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2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2015-06-26 ...
  • June 26, 2015 (12:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Grand Rapids, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The June offering of this seminar is held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition. Register for this offering and you can register to attend the Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition for 25% off the classic member event rate. Please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for SAE 2015 Noise and Vibration Conference and Exhibition for this special rate.
2015-06-25
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-25
Event
Silencer and muffler design is primarily accomplished via cut-and-try approaches in many industries. Noise issues are identified close to production and mufflers are designed and tested. In this workshop, a design process for mufflers is recommended. The steps that may be taken during the 1) clarification of task, 2) conceptual design, 3) detailed design, and 4) prototyping phases are outlined, and the process is demonstrated at each step for a cross-flow type muffler. It is shown that plane wave analysis is especially valuable in the conceptual design stage whereas numerical simulation is of greater value in the detailed design stage. Basics and tips for both plane wave analysis and numerical simulation are discussed. Measurement of transmission loss using the two-load method will be described and demonstrated using a transmission loss test bench.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2307
Neil Figurella, Rick Dehner, Ahmet Selamet, Keith Miazgowicz, Ahsanul Karim, Ray Host
The effect of aerodynamically induced pre-swirl on the acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor is studied experimentally on a steady-flow turbocharger facility. Accompanying flow separation, broadband noise is generated as the flow rate of the compressor is reduced and the incidence angle of the flow relative to the leading edge of the inducer blades increases. By incorporating an air jet upstream of the inducer, a tangential (swirl) component of velocity is added to the incoming flow, which improves the incidence angle particularly at low to mid-flow rates. Experimental data for a configuration with a swirl jet is then compared to a baseline with no swirl. The induced jet is shown to improve the surge line over the baseline configuration at all rotational speeds examined, while restricting the maximum flow rate. At high flow rates, the swirl jet increases the compressor inlet noise levels over a wide frequency range.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2308
Yitian Zhang, David W. Herrin
The two-load method is commonly applied to determine the transmission loss for a muffler especially if an impedance tube rig is used. In this paper, several practical concerns are considered including (1) the choice of data processing algorithm (transfer or scattering matrix), (2) the selection of reference, (3) the use of 2 or 4 microphones, and (4) the influence of external noise. Results are compared for an expansion chamber and also for a more effective cross flow type muffler.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2305
Xin Hua, David W. Herrin, Yitian Zhang
A recently developed superposition approach for determining the transmission and insertion loss of a two-inlet muffler is reviewed. To validate the approach, calculated and measured transmission and insertion losses are compared for a small engine muffler with two inlets and one outlet. After which, the phasing between the two inputs is varied and the transmission and insertion loss evaluated. Results show that the transmission and insertion loss are strongly affected by the phasing between sources at low frequencies while phasing between sources has a lesser impact at high frequencies.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2306
John G. Cherng, Weiwei Wu, Peiran Ding, Mike Hebbes, Henry Zhang
This study presents an efficient method to optimize the transmission loss of a vehicle muffler by using both experimental and analytical methods. Two production mufflers with complex participation and absorption fiber glass were selected. CAD files of the mufflers were established for developing FEM models in ANSYS and another commercial software. FEM models were validated by two experimental measurements; decomposition method and two source methods. After the models were verified, sensitivity studies of design parameters were performed to optimize the TL of a selected muffler. The sensitivity study includes the perforated hole variations, partition variations and absorption material insertion. The experience learned and sensitivity conclusions are included in the paper.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2311
Aditya Palsule
Development of split Catcon-Muffler system was done to be used in front engine low floor (FELF) bus from perspective of cost saving, modularity and reduction in complexity. This system is developed as an alternate to an existing solution of integrated Catcon and muffler. The paper describes the development of a split Catcon and muffler exhaust system for a FELF bus, so as to meet cost and time considerations. The development had to achieve a feasible muffler + catalytic converter solution, which could be installed within the packaging volume of the existing configuration, while meeting the regulatory requirements for Pass by noise (PBN), and at the same time conforming to backpressure limits set for optimum engine performance. Multiple design – prototypes – test iterations were carried out to meet the PBN and back pressure target of engine. The final solution was developed which achieved both the requirements within the specified space constraints.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2312
P. Wang, J. Li, T. W. Wu
A simplified method to model perforated tubes in mufflers is the equivalent transfer impedance approach. Various empirical formulas that consider the porosity, hole diameter, wall thickness, and flow type have been proposed to date. They normally work very well under the conditions that the formulas are intended for. However, there are situations that the empirical formulas may not be able to cover. In this paper, we propose a simple BEM-based numerical procedure to determine the transfer impedance from a small perforate sample, and then send the transfer impedance to the muffler BEM model for analysis purposes. Numerical results are verified in three test cases.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2310
Edward Ray Green
The Sound Transmission Loss of automotive intake and exhaust components is commonly measured using the four microphone tube method per ASTM E2611. Often area adapters are used to match the component tube to that of the tube apparatus. These area adapters affect the Sound Transmission Loss measurement, especially at very low frequencies. The use of the Transfer Matrix Technique to remove the affect of the area adapters is described. The improvements for step and cone area adapters are compared.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2316
