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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3646
2016-10-24
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2016-10-24
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-08-15 ...
  • August 15-16, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1826
Roman Gartz, Detlev Rammoser, Matthew Maunder
Abstract The transfer characteristics, location of the mounting points, where the exhaust system is attached to the vehicle structure, and the level of excitation forces have a significant contribution to the overall interior noise. The aim of this study is to define targets for the excitation forces of the exhaust line in order to identify its contribution to the overall vehicle interior cabin noise in the early vehicle concept phase when the hardware is not yet available. Furthermore, psychoacoustic parameters are calculated, e.g. the articulation index which provide a representation of the human hearing perception. Therefore a software tool was developed in MATLAB to cascade the interior noise contributions of the exhaust system using the corresponding transfer paths. This tool enables a quick prediction of different combinations (different hanger stiffness and other parameters) to evaluate the potential for improvements.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1822
Drasko Masovic, Franz Zotter, Eugene Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Robert Höldrich
Abstract Radiation of sound from an open pipe with a hot mean flow presents one of the classic problems of acoustics in inhomogeneous media. The problem has been especially brought into focus in the last several decades, in the context of noise control of vehicle exhaust systems and jet engines. However, the reports on the measurements of the radiated sound field are still rare and scattered over different values of subsonic and supersonic flow speeds, cold and hot jets, as well as different sound frequency ranges. This paper focuses on low Mach number values of the mean flow speed and low frequencies of the incident (plane) sound waves inside an unflanged cylindrical pipe with a straight cut. It presents the results of the far-field radiation pattern measurements and compares them with an existing analytical model from the literature. The mean flow inside the pipe reached Mach number values up to 0.25 and temperature up to 300°C.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1820
Mikael Karlsson, Magnus Knutsson, Mats Abom
Abstract This work explores how fluid driven whistles in complex automotive intake and exhaust systems can be predicted using computationally affordable tools. Whistles associated with unsteady shear layers (created over for example side branches or perforates in resonators) are studied using vortex sound theory; vorticity in the shear layer interacts with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. If the travel time of a hydrodynamic disturbance over the orifice reasonably matches a multiple of the acoustic period of an acoustic feedback system, energy is transferred from the flow field to the acoustic field resulting in a whistle. The actual amplitude of the whistle is set by non-linear saturation phenomena and cannot be predicted here, but the frequency and relative strength can be found. For this not only the mean flow and acoustic fields needs to be characterized separately, but also the interaction of the two.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1843
Jan Krueger, Viktor Koch, Ralf Hoelsch
Abstract Over the past few years, the measurement procedure for the pass-by noise emission of vehicles was changed and new limit values have been set by the European Parliament which will come into force within the next few years. Moreover, also the limits for chemical emissions such as NOx, particulates and CO2 have been lowered dramatically and will continue to be lowered according to a roadmap decided not only in Europe but also in other markets throughout the world. This will have an enormous impact on the design of future passenger cars and in particular on their powertrains. Downsizing, downspeeding, forced induction, and hybridization are among the most common general technology trends to keep up with these challenges. However, most of these fuel saving and cleaner technologies also have negative acoustic side effects.
2016-06-14
Event
2016-05-12 ...
  • May 12-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2016-04-13
Event
This session deals with particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Topics include the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-13
Event
This session deals with particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Topics include the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-13
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1087
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
To achieve more stringent exhaust emission regulations will face more and more daunting challenges nowadays. It needs more new technologies to improve the IC engine performance but needing higher costs in order to meet Euro 6 and EPA standards in USA. Recently the opposed-piston engine (OPE) has been treated as the promising product to meet these new regulations but relatively lower costing. Although two-stroke OPE owning inherent thermal efficiency and power density advantages, the inefficient scavenge efficiency appears to become the main obstacle to enhance combustion efficiency whilst reducing exhaust gas emission. For the improvement of scavenge efficiency the transient gas exchange simulation was carried out for multiple Cases here, including two intake port configurations at various back pressures in exhaust system and two port timings.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1080
Narendra V. Bansode, Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
Abstract A single cylinder gasoline engine of a sports bike generates sufficient hot gases to pose great challenge to the designers of exhaust system. The high temperature exhaust gases in muffler creates thermal elongation on the solid parts of exhaust system, which is mounted on the chassis. This arrangement induces thermal stress in exhaust assembly. It is necessary to analyze this thermal stress to ensure the durability of muffler components. The exhaust design has a diversion at the header pipe to distribute the flow in two branches. This junction and the branches heated up excessively and showed repeated failure. To analyze the thermal stress, the temperature distribution in the muffler components is obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The complete motorcycle with detailed exhaust system is modelled in the standard wind tunnel using a commercial CFD software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1081
Jonathan Harrison, Rodrigo Aihara, Fabian Eisele
