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2016-04-12
Event
Papers on the following exhaust emissions control topics will be considered: System integration and durability, advances in catalyst substrates, advances in particulate filter substrates, advances in NOx reduction technology, and on-board measurement and control.
2016-04-12
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-12
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2015-10-19 ...
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • March 14-15, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • August 15-16, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-10-14
Event
2015-09-30 ...
  • September 30-October 1, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • April 14-15, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2806
Sam Barros, William Atkinson, Naag Piduru
Introducing water in a diesel engine has been known to decrease peak combustion temperatures and decrease NOx emissions. This however has been limited to stationary and marine applications due to the requirement of a separate water tank and thereby a two-tank system. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produce between 1.35 and 2.55 times their mass in water. Techniques for extracting this water from the exhaust flow of an engine have been pursued by the United States department of defense (DOD) for quite some time, as they can potentially reduce the burden of having to supply front line troops with drinking water. Such a technology could also be of value to engine manufacturers as it could enable water injection for performance, efficiency and emissions benefits without the drawbacks of a two-tank system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2795
Jayesh Mutyal, Sourabh Shrivastava, Rana Faltsi, Markus Braun
Stringent diesel emissions standards forcing a constant reduction in discharges of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Current state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions are falling short of achieving these limits. Engine manufacturers are looking at different ways to meet the emission norms. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is emerging as preferred technology for meeting stringent NOx emission standards across the world. SCR system designers face several technical challenges, such as avoiding ammonia slip, urea crystallization, low temperature deposits and other potential pitfalls. Simulation can help to develop a deep understanding of these technical challenges and issues, identify root causes and help develop better designs to overcome them. This paper describes the modeling approach for Urea-Water-Solution spray and its interaction with canister walls and exhaust gases.
2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • May 12-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2399
Christina Nikita, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor
The aim of this paper is to extend the evaluation of the accuracy of published 1-D pressure loss coefficients which are used in 1-D gas dynamics models, in unsteady compressible flows propagating in the exhaust pulses in manifolds. These pressure loss coefficients were derived from the conservation of linear momentum over finite control volumes based on assumptions including steady flow. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the accuracy of the pressure loss coefficients over the type of flows generated by engine-like pressure pulses propagating in a range of three-pipe junctions. The evaluation was performed by reference to results from unsteady, compressible, 3-D Reynolds-averaged computational fluid dynamic (CFD - open source software OpenFOAM) simulations. Two of the junction branches represented the exhaust pipes from two cylinders and the remaining was the outlet pipe. All pipes had a diameter of 25mm with length ratio 1:2 between inlet and outlet.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2514
Marco Piumetti, Samir Bensaid, Nunzio Russo
A set of ceria-zirconia nanocatalysts with different Zr-contents and structural properties was prepared to study the effect of both the Zr-amount and surface-dependent activity towards soot combustion in “loose” and “tight” soot-catalyst contact. The properties of the catalysts were examined using several physico-chemical techniques. The best soot oxidation activities were achieved for the Ce0.9Zr0.1O2-NP catalyst (NP means nano-polyhedra and 0.9 indicates the atomic ratio of Ce/Ce+Zr), due to its easier reducibility, compared to high-surface area catalysts with the same Ce/Zr ratio. Moreover, better performances were reached for Ce0.9Zr0.1O2-NP, than similar nano-polyhedra with higher Zr-amounts (denoted as CexZr1-xO2-NP, where x = 0.8 or 0.7). On the other hand, worse activities were obtained for both mesoporous and microporous catalysts with the same Ce/Zr ratio.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2504
Gerben Doornbos, Emma Adams, Per-Anders Carlsson, Daniel Dahl, Mats Laurell, Håkan Schyllander, Par Gabrielsson, Milica Folic, Ingemar Denbratt, Magnus Skoglundh
Commercial three way catalysts have limited capacity towards reducing NOx in the presence of excessive oxygen. This prevents lean-burn combustion concepts from meeting legislative emission standards. A solution towards decreasing NOx emissions in the presence of excess air is the use of a passive-SCR system. Under rich conditions ammonia is formed over an ammonia formation catalyst, the ammonia is stored in the SCR and in its turn reacts with the NOx under lean engine conditions. Here up-scaled Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts as well as a commercially Pd-Rh based three-way catalyst (TWC) are evaluated using both engine and further lab-scale tests. The purpose of these tests is to compare the ammonia production for the various catalysts under various lambda values and temperatures by means of engine and lab scale tests. The Pd/Al2O3 showed little sensitivity to temperature both under engine and lab scale experiments.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2500
