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2015-06-26 ...
  • June 26, 2015 (12:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Grand Rapids, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Most muffler design in the automotive industry is accomplished by using "cut-and-try" methods that rely on what has worked in the past and/or extensive full-scale testing on engines for validation. New computer software aimed at muffler design can shorten the design cycle and yield more effective results. This four hour seminar provides an introduction to the behavior of mufflers and silencers including a description of the two-port approach to muffler design. This seminar covers the acoustic simulation of muffler and silencer systems and the use of experimental methods to measure muffler performance.
2015-06-22
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-05-14 ...
  • May 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-04-21
Event
This session covers the complete particulate filter system. There are papers covering the DOC aging as well as the effect of high sulfur fuel on the DOC. A couple of paper study the effect of ash accumulation and two papers cover a novel new asymmetric cell design and modeling of this new design. Finally we have a paper on gasoline particulate filters.
2015-04-21
Event
This session describes design, performance, and operating characteristic of crucial peripheral devices, intake and exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures and features.
2015-04-20 ...
  • April 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • September 30-October 1, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device.
2015-03-23 ...
  • March 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is one of the two NOx control technologies for diesel cars. However, LNT generates high levels of H2S during its desulfation process. We have successfully developed an advanced CSF technology that can effectively control the H2S emission and at the same time maintain its oxidation function for CO/HC. We will show engine and lab data for LNT+CSF system, discuss the chemistry for H2S control and illustrate the functional principle for CSF design.
2014-12-09
Event
The Tier-III and LEV-III fleet emission rollout is reviewed with the federal fuel economy standards. An emission rollout is generated compliant to the light duty LEV-III emission regulations to 2025. PGM loadings are estimated for the fleet based on current 4 cylinder Bin-4 and PZEV applications. Pd and Rh loadings will increase as the fleet average approaches SULEV30 in 2025. Non-traditional technologies such as HC trap and SCR catalyst may find a market.
2014-12-09
Event
The proposed legislative requirements on particle number emissions for EU6c and the reduced particle mass emission limits of CARB LEV-III / EPA Tier-3 pose a new challenge in the development of gasoline direct injection engines. Bosch is actively pursuing system level solutions, including the development of next generation DI injection systems, to aid OEMs in meeting the new legislative requirements without the need for additional exhaust gas after-treatment or penalties in fuel economy. This presentation will highlight key development areas and show system level pathways to successfully address these challenges.
2014-12-09
Event
In order to meet the future US 2025 CAFE standards, the average fuel economy of automobiles has to increase dramatically. Many OEM’s have a positive outlook towards considering highly efficient light-duty diesel powertrains as one possibility to reach the fleet average fuel economy goals. According to many market sales indicators, the annual sales of light-duty diesel vehicles in North America will reach nearly 1 million units by 2018. This growing emphasis for light-duty diesel powertrains has drawn attention to how the emission control technologies can be tailored to best meet the LEV III emissions standards, while still maintaining a high fuel economy advantage over their gasoline counterparts. In this presentation, beginning with a quick discussion about motivation, an in-depth technical analysis about future light-duty diesel engine and aftertreatment configurations will be discussed. The presentation primarily focuses on the challenges associated with advanced aftertreatment systems in combination with lower engine out emissions that are necessary to meet LEV III standards while maintaining high fuel economy.
2014-12-09
Event
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are being developed to enable compliance with the Euro 6c particulate number limit for gasoline direct injection engines. Applying a precious metal containing coating to the GPF has been found to improve soot combustion, enabling better passive regeneration under typical driving conditions. Furthermore, examples will demonstrate how coating the GPF with a three-way catalyst also provides benefits including system compactness and improved conversion efficiencies under transient and high speed driving conditions. The effects of PGM content and washcoat design on soot combustion and conversion activity will be discussed.