Abstract Engine and transmission oil systems are commonly pressurized by gerotor style pumps, due to their simplistic design and low cost. Gerotor pumps are designed with certain tolerances of the gears and housing, thus creating a tradeoff of lower cost with larger tolerances and higher cost with smaller tolerances. By building a detailed gerotor pump model with a 1D hydraulic flow network, engineers can evaluate pump performance with these tolerances as input and compare to find the optimal design. This paper showcases the ease of building a gerotor model in 1D by using an automated process extracting the key model inputs directly from the pump CAD file. The gerotor pump performance is predicted including flow rate, total power loss, volumetric efficiency, and total efficiency vs. pump speed, pressure rise, clearance tolerances, and temperature, and compared with experiment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1049
Xinyan Wang, Jun Ma, Hua Zhao
Abstract The 2-stroke engine has great potential for aggressive engine downsizing due to its double firing frequency which allows lower indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and peak in-cylinder pressure with the same output toque compared to the 4-stroke engine. With the aid of new engine technologies, e.g. direct injection, boost and variable valve trains, the drawbacks of traditional 2-stroke engine, e.g. low durability and high emissions, can be resolved in a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. Compared to the loop-flow or cross-flow engines, the BUSDIG engine, where intake ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head, can achieve excellent scavenging performance and be operated with high boost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1054
Jorge Martins, Carlos Pereira, F.P. Brito
Abstract One way to increase efficiency and performance of 2-stroke engines is the addition of an exhaust valve to control the opening/closure of the exhaust port. With this implementation it is possible to change the exhaust timing for different conditions. However, conventional systems cannot change the exhaust opening and closure timings independently. The work herein presented shows the development of a new exhaust rotary valve enabling the control of the opening independently from the control of the closure of the exhaust port. The study is based on kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. Some manufacturers use exhaust rotary valves but none of them performs a fully rotary motion. This kind of motion has various benefits such as smoothness and most notably the ability to control both the opening and the closure timing of the exhaust independently. Regarding the kinematic analysis, a simple model was created to determine the most suitable valve angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0975
Xander Seykens, Erik van den Tillaart, Velizara Lilova, Shigeru Nakatani
Abstract Since the introduction of Euro IV legislation [1, 2], Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology using liquid urea injection is (one of) the primary methods for NOx reduction in many applications. Ammonia (NH3) is the reagent and key element for the SCR system and its control calibration to meet all operational requirements. TNO and Horiba are highly motivated to facilitate a correct interpretation and use of emissions measurement data. Different hypotheses were defined to investigate the impact of temperatures and flow rates on urea decomposition. These parameters are known to strongly affect the urea decomposition process, and thus, the formation of NH3. During a test campaign, different SCR catalyst feed gas conditions (mass flow, temperature, species and dosing quantities) were applied. Three Horiba FTIR gas analyzers were installed to simultaneously sample either all upstream or all downstream of the SCR brick. Both steady-state and dynamic responses were evaluated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0970
Henrik Smith, Thomas Lauer, Viktor Schimik, Klaus Gabel
Abstract In this work we extended the findings from a previous study by the authors on the mechanisms and influence factors of deposit formation in urea-based selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) [1]. A broader range of operating conditions was investigated in detail. In order to quantify the boundary conditions of deposition, a representative set of deposits was studied during formation and decomposition. A box of heat resisting glass was equipped with a surrogate mixing element to monitor solidification timescales, temperatures and deposit growth. A chemical analysis of the deposits was performed using thermogravimetry. The depletion timescales of individual deposit components were systematically investigated. A moderate temperature increase to 350 °C was deemed sufficient to trigger fast decomposition of deposits formed below 250 °C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0973
Takafumi Yamauchi, Yoshiki Takatori, Koichiro Fukuda, Masatoshi Maruyama
Abstract Urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems are getting a lot of attention as the most promising NOx reduction technology for heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. In order to promote an effective development for an optimal urea-SCR after-treatment system, it is important to clarify the decomposition behavior of the injected urea and a detailed reaction chemistry of the reactants on the catalyst surface in exhaust gases. In this paper we discuss experimental and numerical studies for the development of a numerical simulation model for the urea-SCR catalyst converter. As a first step, in order to clarify the behavior of reductants in an urea-SCR converter, two types of diagnostic technique were developed; one is for measuring the amount of NH3, and the other is for measuring the amount of total reductants including unreacted urea and iso-cyanic acid. These techniques were applied to examine the behavior of reductants at the inlet and inside the SCR converter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0972
Jiri Figura, Dejan Kihas, Jaroslav Pekar, Michael Uchanski, Nassim Khaled, Sriram Srinivasan
Abstract The amount of ammonia stored on the walls of the catalyst (or ammonia storage) is a parameter with significant impact on NOx reduction efficiency and undesired ammonia slip of Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts. This makes the ammonia storage interesting for utilization in urea injection control. However, ammonia storage is not directly measurable onboard vehicles, it can only be estimated. Model-based online estimation requires models that are capable of capturing the main phenomena of the SCR and at the same time can be computed onboard vehicle. While the modeling of SCR and model-based control is well present in the literature, it is apparent that few attempts of implementing the models on production ECUs were published. This paper reviews literature on ammonia storage, outlet NH3 and NOx concentration estimation in SCR and SCR/DPF systems-including the estimation of NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3-in order to present the state of the art.
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