Nic van Vuuren, Gabriele Brizi, Giacomo Buitoni, Lucio Postrioti, Carmine Ungaro
One of the favored automotive exhaust aftertreatment solutions used for nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reductions is referred to as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which comprises a catalyst that facilitates the reactions of ammonia (NH3) with the exhaust nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is customary with these systems to generate the NH3 by injecting a liquid aqueous urea solution (AUS-32) into the exhaust. The urea solution is injected into the exhaust and transformed to NH3 by various mechanisms for the SCR reactions. Understanding the spray performance of the AUS-32 injector is critical to proper optimization of the SCR injection system. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray under hot exhaust conditions at the injector spray exit for an exhaust injection application.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2503
Philippe Moreau, Patricia Valero, Valerie Tschamber, Alain Brillard, Jean-Francois Brilhac, Yves Hohl, Regis Vonarb
Abstract The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible vanadium emissions from different commercially available vanadium-based SCR monoliths. The vanadium sublimation was studied at laboratory scale using a monolith sample (16 mm diameter × 19 mm long). Vanadia vapors were disposed on an alumina bed placed downstream the catalyst sample, in the hot zone of a furnace. Experiments were carried out with a space velocity of 42 000 h−1. The reactive gas flow was composed of 5%O2, 5%H2O, 500ppm NO and 500ppm NH3. Catalyst samples and alumina bed were exposed to this reactive gas flow during 10 hours at 500°C, 600°C, 650°C, 675°C, 700°C and 750°C, successively. After each test, alumina samples were mineralized from HNO3, HF and HCl mixture. The digests were then diluted with high purity water prior, to ICP-MS analysis. The results revealed that, for full body type catalysts, sublimation of vanadium increases in a significant way from an exposure to the reactive gas flow at 675°C.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2516
Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Daniel Schreiber
Particulate matter in diesel exhaust is captured in diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Since increased load in the filter and thus increased pressure drop deteriorates the engine performance, the filter load of the DPF has to be removed during a process referred to as regeneration. Measures for successful regeneration aim at accelerating soot oxidation and increase fuel consumption. Regeneration lay-out and thus fuel consumption increase is strongly depending on the oxidation behavior of soot. The aim of the present study is the investigation of soot oxidation characteristics. Therefore particle filters have been loaded with soot using the exhaust gas of small heavy duty vehicle operated under defined conditions on an engine dynamometer. The particle filters have been then dismantled and fragmented on their constituting segments. Each filter segment has been regenerated individually in a specifically designed test bench.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2548
Florian Tschopp, Tobias Nüesch, Mu Wang, Christopher Onder
Abstract This paper deals with the problem of obtaining the optimal energy and emission management strategy for a diesel hybrid electric vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be equipped with a selective catalytic reduction device for the removal of harmful NOx emissions. The authors present a model-based procedure: The energy flows of the hybrid vehicle are modelled in a standard way, while the engine-out emissions are calculated based on a temperature-corrected engine map. For the simulation of the SCR system a combination of two existing first-principle physical models is used. The optimal energy and emission strategy for a given driving cycle is then obtained using dynamic programming. In terms of results, three case studies are presented. One case study illustrates the trade-off between fuel consumption and tailpipe NOx emissions for various relative weights of these objectives.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2502
Yujun Liao, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Alexander Spiteri, Lorenzo Nocivelli, Gianluca Montenegro, Konstantinos Boulouchos
The injection process of urea-water solution (AdBlue) determines initial conditions for reactions and catalysis and is fundamentally responsible for optimal operation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The spray characteristics of four, commercially available, injectors (one air-assisted and three pressure-driven with different nozzle-hole configurations) are investigated with non-intrusive measuring techniques. Injection occurred in the crossflow of a channel blowing preheated air in an exhaust duct similar configuration. The effect of several gas temperatures and flows on the spray propagation and entrainment has been extensively studied by shadow imaging. Shadow images, in addition, show that the spray of the pressure-driven injectors is only marginally affected by the gas crossflow. In contrast, the air assisted spray is strongly deflected by the gas, the effect increasing with increasing gas flow.