2014-12-09
Event
Lube oil-driven ash is inevitable for particulate filters and thus the filters need to be designed in consideration of ash loading. Since passive soot oxidation occurs at a high exhaust temperature range in GPF, ash behaviors in GPF are distinct from DPF. Our studies have shown that soot oxidation reactivity increases proportionally with increasing ash content in soot. The effect of ash loading on GPF pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and passive soot oxidation will be discussed.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0119
Diego Copiello, Ze Zhou, Gregory Lielens
Abstract This paper addresses the numerical simulation of motorcycle exhaust system noise using a transfer matrix method (TMM) supporting high order analytical acoustic modes representation combined with finite element method (FEM) included in the Actran software, R15. In the state-of-the-art of hybrid TMM/FEM approach the main assumption consists in a 1D plane wave acoustic propagation in the components connections which is intrinsically limiting the maximum frequency of the analysis. In motorcycle exhaust systems this limitation is even stronger because typical geometries exhibit strong curvatures and bends causing the scattering of the acoustic wave into higher order modes. Therefore, results might be erroneous even at frequencies at which only the plane wave is expected to be propagating. The improved transfer matrix method presented in this paper overcomes this limitation allowing to increase the range of applicability of this method.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0121
Kazuhiko Tanaka, Haruomi Sugita, Hibiki Saito, Masahiko Sekita
Abstract Recently, it has been widely practiced in motorcycle developments that the same type of engine is commonly applied to various vehicle categories. Accordingly, it is drawing more attention to develop the methodology for creating the best suitable sound for each individual vehicle category regardless of restriction from the engine configurations. In our study, we aimed to establish a procedure to control exhaust sounds beyond the borders across the inherent sound qualities originated from their engine configurations. Firstly, we conducted subjective tests in order to extract essential factors, depicted by adjectives that appear in verbal expressions commonly used to illustrate sound qualities in general. The results enabled us to conduct quantitative evaluations of the exhaust sound qualities of various motorcycles. Next, we clarified the relationships among the individual factors of sound qualities under our study and physical parameters in waveforms of the sounds.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0122
Andrea Fioravanti, Giulio Lenzi, Giovanni Vichi, Giovanni Ferrara, Stefano Ricci, Leonardo Bagnoli
Abstract The intake and exhaust lines provide the main abatement of the acoustic emissions of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Many different numerical approaches can be used to evaluate the acoustic attenuation, which is commonly expressed by the Transmission Loss. One-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations are conventionally carried out only considering the acoustic domain of the muffler or of the air-box. The walls of the acoustic filter are considered fully rigid and the interaction between the acoustic waves and the structure is consequently negligible. Moreover, the effect of the manufacturing characteristics and the attenuation of the acoustic waves due to the fluid viscous-thermal effects are also commonly disregarded in the numerical analysis of the filters. In addition, the presence of a catalytic converter or a filter cartridge may have an influence on the numerical results.
2014-10-16
Event
2014-10-15
Event
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2588
Sophie Porter, Ahmad Kamal Mat Yamin, Svetlana Aleksandrova, Stephen Benjamin, Carol A. Roberts, Jonathan Saul
Abstract Flow maldistribution across automotive exhaust catalysts significantly affects their conversion efficiency. Flow behaviour can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study investigates the application of CFD to modelling flow in a 2D system consisting of a catalyst monolith downstream of a wide-angled planar diffuser presented with steady flow. Two distinct approaches, porous medium and individual channels, are used to model monoliths of length 27 mm and 100 mm. Flow predictions are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements made in the diffuser and hot wire anemometry (HWA) data taken downstream of the monolith. Both simulations compare favourably with PIV measurements, although the models underestimate the degree of mixing in the shear layer at the periphery of the emerging jet.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2597
Habib Aghaali, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Abstract Turbocompound can utilize part of the exhaust energy on internal combustion engines; however, it increases exhaust back pressure, and pumping loss. To avoid such drawbacks, divided exhaust period (DEP) technology is combined with the turbocompound engine. In the DEP concept the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds, blowdown and scavenging, with different valve timings. This leads to lower exhaust back pressure and improves engine performance. Combining turbocompound engine with DEP has been theoretically investigated previously and shown that this reduces the fuel consumption and there is a compromise between the turbine energy recovery and the pumping work in the engine optimization. However, the sensitivity of the engine performance has not been investigated for all relevant parameters.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2594
