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2015-10-22 ...
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
2015-09-21 ...
  • September 21-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the impact of conventional and alternative fuels as well as fuel additives on the operation, performance and emissions of SI engines. Papers focus on the impact of bio-derived fuels (ethanol, butanol and others) on engine design and performance as well as gasoline properties and additives, and their impact.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the SI combustion ignition process and advanced ignition systems. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-23
Event
This session focuses on the dilute SI combustion processes including lean, stratified, and EGR operation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 2 of 2: Low-Speed Preignition
2015-04-22
Event
This session focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation. Part 1 of 2: Knock
2015-04-22
WIP Standard
J285
This SAE recommended practice provided standard dimensions for liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts and a system for differentiating between nozzels that dispense liquid fuel into vehicles with Spark Ignition (SI) Engines and compression Ignition (CI) Engines for land vehicles. Current legal definitions only distinguish between "UNLEADED Fuel" and "All Other Types of Fuel." These definitions are no longer valid. This document establishes a new set of definitions that have practical application to current automobile liquid fuel inlets and liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts.
2015-04-21
Event
Focuses on SI combustion technologies that employ direct, in-cylinder fuel injection. Topics of particular interest include in-cylinder fuel injection and spray studies, flow/spray interaction and in-cylinder mixture formation studies, and combustion chamber shape optimization. Focus includes "stratified" operation or other modes enabled by DI hardware, DI-specific emissions issues such as particulates and smoke, and technologies enabled by DISI (such as downsizing).
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine SI combustion, knock and emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
This sub-session covers zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines as a plant in engine controls
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on basic SI combustion processes including studies of mixture formation, engine efficiency, flame propagation, and emissions formation. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
2015-04-14
Collection
This collection of technical papers cover topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development as well as design and analysis techniques.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1353
Yanzhe Sun, Tianyou Wang, Zhen Lu, Lei Cui, Ming Jia
Abstract The flow performance of intake port significantly affects engine output power, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions in gasoline engines. Thus, optimal intake port geometry is desired in gasoline engines. To optimize the flow performance of intake port, a new optimization method combining genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed. First, an automatic system for generating the geometry of the tangential intake port was constructed to create various port geometries through inputting the 18 pre-defined structural parameters. Then, the effects of four critical structural parameters were investigated through numerical simulation. On the basis of the computational results, an ANN was used to model the flow performance of the intake port, and a genetic algorithm was simultaneously employed to optimize the flow performance by optimizing the four important structural parameters. Finally, the optimization results were verified through numerical simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1243
Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Fabio Xavier, Michael Rieß, Marc Sens, Andreas Benz
Abstract A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1273
Shunsuke Aritomi, Hiroyasu Kuniyoshi, Kenichirou Tokuo, Satoshi Usui, Atsuji Saito, Yuta Saso
Abstract A recent trend in high-pressure gasoline pumps is increasing the outlet pressure. One of the most important topics for increasing this pressure is improving volumetric efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to quantify the breakdown of efficiency loss factors and to suggest a new design for improving volumetric efficiency. Authors developed a method of quantifying the efficiency loss breakdown of high-pressure gasoline pumps by using 1D fluid pressure simulation results and conducting evaluation experiments regarding sensitivity. Authors separated pump movement into three phases; suction, compression, and delivery. Authors then investigated the loss factors in each phase. As a result, authors obtained an equation for predicting the final output volume. The equation consists of a limit output volume and other types of leakage volumes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Abstract Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Abstract This article experimentally characterizes the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline. The experiments have been conducted for different engine speeds at various throttle positions. The experimental results demonstrated that engine brake power and brake thermal efficiency increased to certain extent and then decreases with the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel blend. The experimental results revealed that heat release and cylinder pressure increased with addition of hydrogen fraction till 20%. It also showed the reduction in HC and CO emissions in comparison with pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1618
Ke Fang, Zongyan Li, Andrew Shenton, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Abstract New environmental legislation on emission and fuel efficiency targets increasingly requires good transient engine performance and this in turn means that the previously acceptable static engine calibration and control methodologies based on steady-state testing must be re-placed by dynamical optimization using dynamical models. Although many advances have been made in predictive models for internal combustion engines, the phenomena involved are so many, complex and nonlinear that dynamical black-box models typically employing neural network structures must be determined from system identification through experimental testing. Such identified dynamical models are required to provide high accuracy multiple step-ahead predictions of emissions but must accordingly also be compactly implementable for speed and memory to allow for the required large scale optimization involving possibly many thousands of iterations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0770
