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2015-06-26 ...
  • June 26, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Grand Rapids, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Most muffler design in the automotive industry is accomplished by using "cut-and-try" methods that rely on what has worked in the past and/or extensive full-scale testing on engines for validation. New computer software aimed at muffler design can shorten the design cycle and yield more effective results. This four hour seminar provides an introduction to the behavior of mufflers and silencers including a description of the two-port approach to muffler design. This seminar covers the acoustic simulation of muffler and silencer systems and the use of experimental methods to measure muffler performance....
2015-06-22
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-04-20 ...
  • April 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • September 30-October 1, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from...
2015-03-23 ...
  • March 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components. Specifically, the course will cover heat transfer design considerations related to the following:...
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is one of the two NOx control technologies for diesel cars. However, LNT generates high levels of H2S during its desulfation process. We have successfully developed an advanced CSF technology that can effectively control the H2S emission and at the same time maintain its oxidation function for CO/HC. We will show engine and lab data for LNT+CSF system, discuss the chemistry for H2S control and illustrate the functional principle for CSF design.
2014-12-09
Event
The Tier-III and LEV-III fleet emission rollout is reviewed with the federal fuel economy standards. An emission rollout is generated compliant to the light duty LEV-III emission regulations to 2025. PGM loadings are estimated for the fleet based on current 4 cylinder Bin-4 and PZEV applications. Pd and Rh loadings will increase as the fleet average approaches SULEV30 in 2025. Non-traditional technologies such as HC trap and SCR catalyst may find a market.
2014-12-09
Event
The proposed legislative requirements on particle number emissions for EU6c and the reduced particle mass emission limits of CARB LEV-III / EPA Tier-3 pose a new challenge in the development of gasoline direct injection engines. Bosch is actively pursuing system level solutions, including the development of next generation DI injection systems, to aid OEMs in meeting the new legislative requirements without the need for additional exhaust gas after-treatment or penalties in fuel economy. This presentation will highlight key development areas and show system level pathways to successfully address these challenges.
2014-12-09
Event
In order to meet the future US 2025 CAFE standards, the average fuel economy of automobiles has to increase dramatically. Many OEM’s have a positive outlook towards considering highly efficient light-duty diesel powertrains as one possibility to reach the fleet average fuel economy goals. According to many market sales indicators, the annual sales of light-duty diesel vehicles in North America will reach nearly 1 million units by 2018. This growing emphasis for light-duty diesel powertrains has drawn attention to how the emission control technologies can be tailored to best meet the LEV III emissions standards, while still maintaining a high fuel economy advantage over their gasoline counterparts. In this presentation, beginning with a quick discussion about motivation, an in-depth technical analysis about future light-duty diesel engine and aftertreatment configurations will be discussed. The presentation primarily focuses on the challenges associated with advanced aftertreatment systems in combination with lower engine out emissions that are necessary to meet LEV III standards while maintaining high fuel economy.
2014-12-09
Event
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are being developed to enable compliance with the Euro 6c particulate number limit for gasoline direct injection engines. Applying a precious metal containing coating to the GPF has been found to improve soot combustion, enabling better passive regeneration under typical driving conditions. Furthermore, examples will demonstrate how coating the GPF with a three-way catalyst also provides benefits including system compactness and improved conversion efficiencies under transient and high speed driving conditions. The effects of PGM content and washcoat design on soot combustion and conversion activity will be discussed.
2014-12-09
Event
Lube oil-driven ash is inevitable for particulate filters and thus the filters need to be designed in consideration of ash loading. Since passive soot oxidation occurs at a high exhaust temperature range in GPF, ash behaviors in GPF are distinct from DPF. Our studies have shown that soot oxidation reactivity increases proportionally with increasing ash content in soot. The effect of ash loading on GPF pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and passive soot oxidation will be discussed.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0119
Diego Copiello, Ze Zhou, Gregory Lielens
Abstract This paper addresses the numerical simulation of motorcycle exhaust system noise using a transfer matrix method (TMM) supporting high order analytical acoustic modes representation combined with finite element method (FEM) included in the Actran software, R15. In the state-of-the-art of hybrid TMM/FEM approach the main assumption consists in a 1D plane wave acoustic propagation in the components connections which is intrinsically limiting the maximum frequency of the analysis. In motorcycle exhaust systems this limitation is even stronger because typical geometries exhibit strong curvatures and bends causing the scattering of the acoustic wave into higher order modes. Therefore, results might be erroneous even at frequencies at which only the plane wave is expected to be propagating. The improved transfer matrix method presented in this paper overcomes this limitation allowing to increase the range of applicability of this method. Specifically, the method is theoretically described and then validated on a set of test cases directly derived from a typical motorcycle exhaust system.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0121
Kazuhiko Tanaka, Haruomi Sugita, Hibiki Saito, Masahiko Sekita