Xinyu Wang, Yadong Deng
Abstract Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), which effectively converts exhaust thermal energy into electrical energy, can gradually improve the utilization efficiency of energy. The heat exchanger of TEG is one of the most important components for heat transfer, so as to realize energy saving and emission reduction. Hence, its configuration and thermal performance should be intensively studied. In this paper, a new configuration of heat exchanger, whose heat transfer area is regular octagon, is designed in comparison with the pervious rectangle one. In order to improve average temperature and thermal distribution uniformity, typical CFD software named FLUENT is used to simulate the multi-coupling of temperature - fluid - solid, and the temperature distribution on heat transfer area is gained. Moreover, the temperature distribution will be analyzed to evaluate the merits and weaknesses of configuration and thermal performance.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2550
Bo Hu, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Colin Copeland, J.W.G. Turner
Abstract The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2605
Cyrille Frottier, Marc Sens, Michael Rieß, Malte Wigger, Andreas Benz, Noriyuki Maekawa, Koji Onishi, Kazuhiro Oryoji, Kenichi Machida
Abstract In the near future, emissions legislation will become more and more restrictive for direct injection SI engines by adopting a stringent limitation of particulate number emissions in late 2017. In order to cope with the combustion system related challenges coming along with the introduction of this new standard, Hitachi Automotive Systems Ltd., Hitachi Europe GmbH and IAV GmbH work collaboratively on demonstrating technology that allows to satisfy EU6c emissions limitations by application of Hitachi components dedicated to high pressure injection (1). This paper sets out to describe both the capabilities of a new high pressure fuel system improving droplet atomization and consequently mixture homogeneity as well as the process of utilizing the technology during the development of a demonstrator vehicle called DemoCar. The Hitachi system consists of a fuel pump and injectors operating under a fuel pressure of 30 MPa.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2802
Qian Feng, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Abstract Durability and performance evaluation of the ageing catalyzed continuously regenerating trap (CCRT) on solid and volatile particles from diesel bus were studied through a set of transient TSI engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer based on on-road test. Particle characteristics under stepped steady conditions and during regeneration were discussed in detail. Under idle and stepped steady conditions, total particle number and mass Emission Rate (ER) of each test presented rising trends as speed increase. Total number ERs of all tests showed downtrend as the CCRT aging. The particle number size distributions at different ageing stage showed changing characteristics due to developing filter mechanism. Compared with baseline data, the total number reduction rates at idle condition were incremental, from 91.4% to 98.9% as the CCRT ageing. Percentages of nuclei mode concentrations took higher range from 66.6% to 89.9% compared with the baseline data, 43.2-43.7%.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2798
James A. McGeehan, Wim Van Dam, Ken Nelson, Alex Boffa, Kevin Carabell, Andrew Walker, Jon Caserta, Raymond Conway
Due to engine oil consumption, over 90% of the incombustibles in the diesel particulate filters (DPF) are derived from organometallic lubricant additives. These components are derived from calcium and magnesium detergents, zinc dithiophosphates (ZnDTP) and metal-containing oxidation inhibitors. They do not regenerate as they are non-volatile metals and salts. Consequently, the DPF has to be removed from the vehicle for cleaning. Ashless oil could eliminate the need for cleaning. This study initially focused on development of an ashless oil, but eventually concluded that this oil could not meet the valve-train wear requirements of the API CJ-4, SN/ACEA E9 oil categories. However, a zero-phosphorus oil with no ZnDTP and an extremely low sulfated ash of 0.4% demonstrated that it could meet critical engine tests in API CJ-4/ACEA/SN. The above oil, which has been optimized at 0.3% sulfated ash, has proven field performance in Cummins ISX with DPF using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2810
Kihyung Joo, Jin Woo Park, Jin-ha Lee, Seok-Jae Kim, Seungbeom Yoo
Abstract In diesel engine development, the new technology is coming out to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulation. The regulation demands more eco-friendly vehicles. Euro6c demands to meet not only WLTP mode, but also RDE(Real Driving Emission). In order to satisfy RDE mode, the new technology to reduce emissions should cover all operating areas including High Load & High Speed. It is a big challenge to reduce NOx on the RDE mode and a lot of DeNOx technologies are being developed. So the new DeNOx technology is needed to cover widened operating area and strict acceleration / deacceleration. The existing LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and Urea SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) is necessary to meet the typical NEDC or WLTP, but the RDE mode demands the powerful DeNOx technology. Therefore, the LNT & Urea SCR on DPF was developed through this study.
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