Mehrdad Afshari, Jafar Hashemi Daryan, Seyed Ali Jazayeri, Reza Ebrahimi, Farshad Salimi Naneh Karan
Abstract Currently, the interest in using alternative clean types of fuels has been extensively increased all over the world because of the global approach in reducing engine emissions and creating new sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. The hydrogen-methane blend is one of the alternative fuels which includes the benefits of both of the fuels compared to the traditional petrol/gasoline fuel. This paper addresses a two-zone quasi-dimensional model to investigate the performance of an SI engine which uses a mixture of methane and hydrogen. In this model, gases inside the cylinder are divided into two regions: burned and the unburned. The chemical reactions are supposed to be in equilibrium in each zone, but the extended Zedlovich mechanism is utilized to determine the amount of the NOx available in the exhaust gas. Also, CO concentration is determined by two steps kinematic reactions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0778
Zainal Abidin, Christopher Chadwell
Abstract The presented work describes how spark calorimeter testing was used for parametric study and secondary circuit model calibration. Tests were conducted at different pressures, sparkplug gaps and supplied primary energies. The conversion efficiency increases and the spark duration decreases when the gas pressure or the sparkplug gap size is increased. Both gas pressure and sparkplug gas size increase the positive column voltage which represents part of the electrical energy delivered to the gas. The opposite direction occurs when the supplied primary energy is increased. The testing results were then used to calibrate the secondary circuit model which consisted of the sparkplug, the sparkplug gap and the secondary wiring. A step-by-step method was used to calibrate the three constants of the model to match the calculated delivered energy with test data during arc / glow phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0162
Kunihiko Suzuki, Guang Yu, Satoru Watanabe
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop control-oriented modeling methodology and apply to an actual control design in turbocharged spark ignition engines. A grey-box modeling approach was adapted to accelerate the system calibration time, while providing accurate system dynamics. An engine simulator based on first principles models was utilized to investigate the statistical model derivation process. A recursive least squares method with forgetting factor was employed to estimate model parameters related to turbocharger and vehicle/drivetrain behaviors, which seemed to be major factors causing delay of turbocharger system. The concept was demonstrated through its application to the actual control design, and the reliability of the proposed method was theoretically investigated. According to the model evaluation results, approximated behavior models are in good agreement with time series data yielded by the engine simulator under various transient operations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1752
Alex Melin, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Abstract In recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative cycles to the standard 4-stroke Otto engine for improving efficiency and lowering emissions of spark-ignition engines. One proposed concept is the 5-stroke engine which uses two types of cylinders, a combustion cylinder and an expansion cylinder with a transfer port between them. Excess pressure in the combustion cylinder can be further expanded by using a second expansion cylinder to harness additional work. The expansion cylinder runs on a two-stroke cycle, allowing the use of two combustion cylinders to one expansion cylinder in a three cylinder configuration to increase efficiency. Previous work has investigated the performance of prototype 5-stroke engines compared to 1-D modeling results; none have conducted a thorough study on the interactions of various design parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0766
Anshuman Goswami, Sagar Vashist, Ashish Nayyar
Abstract This paper reviews the works done on ‘influence of compression ratio (CR) on the performance of spark ignition(SI) engine using fuel blends of ethanol namely E0 (gasoline), E25 (75% gasoline, 25% ethanol), E10, E20, E22, E50, E75, E100 for different CR. The main parameters considered for comparison were brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), CR, brake torque (BT), air-fuel ratio (AFR) and exhaust emissions. The experimental results of various studies are compared. The need of advanced engine development techniques and modifications are also studied and emphasis is laid on the use of variable compression ratio (VCR) SI engine. The benefits of using VCR in the coming future are discussed briefly mentioning the challenges faced.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0891
Jiaxiang Zhang, Karthik Nithyanandan, Yuqiang Li, Chia-Fon Lee, Zuohua Huang
Abstract Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the world now. Compared to ethanol, butanol is another very promising renewable fuel for internal combustion engines. It is less corrosive, and has higher energy density, lower vapor pressure and lower solubility in water. However, the use of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in ABE fermentation, presents a cost advantage over ethanol and butanol and has attracted much attention recently. In this study, three high-alcohol-content gasoline blends (85% vol. of ethanol, butanol and ABE, referred as E85, B85 and ABE85, respectively) were investigated in a port-injection spark-ignition engine. ABE has a component ratio of 3:6:1. In addition, pure gasoline was also tested as a baseline for comparison. All fuels were tested under the same conditions (1200 RPM, Φ = 0.83−1.25, BMEP = 3 bar).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0908
Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Chia-Fon Lee, Shengming Liao
Abstract Butanol has proved to be a very promising alternative fuel in recent years. The production of bio-butanol, typically done using the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is expensive and consumes a lot of energy. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e. water-containing ABE as a potential fuel. The combustion and emissions performance of ABE29.5W0.5 (29.5 vol.% ABE, 0.5 vol.% water and gasoline blend), ABE30 (30 vol.% ABE and gasoline blend) and ABE0 (pure gasoline) were investigated in this study. The results showed that ABE29.5W0.5 enhanced engine torque by 9.6%-12.7% and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by 5.2%-11.6% compared to pure gasoline, respectively. ABE29.5W0.5 also showed similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) relative to pure gasoline.
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