2015-06-25
Event
In this workshop, a design process for mufflers is offered. Steps that may be taken during the 1) clarification of task, 2) conceptual design, 3) detailed design, and 4) prototyping phases are outlined, and the process is demonstrated at each step for a cross-flow type muffler. Basics and tips for both plane wave analysis and numerical simulation are discussed. Measurement of transmission loss using the two-load method will be described and demonstrated using a transmission loss test bench.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2318
Wang Wenzhu, Liu Gang, Cheng Mianhong, Wei Jun
Abstract The hanger location layout is crucial, because it is related to the rubber hanger life, the natural frequency of the exhaust system and the force transferred to the body from the exhaust system. In order to solve the hanger layout problem of a new developed automotive exhaust system, the finite element method (FEM) of the automotive exhaust system including the powertrain was established. The correctness of the FEM model was verified by means of experimental modal analysis. Using average driving DOF displacement (ADDOFD) method, the hanger Location was arranged. The static and vibration analysis of the exhaust system was carried out to verify the hanger location layout. The weight analysis results indicate that the maximum displacement of the rubber hanger satisfies the design requirements. The static analysis results under 4g acceleration indicate the maximum stress meets the strength requirements of the material.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2308
Yitian Zhang, David W. Herrin
Abstract The two-load method is commonly applied to determine the transmission loss for a muffler especially if an impedance tube rig is used. Although one procedure and algorithm is detailed in ASTM E2611, the quality of the transmission loss curve is dependent on several factors that are not discussed in detail in the standard. In this paper, several practical concerns are investigated including (1) the number of channels used in the measurement, (2) the selection of the reference channel, and (3) the choice of data processing algorithm (transfer or scattering matrix). Results are compared for a simple expansion chamber first, then for mufflers of other types. Recommendations are made for obtaining smoother transmission loss curves for various measurement methods.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2309
David Neihguk, M.L. Munjal, Abhinav Prasad
Abstract The bias flow in Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR) is a flow-induced phenomenon in which the pressure gradient along the radial direction is produced by the kinetic energy of the flow. As a result, the flow dynamics in CTR is characterized by bias flow into the annular cavity in the upstream and outflow from the annular cavity in the downstream of the flow. This is due to the change in direction of the radial component of the bias flow at a point called the point of recovery, as a consequence of mass conservation. The pressure drop of CTR is a complex function of the momentum flux and other geometric parameters such as porosity, open area ratio, discharge coefficient of the perforated holes, bias inflow, bias outflow, grazing flow and length. In this study, numerical experiments are conducted to obtain an empirical formula for the friction factor of perforated pipes which are extensively used in automotive mufflers.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2310
Edward Ray Green
Abstract The Sound Transmission Loss of automotive intake and exhaust components is commonly measured using the four microphone tube method per ASTM E2611 [1]. Often area adapters are used to match the component diameter to that of the tube apparatus. These area adapters affect the Sound Transmission Loss measurement, especially at very low frequencies. The use of the Transfer Matrix Technique to remove the effect of the area adapters is described. The improvements for step and cone area adapters are compared.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2311
Aditya Palsule, Arun Budama, Nandakumar Somasundaraeswer
