, Marc Sens, Andreas Benz
Numerical simulations, based on zero-dimensional (0D) and three-dimensional (3D) engine models, have been carried out to analyze the impact of multi spark-plug technology on combustion process in a gasoline engine. The 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) cold flow simulations were carried out to characterize the in-cylinder flow in terms of the occurring time and length scales. This information was used as an input for 0D simulations that focused on the combustion processes. The 0D simulations were carried out using a stochastic reactor model for spark ignition engines (SI-SRM), which is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach. The quasi-three dimensional treatment of the combustion chamber geometry by the 0D SI-SRM, and detailed chemistry consideration, enabled to investigate the impact of the 3D character of the flame propagation, and the number of spark-plugs and their location on the combustion progress, completeness, and access the risk of knock occurrence.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1242
Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
Ethanol has demonstrated strong, anti-knock performance in spark ignition (SI) engines, and this is one important reason for its increasing use around the world. Ethanol’s high octane rating is attributed to both its low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling capability. Further, whilst detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms have been developed for gasoline surrogates and ethanol, little work has been done to investigate whether autoignition in modern, SI engines with ethanol/gasoline blends can be reproduced by these mechanisms, in particular for cases with direct fuel injection. This paper therefore presents a numerical study of the trace knocking of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results of these numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained in a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10 – a blend of ethanol, isobutanol and gasoline. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 11.2% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.1% with the isobutanol blends).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0765
Chenglong Tang, Zhanbo Si, Shuang Zhang, Zuohua Huang, Shiyi Pan, Jinhua Wang, Jing Gong
The specific heat ratio used in heat release calculation plays an important role and the mass fraction burned is also a crucial parameter in thermodynamics analysis for engine combustion. A research of high methane fraction natural gas was investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of the initial pressure, the specific heat ratio is decreased, and the time of the mixture burned up is postponed, while the peak heat release ratio is increased. With the increase of the methane fraction, the parameters have the opposite behavior. With the increase of the initial temperature, the specific heat ratio is decreased, and the time of the mixture burned up is accelerated, and the peak heat release ratio has no obviously difference. With the increase of the dilute ratio or the CO2/N2 ratio, the specific heat ratio is decreased, and the peak heat release heat ratio is decreased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1752
Alex Melin, David Kittelson, William Northrop
In recent years, there has been growing interest in using alternative cycles to the standard Otto cycle in an effort to improve efficiency and lower emissions of spark-ignition engines. One such proposed concept is the 5-stroke engine. The 5-stroke uses two types of cylinders, a combustion cylinder and expansion cylinder with a transfer port between them. Excess pressure in the combustion cylinder can be further expanded by using a second expansion cylinder to harness additional work; a practical implementation of the Atkinson Cycle. Since the expansion cylinder runs on a two-stroke cycle, an additional increase in efficiency can result by connecting two combustion cylinders to one expansion cylinder in a three cylinder configuration. Although previous work has investigated the performance of prototype 5-stroke engines compared to1-D modeling results, none have conducted a thorough study on the interactions of various design parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect to the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. A lot of research is being carried throughout the world to evaluate the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of the existing engines using several alternative fuels. Expert studies indicate hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future due to its superior combustion qualities and availability. This article experimentally characterizing the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0967
Tingjun Hu, Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Bin Chen
Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GTDI) engines have a flat torque curve with the maximum torque covering a wide engine speed range. Increasing the high-speed-end torque for a GTDI engine provides better acceleration performance to the vehicle powered by the engine but it also leads to longer injection durations to deliver the fuel requested. In this study, results are reported of experimental investigation of impact of fuel injection on dilution of the crankcase oil for a highly-boosted GTDI engine lubricated with SAE 5W30 synthetic engine oil. It is found that the high-speed-end torque for the GTDI engine has a significant influence on fuel dilution because longer injection durations result in impingement of large fuel drops on the piston top and considerable levels of fuel dilution. Test results indicate that the higher the torque at the rated-power, the higher the level of fuel dilution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 70 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output, and theoretical Otto cycle engine efficiency. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio, performance, and efficiency have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1250
