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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3669
2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0039
Andrea Fioravanti, Giovanni Vichi, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara, Lorenzo Ferrari
In recent years, the motorcycle muffler design are moving to dissipative silencer architectures. Indeed due to the increase of restrictions on noise emissions both dissipative and coupled reactive-dissipative mufflers, thanks to their higher noise efficiency coupled with a size reduction, have substituted the reactive silencers. A dissipative muffler is composed by a perforated pipe that crosses a cavity volume that is usually filled by a fibrous porous material. The acoustic performance of this kind of muffler are strictly dependent on the porosity of the perforated pipe and the flow resistivity of the porous material. The interaction between these elements and the mass flow rate of gas passing through the silencer influences the muffler performance.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0076
Rahul Sharma, Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on vehicle emissions was investigated in a spark ignited single cylinder carbureted vehicle meeting Bharat Stage III (BS III) emission norms. The effect of fuel blended with 10(E10) & 20(E20) percentage by volume of ethanol; was studied on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) as well as on Indian drive cycle (IDC) without any modifications on the vehicle. These cycles are simulation of real world driving conditions. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and increases leaning effect. It has been observed on IDC that addition of ethanol reduces CO up to 41%, THC emissions decreases by 9% and NOx reduces up to 12%. In WMTC Cycle, the CO reduces up to 32%, THC emission increases by 30%. NOx emissions on WMTC cycle decrease with the use of E10 by 6% while increase with the use of E20 by 7%.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0043
Bernhard J. Graf, Christian Hubmann, Markus Resch, Mehdi Mehrgou
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0050
Francesco Testa, Vincenzo Gagliardi, Marco Ferrari, Stefano Fontanesi, Andrea Bertani
It is well known that 3D CFD simulation can give detailed information about fluid and flow properties in complex 3D domains and that1D CFD simulation can give important information at a system level, i.e. about the performance of the entire engine. The drawbacks of the two simulation methods are that the former requires high computational cost while the latter is not able to capture complex local 3D features of the flow. Therefore, the two simulation methods are to be seen as complementary, indeed a coupling of the two approaches can benefit from the pros of the two methods while minimizing the cons. In particular, with a multi-scale modeling approach (1D-3D) it is possible to simulate large and complex domains by modeling the complex part with a 3D approach and the rest of the domain with 1D approach.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0023
Shinji Kasatori, Yuji Marui, Hideto Oyama, Kosuke Ono
One of the effective methods for weight reduction of valve systems in an engine is the application of titanium to the valve material. However, titanium exhaust valves that require high temperature resistance are basically expensive because they contain a lot of rare metals. Therefore, their application to a mass produced product has been very much limited. In this study, it was challenged to develop an alloy that contains only minimum required amount of rare metal elements which has a large impact to the cost, aiming at broadening the application of titanium exhaust valves. Generally speaking, heat-resisting titanium alloy has a high deformation resistance because of its superior strength at high temperature. Accordingly, its formability at high temperature is low and cracks and other defects may easily occur. In addition, when a titanium alloy is exposed with a high temperature atmosphere for a long time, oxidized scales that easily exfoliate are formed on its surface.
2016-10-26
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in DEF injection system, sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2016-10-25
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2320
Tsuyoshi Asako, Ryuji Kai, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control NOx in diesel engine emission. Most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize Vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to passive regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) or eliminating DPF from aftertreatment system. For DPF-less system, particulate matter (PM) standard is achievable without DPF depending on engine tuning. Further improvement of Vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2327
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Cary Henry
Ideally, complete decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea decomposition reaction is a two-step process that includes the formation of ammonia and isocyanic acid as intermediate products via thermolysis. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions can create oligomers that are difficult to remove from exhaust pipes. Deposits can affect efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow and negatively impact ammonia distribution on the SCR catalyst.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2350
Zhien Liu, Jiangmi Chen, Sheng-hao Xiao
This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to stimulate the internal field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on the theory of loose coupling. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. Results shows that the manifold satisfies the target life performance. Here we also made a consideration about the how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic material behavior.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2212
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Jessica Dahlstrom, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Abstract Yearly 3.3 million premature deaths occur worldwide due to air pollution and NOx pollution counts for nearly one seventh of those [1]. This makes exhaust after-treatment a very important research and has caused the permitted emission levels for NOx to decrease to very low levels, for EURO 6 only 0.4 g/kWh. Recently new legislation on ammonia slip with a limit of 10 ppm NH3 has been added [2], which makes the SCR-technology more challenging. This technology injects small droplets of an aqueous Urea solution into the stream of exhaust gases and through a catalytic reaction within the SCR-catalyst, NOx is converted into Nitrogen and Water. To enable the catalytic reaction the water content in the Urea solution needs to be evaporated and the ammonia molecules need to have sufficient time to mix with the gases prior to the catalyst.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2281
Simon Dosda, David Berthout, Gilles Mauviot, Adeline Nogre
Abstract With the upcoming Euro 6c emission regulations, the performance of Diesel exhaust lines needs to be improved to meet NOX and soot emission targets. A promising exhaust line architecture to reach these requirements is the association of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Selective Catalytic Reduction coated on a particulate filter (SCR-F) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. To develop this system, the car manufacturers have to face several challenges. One of the first is the design of the exhaust line volumes, which has a strong impact on the light-off temperatures of the catalysts and so on system performance. Then, urea injection has to be optimized with an adapted control system to maximize NOx reduction while keeping low tailpipe ammonia emission. Moreover, performance degradation of catalysts due to harsh exhaust conditions during vehicle life time have to be detected by OBD system.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2287
Huifang Shao, William Lam, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos, Seungmok Choi, HeeJe Seong
Abstract Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2328
Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu, Michael Gee, Rod Williams
The discrepancies between certification and on-road vehicle performance is becoming increasingly important as emissions and fuel consumption estimates are proving inaccurate predictors of in-service behaviour. The objective of this paper is to identify and analyse these differences and the work forms the first phase of a project aiming to create new, highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in powertrain performance whilst being representative of real world conditions. These new methodologies will be developed on an advanced chassis dynamometer facility and facilitate the development of future fuel technologies focussed on delivering real world benefits. The engine controller of a 2.0L Diesel vehicle with active de-NOx and particular filter (DPF) has been monitored over WLTC and NEDC cycles and 12000km of on-road driving. Different filtering and data representation methods are compared to aid in the analysis and understanding of on-road data.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2282
Toru Uenishi, Eijiro Tanaka, Takao Fukuma, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Experimental and numerical studies were conducted on diesel particulate filter (DPF) under different Particulate Matter (PM) loading and DPF regeneration conditions.Pressure losses across DPF loaded with PM having different mean particle diameters and regenerated with introducing hot gas created in Diesel Oxidation Catalyst(DOC)with oxidized hydrocarbon injected by fuel injector place on exhaust gas pipe were measured by introducing exhaust gases from a 2.2 liter inline four- cylinder, TCI diesel engine designed for use in passenger cars.Pressure drops across DPF loaded with PM having larger mean particle diameters expressed smaller than smaller mean particle diameters in PM loading phase.Meanwhile, the combustion amount and the decrease of pressure losses across DPF loaded with PM having larger mean particle diameters expressed smaller than smaller mean particle diameters in DPF regeneration phase.A mechanistic hypothesis was then proposed to explain the observed trends,accounting for the effects of the soot loading regime in the wall and the soot cake layer on the pressure drop.This hypothesis was used to guide the development and validation of a numerical model for predicting the pressure drop in the DPF.The relationship between the permeability and the porosity of the wall and soot cake layer was modeled under various soot loading conditions.The percolation coefficient at which the soot filtering regime changed from wall trapping to cake layer trapping was also determined by considering the filtering efficiency.The activation energy and exponential factor in the reaction rate constant was calibrated by each the mean diameter of secondary soot particles.The model was validated by comparing its output to the results of experimental test cell studies and used to analyze transport phenomena in particular filters.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2214
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff
The emission regulations for mobile on- and off-road applications are becoming stricter in Euro 6/Stage 5 and beyond levels and require the use of SCR for NOx and diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM removal. The presence of wall-flow filter with active regeneration creates a risk of thermal deactivation of SCR catalyst in the aftertreatment system (ATS). The thermal and chemical durability of Cu- and Fe-SCR catalysts were screened and developed to stand these conditions. The performance of catalysts were investigated with laboratory simulations and engine-bench equipments. New Cu-SCR catalysts have a very high low-temperature SCR activity and a low dependency on NO2 promotion. Developed Fe-SCR catalysts showed also an improved low temperature activity and durability but were more dependant on NO2 concentration too. Low N2O formation with Cu-SCR catalyst is a key factor to minimize green house gas emissions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2280
Emilio Xuereb, Mario Farrugia
Abstract Diesel particulate filters (DPF) regeneration is required to remove accumulated particulate matter in DPF. High pressure drop across DPF triggers an active regeneration by the ECU to burn off the accumulated soot. In city driving such as in a small island as Malta, exhaust gas temperatures are not high enough for passive regenerations, and ECU active regeneration might fail due to short trips. The particulate loading quantity in DPF is beneficial information as it provides an estimate of the remaining mileage expectancy of the DPF. Many vehicles provide information on particulate filter loading quantity in the OBD data. However, since this parameter is not on the mandatory list, different manufacturers provide this loading parameter in different forms, e.g.: grams; percentage (%); remaining mileage; etc. Thus comparison of the loading quantity across different manufacturers is not straightforward.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2283
Stephane Zinola, Stephane Raux, Mickael Leblanc
Abstract The more and more stringent regulations on particle emissions at the vehicle tailpipe have led the car manufacturers to adopt suitable emissions control systems, like particulate filters with average filtration efficiency that can exceed 99%, including particulate mass (PM) and number (PN). However, there are still some specific operating conditions that could exhibit noticeable particle number emissions. This paper aims to identify and characterize these persistent sources of PN emissions, based on tests carried out both at the engine test bench and at the chassis dynamometer, and both for Diesel and Gasoline direct injection engines and vehicles. For Diesel engines, highest particle numbers were observed downstream of the catalyzed DPF during some operation conditions like engine warm up or filter regeneration phases.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2161
Gangfeng Tan, Xuefeng Yang, Li Zhou, Kangping Ji, Mengying Yang
Abstract In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2185
Jialin Liu, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Zeyu Zou, Mingfa Yao
Abstract In this work, both the ‘SCR-only’ and ‘EGR+SCR’ technical routes are compared and evaluated after the optimizations of both injection strategy and turbocharging system over the World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC) in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust emissions and fuel economy performance of different turbocharging systems, including wastegate turbocharger (WGT), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), two-stage fixed geometry turbocharger (WGT+FGT) and two-stage variable geometry turbocharger (VGT+FGT), are investigated over a wide EGR range. The NOx reduction methods and EGR introduction strategies for different turbocharger systems are proposed to improve the fuel economy. The requirement on turbocharging system and their potential to meet future stringent NOx and soot emission regulations are also discussed in this paper.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8077
Guanyu Zheng
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) has become a mainstream approach to reduce diesel engine NOx emissions. Urea Water Solution (UWS) injection and interactions with mixers and exhaust gases affect the homogeneity of ammonia distribution at catalyst inlet and solid deposits formation on walls / mixer surfaces, therefore influencing SCR performance and durability. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate an EU V compliant SCR system with a dual baffle mixer for heavy duty diesel engines. The modeling procedure is carried out by a multi-dimensional CFD code CONVERGE that includes transient urea transport processes in an exhaust flow configuration, detailed spray break-up, evaporation, wall-film, turbulence, and Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) models as well as an automated mesh generation approach. Locations of urea deposits and system pressure drop are predicted and validated against measurements, providing uniformity index (UI) predictions at the catalyst inlet.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8075
Sudarshan Ramesh, Rob J.C. Nieuwenhof, Xander Seykens, Sriram Srinivasan, Gautam Sharma
Abstract SCR on Filter (SCRoF) is an efficient and compact NOX and PM reduction technology already used in series production for light-duty applications. The technology is now finding its way into the medium duty and heavy duty market. One of the key challenges for successful application is the robustness to real world variations. The solution to this challenge can be found by using model-based control algorithms, utilizing state estimation by physics-based catalyst models. This paper focuses on the development, validation and real time implementation of a physics-based control oriented SCRoF model. An overview of the developed model will be presented, together with a brief description of the model parameter identification and validation process using engine test bench measurement data. The model parameters are identified following a streamlined approach, focusing on decoupling the effects of deNOx and soot phenomena.