Weam Elsahar, Tamer Elnady
In several applications, two-inlet single outlet mufflers are possible to encounter in exhaust systems. They are usually used to merge two exhaust streams from two similar engines or from two sides of an engine. They have an advantage of reducing the back pressure on the engine(s). There is a lot of published research on the analysis of single inlet single outlet mufflers acting as a two-port. On the other hand, there are a few publications on the analysis of two-inlet single outlet mufflers due to their complexity representing a three-port. A three-port is characterized by a 3×3 Scattering Matrix. The nine elements of this matrix represent the 3 reflection coefficients at each port, and the 6 transmission coefficients between the 3 ports in both directions. In this work, a two-inlet single outlet muffler is studied. The elements of the scattering matrix were measured using the two-source two-microphone technique with and without flow.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2315
Giulio Lenzi, Giovanni Ferrara, Andrea Fioravanti
The acoustic performance of muffler with single-inlet and single-outlet are well-described using Insertion Loss (IL) and Transmission Loss (TL). These parameters represent the acoustic damping on the engine emission and on the incident pressure wave respectively. However, for mufflers with multi-inlet these parameters depend also on the sources characteristics as consequence their use is quite difficult. In the present work the acoustic performance of a double-inlet and single-outlet muffler are experimentally evaluated in terms of reflection and transmission coefficients of each port of the muffler itself. These coefficients are used to evaluate the Insertion Loss of the manifold muffler taking in to account specific sources on the inlets. The characteristic coefficients are also used to predict the acoustic emission of the manifold muffler using a known engine source on the two inlets.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2314
Adrien Mann, Min-Suk Kim, Mohammed Meskine, Barbara Neuhierl, Franck Perot, Robert Powell
Exhaust and muffler noise is a challenging problem in the transport industry. While the main purpose of the system is to reduce the intensity of the acoustic pulses originating from the engine exhaust valves, the back pressure induced by these systems must be kept to a minimum to guarantee maximum performance of the engine. Emitted noise levels have to ensure comfort of the passengers and must respect community noise regulations. In addition, the exhaust noise plays an important role in the brand image of vehicles, especially with sports car where it must be tuned to be “musical”. However, to achieve such performances, muffler and exhaust designs have become quite complex, often leading to the rise of undesired self-induced noise. Traditional purely acoustic solvers, like Boundary Element Methods (BEM), have been applied quite successfully to achieve the required acoustic tuning.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2313
Bryce Gardner, Abderrazak Mejdi, Chadwyck Musser, Tiago Macarios, Sébastien Chaigne
Flow strongly affects the propagation of acoustics wave transmission within a duct and this must be addressed by the vibro-acoustic modelling of duct systems subject to uniform or non-uniform flow. Flow impacts both the effective sound propagation speed in a duct and refracts the sound towards or away from the duct walls depending on whether the acoustic waves are propagating in the direction of the flow or against the flow. Accurate modeling of the acoustic propagation within a duct is crucial for design and “tuning” of muffler systems that need to strongly attenuate narrowband acoustic sources from the engine. Muffler systems that may avoid matching acoustic resonances to engine narrowband sources when no flow is present may experience shifting of resonances to frequencies that match engine sources and cause problems when the flow during a real operating condition is present.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2318
Wang Wenzhu, Liu Gang, Cheng Mianhong, Wei Jun
The hanger location layout is crucial, because it is related to the rubber hanger life, the natural frequency of the exhaust system and the force transferred to the body from the exhaust system. In order to solve the hanger layout problem of a new developed automotive exhaust system, the finite element method (FEM) of the automotive exhaust system including the powertrain was established. The correctness of the FEM model was verified by means of experimental modal analysis. Using average driving DOF displacement (ADDOFD) method, the hanger Location was arranged. The static and vibration analysis of the exhaust system was carried out to verify the hanger location layout. The weight analysis results indicate that the maximum displacement of the rubber hanger satisfies the design requirements. The static analysis results under 4g acceleration indicate the maximum stress meets the strength requirements of the material.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2317
Yiliang Fan, Zhenlin Ji
A simulation program named as MAP (Muffler Analysis Program) is developed for the rapid calculation and analysis of acoustic characteristics of duct muffling systems. The program is based on the plane wave theory and uses the Visual Basic 6.0 to create a friendly GUI (Graphic User Interface) for input of the geometrical and physical parameters to build and modify the duct muffling systems quickly. The relation among the duct acoustic elements is established by using the transfer matrix method, and the Transmission Loss (TL) and Insertion Loss (IL) may be calculated, and then the results are plotted in terms of curve. Map allows designer to change parameters of the duct muffling systems expediently, to investigate the effects of design changes on the acoustic characteristics and finally to get an acceptable solution.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2309
David Neihguk, M.L. Munjal, Abhinav Prasad, J Perumal
The bias flow in concentric tube resonator is a flow-induced phenomenon in which the pressure gradient along the radial direction is produced by the kinetic energy of the flow. As a result, the flow dynamics in concentric tube resonators is characterized by bias flow into the annular cavity in the upstream and outflow from the annular cavity in the downstream of the flow. This is due to the change in direction of the radial component of the bias flow at a point called the point of recovery, as a consequence of mass conservation. The pressure drop of concentric tube resonator is a complex function of the momentum flux and other geometric parameters such as porosity, open area ratio, discharge coefficient of the perforated holes, bias inflow, bias outflow, grazing flow and length. In this study, numerical experiments are conducted to obtain an empirical formula for the friction factor of perforated pipes which are extensively used in automotive mufflers.