Abstract Recently, it has been widely practiced in motorcycle developments that the same type of engine is commonly applied to various vehicle categories. Accordingly, it is drawing more attention to develop the methodology for creating the best suitable sound for each individual vehicle category regardless of restriction from the engine configurations. In our study, we aimed to establish a procedure to control exhaust sounds beyond the borders across the inherent sound qualities originated from their engine configurations. Firstly, we conducted subjective tests in order to extract essential factors, depicted by adjectives that appear in verbal expressions commonly used to illustrate sound qualities in general. The results enabled us to conduct quantitative evaluations of the exhaust sound qualities of various motorcycles. Next, we clarified the relationships among the individual factors of sound qualities under our study and physical parameters in waveforms of the sounds. Finally, we tried to design the target sound quality having required physical parameters by using a one-dimensional simulation tool.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0122
Andrea Fioravanti, Giulio Lenzi, Giovanni Vichi, Giovanni Ferrara, Stefano Ricci, Leonardo Bagnoli
Abstract The intake and exhaust lines provide the main abatement of the acoustic emissions of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Many different numerical approaches can be used to evaluate the acoustic attenuation, which is commonly expressed by the Transmission Loss. One-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations are conventionally carried out only considering the acoustic domain of the muffler or of the air-box. The walls of the acoustic filter are considered fully rigid and the interaction between the acoustic waves and the structure is consequently negligible. Moreover, the effect of the manufacturing characteristics and the attenuation of the acoustic waves due to the fluid viscous-thermal effects are also commonly disregarded in the numerical analysis of the filters. In addition, the presence of a catalytic converter or a filter cartridge may have an influence on the numerical results. All these aspects, however, can remarkably affect the matching between simulations and experiments both at high frequencies and at medium-low ones.
2014-11-06 ...
  • November 6-7, 2014 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • May 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010. To help meet emissions requirements, the catalyst industry has developed...
2014-10-16
Event
2014-10-15
Event
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2550
Bo Hu, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Colin Copeland, J.W.G. Turner
Abstract The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine. By controlling the timing of the exhaust valves separately to feed the exhaust mass flow to the high-pressure turbine or the low-pressure turbine or the exhaust pipe, it is anticipated that such system could achieve even better breathing characteristics than the standard one-stage turbocharged engine.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2802
Qian Feng, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Abstract Durability and performance evaluation of the ageing catalyzed continuously regenerating trap (CCRT) on solid and volatile particles from diesel bus were studied through a set of transient TSI engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer based on on-road test. Particle characteristics under stepped steady conditions and during regeneration were discussed in detail. Under idle and stepped steady conditions, total particle number and mass Emission Rate (ER) of each test presented rising trends as speed increase. Total number ERs of all tests showed downtrend as the CCRT aging. The particle number size distributions at different ageing stage showed changing characteristics due to developing filter mechanism. Compared with baseline data, the total number reduction rates at idle condition were incremental, from 91.4% to 98.9% as the CCRT ageing. Percentages of nuclei mode concentrations took higher range from 66.6% to 89.9% compared with the baseline data, 43.2-43.7%. Obvious uncontrolled regenerations were monitored at sudden shift from high-speed to idle, which were dangerous to passengers who were waiting for the bus and should be taken special attention.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2816
Ossi Kaario, Teemu Sarjovaara, Olli Ranta, Tuomo Hulkkonen, Karri Keskinen, Martti Larmi, Sauli Halonen, Arno Amberla
Abstract A novel high pressure SCR spray system is investigated both experimentally and numerically. RANS simulations are performed using Star-CD and polyhedral meshing. This is one of the first studies to compare droplet breakup models and AdBlue injection with high injection pressure (Pinj=200 bar). The breakup models compared are the Reitz-Diwakar (RD), the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KHRT), and the Enhanced Taylor Analogy Breakup (ETAB) model. The models are compared with standard model parameters typically used in diesel fuel injection studies to assess their performance without any significant parameter tuning. Experimental evidence from similar systems seems to be scarce on high pressure AdBlue (or water) sprays using plain hole nozzles. Due to this, it is difficult to estimate a realistic droplet size distribution accurately. Thereby, there is potential for new experimental data to be made with high pressure AdBlue or water sprays. Engine experiments carried out in the present study give indication on the correct magnitude of the droplet sizes appearing in the experimental system because high NOx conversion rates were measured without any urea crystallization into the system.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2820
Rong Ma, Chao He, Jiaqiang Li
A simulation model of catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) is established based on the CFD software FIRE and has been validated through a series of experimental comparison. This model simulates the CDPF continuous regeneration process, and the factors that influence the exhaust NO2 concentration from CDPF including oxygen concentration, exhaust temperature, space velocity, proportion of NO2/NOX and soot mass fraction are studied. The results show that the higher oxygen concentration causes an increase in NO2/NOX. The NO2/NOX is significantly increased when the exhaust temperature is about 350 °C based on the simulation conditions when the inlet oxygen concentration is at 5.79% and the space velocity is 7s−1. The space velocity in a certain degree leads to higher NO2/NOX. For the soot mass, there is no significant influence of increasing proportion of the NO2/NOX.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2808
Tao Tang, Jun Zhang, Shi-jin Shuai, Dongxiao Cao