Nisar Al-Hasan, Johannes Beer, Jan Ehrhard, Thomas Lorenz, Ludwig Stump
The market for turbocharged spark ignition engines is rapidly growing on a global scale. The European legislation demands a fleet average CO2-emission of 95g/km for the year 2021. Therefore, CO2-emission improvement, without adverse impacts on driveability, is the major goal of engine development. Millerization in conjunction with an increase of the geometric compression ratio is a main concept to improve the CO2-emissions of spark ignition engines. This concept degrades the transient behavior i.e. the driveability of the engine. Therefore, Millerization has a strong influence on the charging system. This paper describes the development of an engine concept which offers both improved CO2-emissions and improved driveability. Based on engine measurement and process analysis the Millerization strategies early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC) are compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1265
Yoann Viollet, Marwan Abdullah, Abdullah Alhajhouje, Junseok Chang
In a regulatory environment for spark ignition (SI) engines where the focus is continuously looking into improvements in fuel economy and reduction in noxious emissions, the challenges to achieve future requirements are utmost. In order to effectively reduce CO2 emissions on a well to wheel basis, future fuels enabling high efficiency SI engines will have to not only satisfy advanced engine requirement, i.e. high knock resistance, but also produces less CO2 emissions in the refinery. In this paper, compression ratio 10.5 single cylinder SI engine test were conducted to characterize combustion with two dual fuel configurations. Straight run refinery naphtha was used for low octane component, and two oxygenates were used for high octane knock inhabitant component, such as, Methanol and MTBE (Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether). Research Octane Number (RON) of naphtha was 61, while RON of Methanol was 106 and RON of MTBE was 116.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1264
Junseok Chang, Yoann Viollet, Abdullah Alzubail, Amir Faizal Naidu Abdul-Manan, Abdullah Al Arfaj
This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. Recent study [1] shows that 4-6% GHG emissions can be reduced by replacing 2/3 light duty vehicle fleet with high efficiency engines that are designed with higher compression ratio and boost levels. However, this can be only possible if premium gasoline fuel (Research Octane Number, RON=98 or 100) is readily available on a large scale to supply a fleet demand. From a refinery perspective, increasing the octane of the fuels to such high levels could potentially require significant and costly upgrades to the reforming and isomerization units as well as lower gasoline yield, and thus, this is not an economically attractive option for many of the refiners. In our study, we considered different strategy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1266
Mark Stuhldreher, Charles Schenk, Jessica Brakora, David Hawkins, Andrew Moskalik, Paul DeKraker
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrain to become much more efficient. One key technology strategy that vehicle manufacturers are using to help comply with GHG and FE standards is to replace naturally aspirated engines with smaller displacement “downsized” boosted engines. In order to understand and measure the effects of this technology, the EPA benchmarked a 2013 Ford Escape Ecoboost 1.6L, which at the time it was introduced represented the state of the art in boosted downsized engine technology. The benchmarking study described in this paper included vehicle chassis testing and engine dyno testing in order to measure the engine and vehicle efficiencies. This paper describes EPA’s “tethered” engine dyno benchmarking method which used a 1.6L Ecoboost engine mounted in a dyno test cell with a lengthened engine wire harness tethered to a complete 2013 Ford Escape vehicle outside the test cell.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1259
Tapio Pohjalainen, Martti Larmi
This study presents a novel crank mechanism which enables easy and fast compression ratio adjustment. The novel crank mechanism and piston travel is explained and highlighted. The basic idea is to have an eccentric crank pin. Compression ratio can be adjusted to best fit current load demand either optimizing fuel efficiency or engine power and torque. Adjustment is individual to each cylinder within 10 ms from max to min. Emphasis in this design is the reduction of CO2 emissions and thus the fuel consumption. Governing mechanical equations are presented and discussed in detail. This novel crank mechanism introduces two new governing design parameters, namely the eccentricity of the crank pin and the angle of eccentricity when cam angle is 0°. In this demonstration unit the gear ratio between the eccentric gear and control gear is set to 1.5. This will make the induction-compression cycle different to expansion-exhaust cycle.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 9075

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: