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2015-06-26 ...
  • June 26, 2015 (12:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Grand Rapids, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The June offering of this seminar is held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition. Register for this offering and you can register to attend the Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition for 25% off the classic member event rate. Please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for SAE 2015 Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition for this special rate.
2015-06-25
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-05-14 ...
  • May 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-04-23
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2015-04-23
Event
This session covers the complete particulate filter system, from particle deposition, new cell geometries to DPF regeneration. There are also several presentations on ash deposition and how to measure the ash in the DPF.
2015-04-23
Event
This session investigates a new plasma ignited burner for DPF regeneration and a new DPF substrate for SCR on the filter plus one presentation on optimizing a DOC for DPF systems.
2015-04-20 ...
  • April 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • September 30-October 1, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1032
Z. Gerald Liu, Nathan Ottinger
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1647
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux, Jerome Cherel, Vivien Delpech
Euro VI standards for heavy duty vehicles require the use of a DPF in order to fulfill the particulate matter threshold. Although passive regeneration of soot by NO2, promoted by a DOC located upstream the DPF, is preferred, the use of an active regeneration might be required whenever the DPF soot mass trapped increases. Some manufacturers made the choice a fuel injection in the exhaust system in order to generate an exothermic reaction in the DOC that helps to regenerate the particulate filter. This dedicated circuit avoids the use of post-injection which may induce oil dilution by diesel. The DPF regeneration is efficient and the DOC works durably if the exhaust diesel spray is completely vaporized before entering DOC and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a Ford 2011 3.5L TiGTDI engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm for a total of 12 engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 degC and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1011
Kazutake Ogyu, Toyoki Ogasawara, Yuichi Nagatsu, Yuya Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro Higuchi, Kazushige Ohno
The Particle Number (PN) emission limit is implemented for Direct Injection (DI) gasoline from Euro6 regulation in European region. The wall-flow type ceramic filter technology is an essential component for Diesel PN emission control, and will be one potential solution to be investigated for the future Gasoline DI PN emission control demand. Especially the requirement of lower pressure loss with smaller filter volume is very strong for the filter substrate for Gasoline DI compared to DPF, not to lose better fuel economy benefit of Gasoline DI engine. Re-crystallized SiC (R-SiC) has high strength as its own property, and enable for Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) design to make the wall thickness thinner and the porosity higher compared to the other ceramic materials.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0327
Elizabeth M. Patterson, Iman Goldasteh, Salamah Maaita
Recent progress in computer-aided engineering (CAE) has made it possible to model complex interdisciplinary multiphysics analysis. This paper investigated the sequential coupled thermal-structural analysis by examining the associated thermal stresses under simulated operational conditions close to the real situation. An evaluation of exhaust muffler strain due to thermal stresses was made by coupling Star-CCM+ CFD software and ABAQUS structural analysis software. The study was made to evaluate discovered muffler durability test failure and to develop a countermeasure design to prevent future issues. Failure of the muffler internal pipe was discovered after heat cycle durability testing where the internal pipe had broken into two pieces. In the first step, CFD analysis was done by thermo-flow simulation in order to determine the resulting heat distribution on the muffler assembly when subjected to the prescribed peak duty cycle temperature.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0984
Yang Zheng, Mengmeng Li, Michael Harold, Dan Luss
Current NOx emission reduction systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and NOx storage and reduction (NSR), function well once achieving their operation temperature (typically ca. 250 oC) but have unsatisfactory NOx conversion at low exhaust temperature encountered during cold start and low load operation. The reduced exhaust temperature afforded by the higher fuel efficiency of advanced diesel engines further challenges the low-T NOx reduction. We report here a new concept with high low-T deNOx efficiency of up to 80% at a feed temperature of ca. 200 oC at relevant space velocities (70k h-1), using high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual-layer LNT-SCR monolithic catalyst under lean conditions. This system has the potential to expand the operating temperature window of the conventional deNOx devices.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1042
Ralf Moos
The state of catalysts and filters plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of particulate filters (GPF, DPF), the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts (TWC), the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in lean NOx traps (LNT) are important parameters. Today, they are determined indirectly and/or model-based calibrated by gas sensors installed up- or downstream of the catalysts or a differential pressure sensor. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine directly the catalyst state by a microwave-based technique. For that purpose, the catalyst housing serves as a cavity resonator. As “sensing” element, one or two simple antennas are mounted in the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb incl. coating and storage material) can be measured.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0990
Brett M. Bailey
In developed countries, the reduction of emissions from internal combustion engines will become ever more challenging, as more efficient methods of vehicle operation, such as future diesel electric hybrid systems and exhaust energy recovery, place further thermal constraints on the current state-of-the-art Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR effectiveness and Diesel Particulate Filter, DPF regeneration aftertreatment technologies. The stop/start advantages of a hybrid and anti-idling systems reduce the time available for thermal particulate filter regeneration along with creating multiple low temperature starts during normal operation. Exhaust energy recovery systems will require high differential exhaust temperature in order to attain sufficient conversion efficiency placing further constraints on current thermal management approaches.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0985
José Ramón Serrano, Vicente Bermudez, Pedro Piqueras, Emanuele Angiolini
Wall-flow diesel particulate filters have become the most effective system for particulate matter abatement in Diesel engines being required for current and future emission standards fulfillment. Despite the high filtration efficiency that wall-flow DPFs exhibit their use involves a noticeable impact in fuel consumption because of the increase of the exhaust back-pressure. Additionally, the fuel economy penalty increases as the DPF becomes soot/ash loaded. This constraint demands the approach and development of new solutions to reduce the DPF pressure drop. This paper focuses on the improvement of the ratio between the pressure drop and the loading by means of pre-DPF water injection. A proper management of the water injection events is able to completely remove the dependence between these magnitudes. The test campaign and the discussion of the experimental results address how the DPF pressure drop reduction leads to benefits in engine fuel consumption.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0994
Hiroyuki Kojima, Michael Fischer, Hisao Haga, Naoki Ohya, Kensuke Nishi, Takuya Mito, Naoko Fukushi
We studied the Urea-SCR system as the after-treatment system to convert NOx emissions. NOx conversion efficiency of the SCR depends on the exhaust gas temperature and NO2/NOx ratio in the gas emission. We increased the temperature on the SCR catalyst .A disadvantage of this is the fuel penalty under the low gas temperature in city driving. One solution for this is DPF coating with SCR catalyst (SCRF) and to move the SCR catalyst closer to the engine. SCRF’s function is not only NOx conversion but also to trap and regenerate the particulate matter. NOx conversion efficiency of SCRF is lower than the honeycomb SCR. Urea water evaporates and diffuses in the limited space between DOC and SCRF to achieve a homogeneous NH3 distribution and stores it in the SCR catalyst. We propose extending the exhaust pipe for even NH3 distribution and adding the honeycomb SCR under the floor. A solution is the honeycomb SCR added to the closely-coupled converter.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0997
Jonas Jansson, Åsa Johansson, Hanna Sjovall, Mikael Larsson, Gudmund Smedler, Colin Newman, Jason Pless
This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed for future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. Since EuroIV/US10 legislation, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) has been widely and successfully used in order to reduce NOx emissions from HDD vehicles. There are four main types of SCR catalysts; Vanadia/Titania, Cu zeolite, Fe zeolite and mixed oxides of transition metals; and all of them have different performance characteristics, both positive and negative. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimisation has to be considered. Examples of this could be: catalyst development, optimised thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimised SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1019
Changpu Zhao, Man Bai, Junwei Yang, Fang Shang, Gang Yu
Diesel particulate filters have contributed to decreasing particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas of diesel cars and they have become standard diesel exhaust gas after-treatment devices. As the pressure drop through DPF increases with the increasing soot loading, DPF needs periodically regeneration to eliminate PM after certain miles. However, a part of the PM emissions of the engine contains non-combustible contributions (ashes) which mostly come from lubricating oil and fuel additives. These materials accumulate in the filter over lifetime, usually resulting in an increase in pressure drop as well as a reduction of the filter volume available for soot loading. The impact of ash can be mitigated by optimization of filter design parameter (asymmetric cell technology, ACT) or by periodic ash cleaning. The ACT DPF has larger inlet and smaller outlet and therefore a higher volume available for ash storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1016
Hidemasa Iwata, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Kazuki Nakamura, Akihito Ogiso, Kazutake Ogyu, Toshiaki Shibata, Kazushige Ohno
As it is well known, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) have practically become the essential components for reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions for the past dozen years or so. In the process of DPF development, performance validation at engine test cells with respect to both the Pressure drop during PM loading and subsequent PM regeneration performance are quite indispensable from the quality assurance point of view. A breakthrough idea for the layout of DPF channel plugging pattern, namely the Asymmetric Plugging Layout was developed and reported at the 2014 SAE World Congress, leading especially to the reduction of the pressure drop during PM loading. The basic idea of asymmetric plugging layout is that the pressure drop can be reduced because of the increase of the flow pass area of inlet channels.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1012