Abstract Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been demonstrated as one of the most promising technologies to reduce NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. To meet the Euro VI regulations, the SCR system should achieve high NOx reduction efficiency even at low temperature. In the SCR system, NH3 is usually supplied by the injection of urea water solution (UWS), therefore it is important to improve the evaporation and decomposition efficiency of UWS at low temperature and minimize urea deposits. In this study, the UWS spray, urea decomposition, and the UWS impingement on pipe wall at low temperature were investigated based on an engine test bench and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The decomposition of urea and deposits was analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The TGA experiment shows that urea decomposition started at about 150°C, and exhibited two stages of rapid mass loss.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2807
Chunxing Lin, Brian Hillman, Andrew Williams
Abstract Stringent IC engine PM emission regulation requires development of future filter substrate materials to achieve high filtration efficiency, low filter pressure drop, low cost and highly durable solutions. Monolithic wall flow filters perform well as they achieve high filtration efficiency due to the formation of the PM cake structure while maintaining low substrate face velocities due to the large filtration area. Within the process industry, Micropore™ slotted metallic membrane filters offer both large surface areas and low filter pressure drops while maintaining the durability of metal substrates. The pore structure and pore arrangement can be readily tailored to suit specific applications. This paper characterizes a 300 μm thickness Micropore™ metallic membrane with slots of 10 μm by 400 μm in size in the context of application as an engine exhaust particulate filter. The investigation was based on single layer of Micropore™ slotted metallic membrane with size of 52 mm in diameter.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2810
Kihyung Joo, Jin Woo Park, Jin-ha Lee, Seok-Jae Kim, Seungbeom Yoo
Abstract In diesel engine development, the new technology is coming out to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulation. The regulation demands more eco-friendly vehicles. Euro6c demands to meet not only WLTP mode, but also RDE(Real Driving Emission). In order to satisfy RDE mode, the new technology to reduce emissions should cover all operating areas including High Load & High Speed. It is a big challenge to reduce NOx on the RDE mode and a lot of DeNOx technologies are being developed. So the new DeNOx technology is needed to cover widened operating area and strict acceleration / deacceleration. The existing LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and Urea SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) is necessary to meet the typical NEDC or WLTP, but the RDE mode demands the powerful DeNOx technology. Therefore, the LNT & Urea SCR on DPF was developed through this study. This complex new technology consists of new catalysts(to reduce emissions), insulation(to improve fuel economy, and catalytic performance), and logical controller(to control DeNOx and DePM strategy).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2594
Xinyu Wang, Yadong Deng
Abstract Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), which effectively converts exhaust thermal energy into electrical energy, can gradually improve the utilization efficiency of energy. The heat exchanger of TEG is one of the most important components for heat transfer, so as to realize energy saving and emission reduction. Hence, its configuration and thermal performance should be intensively studied. In this paper, a new configuration of heat exchanger, whose heat transfer area is regular octagon, is designed in comparison with the pervious rectangle one. In order to improve average temperature and thermal distribution uniformity, typical CFD software named FLUENT is used to simulate the multi-coupling of temperature - fluid - solid, and the temperature distribution on heat transfer area is gained. Moreover, the temperature distribution will be analyzed to evaluate the merits and weaknesses of configuration and thermal performance. By adopting different guiding fins, setting various height and thickness parameters of guiding fins, varieties of heat exchangers are modeled and simulated.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2839
Christophe Barro, Philipp Meyer, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in the NOx emissions. In earlier research it was observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is based on three reasons: increased turbulence (1) and heat (2) from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to smaller main injection for similar load conditions (3). The second effect of heat addition during the soot oxidation is debated in the literature. The experimental investigation presented in the current work provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of soot formation and reduction using post injections under different operating conditions. The experimental data have been obtained using a cylindrical constant volume chamber with high optical access. The soot evolution has been obtained using 2-color-pyrometry. Furthermore, NO and particle mass and size distribution have been captured from the exhaust.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2836
Haichao Fu, Yinhui Wang, Xinyan Li, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract An experimental study of particulate matter (PM) emission was conducted on four cars from Chinese market. Three cars were powered by gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and one car was powered by a port fuel injection (PFI) engine. Particulate mass, number and size distribution were measured based on a chassis dynamometer over new European driving cycle (NEDC). The particulate emission behaviors during cold start and hot start NEDCs were compared to understand how the running conditions influence particulate emission. Three kinds of gasoline with RON 91.9, 94.0 and 97.4 were tested to find the impact of RON on particulate emission. Because of time and facilities constraints, only one cold/hot start NEDC was conducted for every vehicle fueled with every fuel. The test results showed that more particles were emitted during cold start condition (first 200s in NEDC). Compared with cold start NEDC, the particulate mass and number of hot start NEDC decreased by a wide margin. The particulate mass and number reductions of hot start NEDC mainly resulted from ECE cycle sections.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3415

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