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2016-10-24
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2016-10-24
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-05-12 ...
  • May 12-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2016-04-14 ...
  • April 14-15, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
2016-04-13
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-13
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2016-04-13
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0933
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois, Ru-Fen Liu, Pardha Maram
In the context of evolving market conditions, the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles but a period of rapidly evolving engine development, constrained tailpipe regulations and material supply issues present a unique challenge to catalyst developers. In this regard, CDTi is mainly focused on design and development of copper-free spinel oxide based Zero-precious metal (ZPGM) and spinel synergized precious metal (SPGM) with ultra-low presence of PGM to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvements. The copper-free transition metal based spinel ZPGM catalysts shows improved thermal stability and redox reversibility compared to the copper based ZPGM materials. Fundamental studies of microstructure of spinel by high resolution TEM confirmed the aging stability of new developed spinel composition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0921
Ashok Kumar, Kristopher Ingram, Deepesh Goyal, Krishna Kamasamudram
Vanadia based Selective Catalytic Reduction (V-SCR) catalysts are widely used to meet NOx emissions over off-road diesel engines in North America and both on-road and off-road diesel engines in Europe and rest of the markets. Even though Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts offer higher NOx conversion as compared to V-SCR at lower temperatures, sulfur poisoning of Cu-zeolite leads to a significant decrease in NOx conversion and desulfation (deSOx) temperatures in excess of 500C are needed to restore its performance. Wide-spread application of V-SCR is found in off-road applications due to their resistance to poisoning by sulfur that eliminates the need for periodic thermal management (TM) for deSOx. Several applications with V-SCR catalysts operate below 300C in conditions that are conducive to carbonaceous deposits formation due to the presence of unburned HCs in the exhaust gas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0925
Douglas Ball, David Moser, Lucy Yang, Jason Warkins, Tinghong Tao, Angus Craig, Krishna Aravelli
A production calibrated GTDI 1.6L Ford Fusion was used to demonstrate low HC, CO, NOx, PM (particulate mass), and PN (particulate number) emissions, using advanced catalyst technologies with newly developed high porosity substrates and coated gasoline particulate filters. The exhaust system consisted of 1.2 liters of TWC catalyst in the close-coupled position, and 1.6L coated GPF in the underfloor position. The catalysts were dyno aged to simulate 120K miles of road aging. Results indicate that ULEV70 emissions can be achieved at $30 of PGM, while also demonstrating PM tailpipe performance far below the proposed CARB LEV III limit of 1 mg/mi. Along with PM and PN analysis, exhaust system back pressure is also presented with the various GPF designs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0553
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukiko Obara, Yukie Ishizawa, Emi Sato, Mai Sase, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Jun Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Akihama
Restraint of the soot emission is an important issue in the development of the automotive engine and computational methods have been demonstrated to be effective for this purpose in addition to experimental methods .  
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1087
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
To achieve more stringent exhaust emission regulations will face more and more daunting challenges nowadays. It needs more new technologies to improve the IC engine performance but needing higher costs in order to meet Euro 6 and EPA standards in USA. Recently the opposed-piston engine (OPE) has been treated as the promising product to meet these new regulations but relatively lower costing. Although two-stroke OPE owning inherent thermal efficiency and power density advantages, the inefficient scavenge efficiency appears to become the main obstacle to enhance combustion efficiency whilst reducing exhaust gas emission. For the improvement of scavenge efficiency the transient gas exchange simulation was carried out for multiple Cases here, including two intake port configurations at various back pressures in exhaust system and two port timings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0929
Devin Aryan, Kenneth Price, Thomas Pauly
There is growing interest in application of SCR on DPF (SDPF) for light and heavy duty applications, particularly to provide improvements in cold start emissions, as well as improvements in system cost and packaging. The first of systems containing SDPF are just coming to market, with additional introductions expected, particularly for light duty applications. To provide real world testing for the new SDPF technology prior to the availability of production vehicles configured for SDPF, an SDPF and one SCR catalyst were substituted in place of the original two SCR catalysts and a CDPF on a Ford F250 HD pickup. A reference aged set of components was first run on chassis dynamometer cycles in configuration DOC+SDPF+SCR and DOC+SCR+SDPF, as well as DOC+SDPF. The DOC+SCR+SDPF was chosen for the road aging as the best match to the original system NOx performance and control compatibility.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe for non-road engines will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions of those engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO₂ implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0928
Sujay Bagi, Nishant Singh, Rob Andrew
Ash accumulation in the DPF over life results in higher back-pressure reduced soot storage capacity, lower catalytic activity and may even alter substrate properties; hence ash-cleaning of the DPF is required periodically to extend the life of the DPF and restore its catalytic performance. Several ash cleaning technologies are available which utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and wet-chemical cleaning techniques or their combinations. A batch of DPFs with various ash accumulation levels were recovered from customer field units. X-ray CT imaging was performed to understand the ash distribution in the DPF channels. Field returned DPFs were tested on Engine Dynamometer to determine the impact on overall system performance loss from fresh state. The DPFs were then cleaned using various cleaning techniques; X-ray imaging and dynamometer testing was repeated to evaluate the performance recovery.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1089