Carl Justin Kamp, Paul Folino, Yujun Wang, Alexander Sappok, Jim Ernstmeyer, Amin Saeid, Rakesh Singh, Bachir Kharraja, Victor W. Wong
While metal fiber filters have successfully shown exceptional particulate filtration functionality for various sizes of diesel engines with a low pressure drop and a relatively high filtration efficiency, little is known about the effects of lubricant-derived ash on fiber filter systems. Metal fiber filters, when used downstream from a diesel engine, effectively trap and oxidize diesel particulate matter via an electrically heated regeneration process where a specific voltage and current are applied to the sintered alloy fibers. In this manner the filter media essentially acts as a resistive heater to generate temperatures high enough to oxidize the carbonaceous particulate matter, which is typically in excess of 600⁰C. The regeneration process does not require additional fuel such as in the case of active regeneration in DPFs and is not sensitive to fuel quality (especially fuel sulfur levels).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1047
Yujun Wang, Carl Kamp, Amin Saeid, Chris Jackson, Jim Ernstmeyer, Bachir Kharraja, Alexander Sappok, Victor W. Wong
Rypos Inc. has developed sintered metal fiber filter systems that efficiently capture the particulate matter in the exhaust of diesel engines ranging in power output from less than 50 kW to more than 3 MW, under all operating conditions. Rypos metal fiber filters are currently used in power generation, transport refrigeration units, locomotive and mining industry applications. The metal fiber, made of a steel alloy, is durable and can withstand high mechanical and thermal stress. Due to the metal fiber’s high porosity, the filter can remove soot at high filtration efficiency with low pressure drop. To regenerate the filter, the metal fiber medium is used as an electrical resistance heater to periodically oxidize the collected soot. The filter imposes no limits on the fuel and lubricant sulfur level and works well in diesel engines with low temperature exhaust. The behavior of fibrous media in filtration determines the filter’s performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1057
Scott Drennan, Gaurav Kumar, Shaoping Quan, Mingjie Wang
Controlling NOx emissions from vehicles is a key aspect of meeting new regulations for cars and trucks across the world. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a NOx reduction option that many engine manufacturers are adopting. The performance of urea injection and mixing upstream of an SCR catalyst is critical in obtaining reliable NOx reduction. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of urea injection systems have become an important development and diagnostic tool for designers. Designers are interested in applying more accurate spray and kinetic models to their CFD simulations and in reducing mesh generation time. This paper presents the application of an automatically generated Cartesian meshing approach to a urea liquid injection system. Investigations of the impact of injection and operating conditions are presented for a model urea-water injection case.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1051
Jean Milpied, Arnaud Frobert, Olivier Lepreux
This paper presents the evaluation of the impact of Diesel Exhaust Fluid quality on the behavior of a controlled SCR system. Proper control of the Selective Catalytic Reduction system is crucial to fulfill NOx emissions standards of modern Diesel engines. Today, the urea is not considered as a control input in the system. Moreover, Urea Quality Sensors are now available to provide real time information of Diesel Exhaust Fluid quality. The impact of %urea from 20 to 36% of urea on the NOx emissions of a passenger car 2.2L Diesel engine is calculated using a reference SCR model and a reference SCR control tool in multiple NEDC transient conditions. Several control strategies are tested with different levels of feedback. Ammonia slip levels are also calculated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0348
Chuqi Su, Meng Xu, Naiqiang Tong, Yulian Chen
The potential for automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been increasing with continuously advances in thermoelectric technology. In this paper, the thermal deformation of the TEG system is studied on the basis of the temperature distribution of the heat exchanger. The simulation analysis shows that the thermoelectric modules (TMs) on different positions of the heat exchanger have different thermal performance, which can significantly influence the power generation efficiency of the system. Meanwhile, it is found that the thermal performance is affected by the clamping mechanism, which has a greater effect on the cold side than the hot side. Following the simulations, bench tests are carried out to confirm the reasonability of the simulation results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1026
Padmanabha Reddy Ettireddy, Adam Kotrba, Thirupathi Boningari, Panagiotis Smirniotis
The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst as an active, durable and selective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start conditions. A series of various metal oxide- incorporated zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques, the resulting catalysts were characterized and tested in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz reactor using ammonia as the reductant. Once the catalysts with the best performance were identified, experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type. Initial catalyst formulations have been achieved optimum NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 ºC – 350 ºC (at a GHSV of 80,000 h-1).
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