2016-09-13
Event
CURRENT
2016-08-23
Standard
J2914_201608
This document provides an overview on how and why EGR coolers are utilized, defines commonly used nomenclature, discusses design issues and trade-offs, and identifies common failure modes. The reintroduction of exhaust gas into the combustion chamber is just one component of the emission control strategy for internal combustion (IC) engines, both diesel and gasoline, and is useful in reducing exhaust port emission of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Other means of reducing NOx exhaust port emissions are briefly mentioned, but beyond the scope of this document.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1822
Drasko Masovic, Franz Zotter, Eugene Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Robert Höldrich
Abstract Radiation of sound from an open pipe with a hot mean flow presents one of the classic problems of acoustics in inhomogeneous media. The problem has been especially brought into focus in the last several decades, in the context of noise control of vehicle exhaust systems and jet engines. However, the reports on the measurements of the radiated sound field are still rare and scattered over different values of subsonic and supersonic flow speeds, cold and hot jets, as well as different sound frequency ranges. This paper focuses on low Mach number values of the mean flow speed and low frequencies of the incident (plane) sound waves inside an unflanged cylindrical pipe with a straight cut. It presents the results of the far-field radiation pattern measurements and compares them with an existing analytical model from the literature. The mean flow inside the pipe reached Mach number values up to 0.25 and temperature up to 300°C.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1820
Mikael Karlsson, Magnus Knutsson, Mats Abom
Abstract This work explores how fluid driven whistles in complex automotive intake and exhaust systems can be predicted using computationally affordable tools. Whistles associated with unsteady shear layers (created over for example side branches or perforates in resonators) are studied using vortex sound theory; vorticity in the shear layer interacts with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. If the travel time of a hydrodynamic disturbance over the orifice reasonably matches a multiple of the acoustic period of an acoustic feedback system, energy is transferred from the flow field to the acoustic field resulting in a whistle. The actual amplitude of the whistle is set by non-linear saturation phenomena and cannot be predicted here, but the frequency and relative strength can be found. For this not only the mean flow and acoustic fields needs to be characterized separately, but also the interaction of the two.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1826
Roman Gartz, Detlev Rammoser, Matthew Maunder
Abstract The transfer characteristics, location of the mounting points, where the exhaust system is attached to the vehicle structure, and the level of excitation forces have a significant contribution to the overall interior noise. The aim of this study is to define targets for the excitation forces of the exhaust line in order to identify its contribution to the overall vehicle interior cabin noise in the early vehicle concept phase when the hardware is not yet available. Furthermore, psychoacoustic parameters are calculated, e.g. the articulation index which provide a representation of the human hearing perception. Therefore a software tool was developed in MATLAB to cascade the interior noise contributions of the exhaust system using the corresponding transfer paths. This tool enables a quick prediction of different combinations (different hanger stiffness and other parameters) to evaluate the potential for improvements.
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