Jagrit Shrivas, Girish Khairnar, Sachin Pande, Yaser Hussaini, Amit Chaudhari
Abstract: In Internal Combustion (I.C.) engines, seat inserts and valves are the major components responsible for performance, emissions and reliability. Failure of these components can cause performance deterioration. In case of compressed natural gas (CNG) engines, impact on life of seat inserts and valves are adversely affected due to its dry combustion environment and high operating temperatures. Greaves cotton has developed a single cylinder, water cooled, dedicated CNG engine with port injection from the base diesel engine. Major challenges were encountered during the CNG engine development with respect to seat inserts and valves wear. The design was modified considering the different failure modes as below: 1. Seat insert material compatibility 2. Seat angle 3. Seat width 4. Valve head stiffness 5. Alignment of seat inserts and valves 6. Valves closing velocities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0670
José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Roberto Navarro, Javier Gómez, Marc Michel, Bénédicte Thomas
Upcoming type approval regulations will force to optimize aftertreatment system to reduce emissions looking for lack of fuel penalty. Despite advances in purely aftertreatment aspects, the performance of the diverse aftertreatment devices is very dependent on the operating temperature. This makes them rely on the engine design and calibration because of the imposed turbine outlet temperature. The need to reach target conversion efficiency and to complete regeneration processes requires controlling additional parameters during the engine setup. For that reason, exploring the potential of different solutions to increase inlet aftertreatment temperature is becoming a critical topic. Nevertheless, such studies cannot be tackled without considering concerns on the engine fuel consumption. In this paper, the influence of several design parameters is studied by modelling approach under steady state operating conditions in a Diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0963
Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev, Giorgio Amati PhD, Elio jannelli, Giacomo Falcucci
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is among the most efficient processes to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in engine exhaust. Research efforts are currently devoted to realizing and tuning SCR-reactors for automotive applications to meet the severe future emission standards, such as the European ``Euro VI'', in terms of NOx and particulate matter produced by vehicles. In this paper, we present the results of A detailed 2D computational model based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the performance of a SCR reactor. LBM has been employed for the study of complex phenomena of technical interest, and it is characterized by a detailed reproduction of both the porous structure of SCR reactor and the fluid-dynamic and chemical phenomena that take place in it. The aim of our model is to predict the behavior and performances of SCR reactor by accounting for the physical and chemical interactions between exhaust gas flow and the reactor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0947
Junhui Li, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess, Shadab Mulla
Typical Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalyst composition includes precious metal components (Pt, Pd, and/or Rh), responsible for NO oxidation during lean operation and NOx reduction during rich operation. It was found that oxidation state of Rh plays a key role in catalyzing NO reduction to N2 under net reducing conditions. This sensitivity of catalytic activity results in changes in efficiency of the LNT catalyst. Kinetic analysis of the NO reduction was performed in an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanistic relationship, where it was found that NO reduction over reduced Rh can be well described by an Arrhenius equation with first-order dependence on NO concentration. The activation energy of the NO reduction process over reduced Rh was found to be ~18014kJ/mol, and independent of the reductant used or the degree of hydrothermal aging. These findings are consistent with NO dissociation being the rate-limiting step in the NO reduction process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0945
Guanyu Zheng
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) based on urea water solution (UWS) has become a promising technology to reduce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emission. However, urea might undergo incomplete evaporations resulting in formation of solid deposit on the inner surfaces of system including walls, mixers, limiting the production of NH3 and conversion of NOx that would decrease the performance of SCR system. Numerous design parameters of SCR system affect the formation of urea deposits, such as type of injector, injector mounting angle, geometrical configurations of mixer. The road experiment results indicate that very little deposits were formed at the mixer locations. According to the analysis, the reason might be that mixer put an influential effect on the UWS distribution uniformity and the residence time, thus causing the deposit formation on the wall surface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0989
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Alice Yau, John Gomez, Cary Henry
Ideally, complete thermal decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea thermal decomposition reaction is a two-step process that includes the formation of ammonia and isocyanic acid as intermediate products. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions can create oligomers such as melam, melem, and melon that are difficult to remove from exhaust pipes. Deposits can affect efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0575
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Shyam Jade
Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust manifold is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate the turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3630

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