Abstract Development of split Catalytic Converter (Cat-Con)-Muffler system was done to be used in front engine low floor (FELF) Bus from perspective of cost saving, modularity and reduction in complexity. This system is developed as an alternate to an existing solution of integrated Cat-Con and muffler. The paper describes the development of a split Cat-Con and muffler exhaust system for a FELF Bus, so as to meet cost and time considerations. The development also had to achieve a feasible solution, which could be installed within the packaging volume of the existing configuration of FELF while meeting the regulatory requirements [1] for Pass by noise (PBN), and at the same time conforming to backpressure limits set for optimum engine performance. Multiple design - prototypes - test iterations were carried out to meet the PBN and back pressure target for FELF Bus. The final solution was developed which achieved both the requirements within the specified space constraints.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2211
Michael J. Santora, Dillon Savage
In the present study by the University of Idaho Clean Snowmobile Challenge (UICSC) team, the necessity, history, and research of noise reduction strategies in two-stroke snowmobile exhaust is presented. Testing and design is discussed to show the decision making process of College Design Series (CDS) teams. The UICSC CDS team is comprised of mechanical, electrical, and computer engineers. The development from static to dynamic noise cancellation is explained as a proof of concept and to further demonstrate CDS design. The study presents math models that validate the noise reduction technique. The noise reduction includes a mechanically active quarter-wave resonator (MAQR). Viability is given for the design and is presented with supporting implementation data. Control for the resonator platform is discussed. It is proven that mechanically active noise cancellation is an effective, lightweight, and simple solution to noise cancellation.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2233
Hudson P Vijayakumar, V Shivaraj, T Sukumar, Suresh Gaikwad
Abstract Generally the brake system products are mounted on chassis with brackets which are subjected to dynamic loads due to road undulations. Exhaust brake is used to restrict the engine exhaust flow passage and thereby creates a back pressure in the engine for reducing the engine speed. This in turn reduces the vehicle speed. This is widely used in the vehicles operating in the hilly areas. This product is mounted on the exhaust passage and the air cylinder sub-assembly which actuates the exhaust brake is mounted on a bracket. Automotive industries perform durability tests on vehicles to reduce the failure on end-user environment. An assembly which has cleared the durability test got failed on addition of a spring into the assembly. The inclusion of spring is for enhancing the performance of the overall assembly.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2266
Andrzej Pietrzyk
Abstract Several of the exterior noise sources existing around a vehicle can cause airborne noise issues at relatively low frequencies. SEA, traditionally used for airborne sound issues is not suitable for the frequency range of interest. Finite Element analysis has been used. Handling of the non-reflecting condition on the outer boundary of the exterior cavity is an issue. Recently, advances have been made in several commercially available codes, which made the analysis practical. Including the poro-elastic material model for foam-based carpets is also becoming practically possible. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the practical applications of those new developments against test data, and to estimate the feasibility of using these procedures in the vehicle development projects. Measurements were carried out in a new semi-anechoic chamber at Volvo Cars.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2306
John G. Cherng, Weiwei Wu, Peiran Ding, Mike Hebbes, Henry Zhang
Abstract This study presents an efficient process to optimize the transmission loss of a vehicle muffler by using both experimental and analytical methods. Two production mufflers were selected for this study. Both mufflers have complex partitions and one of them was filled with absorbent fiberglass. CAD files of the mufflers were established for developing FEA models in ANSYS and another commercial software program (CFEA). FEA models were validated by experimental measurements using a two-source method. After the models were verified, sensitivity studies of design parameters were performed to optimize the transmission loss (TL) of both mufflers. The sensitivity study includes the perforated hole variations, partition variations and absorbent material insertion. The experimental and sensitivity analysis results are included in the paper.
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