2015-05-14 ...
  • May 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-04-23
Event
This session investigates a new plasma ignited burner for DPF regeneration and a new DPF substrate for SCR on the filter plus one presentation on optimizing a DOC for DPF systems.
2015-04-23
Event
This session covers the complete particulate filter system, from particle deposition, new cell geometries to DPF regeneration. There are also several presentations on ash deposition and how to measure the ash in the DPF.
2015-04-23
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2015-04-20 ...
  • April 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • September 30-October 1, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1032
Z. Gerald Liu, Nathan Ottinger
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0327
Elizabeth M. Patterson, Iman Goldasteh, Salamah Maaita
Abstract Recent progress in computer-aided engineering (CAE) has made it possible to model complex interdisciplinary multiphysics analyses. This paper investigated the sequential coupled thermal-structural analysis by examining the associated thermal stresses under simulated operational conditions close to the real situation. An evaluation of exhaust muffler strain due to thermal stresses was made by coupling Star-CCM+ CFD software and ABAQUS FEM structural analysis software. The study was made to evaluate discovered muffler durability test failure and to develop a countermeasure design. Failure of the muffler internal pipe was discovered after heat cycle durability testing. The internal pipe had broken into two pieces. In the first step, CFD analysis was done by thermo-flow simulation to determine the resulting heat distribution on the muffler assembly when subjected to the prescribed peak duty cycle temperature.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0994
Hiroyuki Kojima, Michael Fischer, Hisao Haga, Naoki Ohya, Kensuke Nishi, Takuya Mito, Naoko Fukushi
Abstract Diesel engines provide a solution for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from motor vehicles. For diesel engines, however, technology to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions is essential. This report focuses on Urea - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as an aftertreatment system for NOx reduction. The NOx conversion performance of SCR catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature and the NO2/NOX ratio. In order to raise the NO2/NOX ratio, it is essential to raise the temperature of oxidation catalyst. For these purposes, it is necessary to raise the temperature of oxidation catalyst and SCR catalyst to high level in order to enhance NOx conversion. Temperature rising is implemented by in-cylinder fuel injection (post-injection).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0997
Jonas Jansson, Åsa Johansson, Hanna Sjovall, Mikael Larsson, Gudmund Smedler, Colin Newman, Jason Pless
Abstract This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed at future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimization has to be considered. Examples of this include: catalyst development, optimized thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimized SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough system screening using a range of advanced SCR technologies, where the pros and cons from a system perspective will be discussed. Further optimization of selected systems will also be reviewed. The results suggest that current legislation requirements can be met for all SCR catalysts under investigation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0985
José Ramón Serrano, Vicente Bermudez, Pedro Piqueras, Emanuele Angiolini
Abstract Wall-flow diesel particulate filters have become the most effective system for particulate matter abatement in Diesel engines being required for current and future emission standards fulfillment. Despite the high filtration efficiency that wall-flow DPFs exhibit their use involves a noticeable impact in fuel consumption because of the increase of the exhaust back-pressure. Additionally, the fuel economy penalty increases as the DPF becomes soot/ash loaded. This constraint demands the approach and development of new solutions to reduce the DPF pressure drop. This paper focuses on the improvement of the ratio between the pressure drop and the loading by means of pre-DPF water injection. A proper management of the water injection events is able to completely remove the dependence between these magnitudes. The test campaign and the discussion of the experimental results address how the DPF pressure drop reduction leads to benefits in engine fuel consumption.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3523

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