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2015-06-26 ...
  • June 26, 2015 (12:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Grand Rapids, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Most muffler design in the automotive industry is accomplished by using "cut-and-try" methods that rely on what has worked in the past and/or extensive full-scale testing on engines for validation. New computer software aimed at muffler design can shorten the design cycle and yield more effective results. This four hour seminar provides an introduction to the behavior of mufflers and silencers including a description of the two-port approach to muffler design. This seminar covers the acoustic simulation of muffler and silencer systems and the use of experimental methods to measure muffler performance.
2015-06-22
Event
This session covers experimental, computational, and analytical efforts related to the basic mechanisms and control techniques of noise and vibration in the breathing system (induction, combustion chamber, and exhaust) of naturally aspirated and supercharged/turbocharged engines. Noise sources include airborne, flow, flow‐acoustic and flow‐structure coupling.
2015-05-14 ...
  • May 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19-20, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2015-04-23
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.
2015-04-21
Event
This session covers the complete particulate filter system. There are papers covering the DOC aging as well as the effect of high sulfur fuel on the DOC. A couple of paper study the effect of ash accumulation and two papers cover a novel new asymmetric cell design and modeling of this new design. Finally we have a paper on gasoline particulate filters.
2015-04-20 ...
  • April 20-21, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • September 30-October 1, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1742
Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Tanmay Santra
India is considered to have one of the maximum two wheeler density in the world. Hence, all the scooter and bike manufacturers are striving to keep their market share by quickly bringing quality products with high mileage at a cheap price tag. With emission norms becoming stringent day by day, they should take care of every detail in the engine driving their vehicles. So today's engineer must be efficient and they must be able to refine and improve the technologies they use, faster and with greater accuracy than ever before. Focus of this paper is on reducing a two wheeler Cylinder Bore deformation through CAE simulation, which, in extreme conditions was observed to cause engine seizure. Bore deformation is of great significance to the overall performance of an engine in terms of oil consumption, blowby, emissions and influences piston dynamics to a great extent. They are however, difficult to measure and the deformation, being in micron level, are often prone to misinterpretation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1738
Dileep Namdeorao Malkhede, Hemant Khalane
Due to reciprocating nature of IC engine, flow physics in intake manifold is complex and has significant effect on volumetric efficiency. Variable length intake manifold technology offers potential for improving engine performance. This paper therefore investigated effect of intake length on volumetric efficiency for wider range of engine speeds. For this purpose 1-D thermodynamic engine model of a single cylinder 611cc standard CFR engine capable of predicting pressure pulsations in the intake was developed. For validation, pressure pulsations were predicted at two different locations on intake manifold and compared against test data. This model was used to predict volumetric efficiency for different intake lengths and engine speeds. Volumetric efficiency was found to be a function of both engine speed and intake length, more so at higher engine speeds. FFT analysis of intake pressure pulsations during suction stroke and intake valve closed phase was carried out separately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a Ford 2011 3.5L TiGTDI engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm for a total of 12 engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 degC and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1030
Ashok Kumar, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
The high global warming potential of nitrous oxide (N2O) led to its inclusion in the list of regulated pollutants under the emerging greenhouse gas regulations. The mitigation of N2O on aftertreatment catalysts is not effective as its formation and decomposition temperatures do not overlap. Therefore it was imperative to understand the sources of N2O formation so that its emission can be minimized. In a typical SCR aftertreatment system, a main contributor to tailpipe N2O is the undesired of reaction between NOx and NH3 over SCR catalyst and NH3 slip in to ASC part of which will be oxidized to N2O. Apart from exhaust gas conditions such as NOx and NH3 concentrations, NO2/NOx ratio, temperature, the selectivity to N2O is impacted by the nature of the redox sites. For example, Cu-zeolites based SCR catalysts are inherently more selective to N2O and also can slip more NH3 as compared to Fe-zeolite and Vanadia based SCR catalysts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0984
Yang Zheng, Mengmeng Li, Michael Harold, Dan Luss
Current NOx emission reduction systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and NOx storage and reduction (NSR), function well once achieving their operation temperature (typically ca. 250 oC) but have unsatisfactory NOx conversion at low exhaust temperature encountered during cold start and low load operation. The reduced exhaust temperature afforded by the higher fuel efficiency of advanced diesel engines further challenges the low-T NOx reduction. We report here a new concept with high low-T deNOx efficiency of up to 80% at a feed temperature of ca. 200 oC at relevant space velocities (70k h-1), using high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual-layer LNT-SCR monolithic catalyst under lean conditions. This system has the potential to expand the operating temperature window of the conventional deNOx devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1056
Sumit Basu, Neal Currier
A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [3]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1024
Hisao Haga, Hiroyuki Kojima, Naoko Fukushi, Naoki Ohya, Takuya Mito
This research focused on a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system as an after-treatment system to convert NOx. The SCR catalyst absorbs NH3. In a transient state, temperature distribution occurs in the SCR catalyst. This NH3 storage value depends on temperature. Therefore, the NH3 storage value in the SCR catalyst is also in each area. The SCR performance was improved by using estimated temperatures instead of a sensor for of NH3 storage value and the tail pipe NOx could be reduced. For further decreasing CO2, SCR catalyst is coated on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). this control method applies to the close-coupled SCR. This research proposes the control method of the urea-SCR system based on the output of an ammonia (NH3) sensor for these layouts of the SCR catalyst. A feature of the SCR catalyst is NH3 adsorption, and by maximizing this NH3 storage rate, conversion performance is also maximized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1032
Z. Gerald Liu, Nathan Ottinger
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1060
Yangdongfang Yang, Gyubaek Cho, Christopher Rutland
An SCR Filter simultaneously reduces NOx and Particle Matter (PM) in the exhaust. It is considered an effective way to meet the emission regulations. By combining the function of a Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) and an Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), an SCR Filter reduces the complexity and cost of aftertreatment systems in diesel vehicles. Moreover, it provides a highly effective reaction surface and the potential for lower backpressure. However, unlike a traditional flow through type SCR, the deNOx reactions in the SCR Filter are affected by particulate deposition and the DPF regeneration process. The relation between clean and loaded SCR reaction rates is captured by introducing a Thiele modulus and effectiveness factor into the model. Soot oxidation is also affected by the deNOx process. A 1-D kinetic model for integrated DPF and NH3-SCR system over Cu-zeolite catalysts has been developed and validated with experimental data in previous work [1].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1049
Christopher Depcik
The growing presence of Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engines along with the prevalence of direct injected Compression Ignition (CI) engines results in the requirement of Particulate Matter (PM) exhaust abatement. This occurs through the implementation of Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). Modeling of GPFs and DPFs are analogous because of the similar flow patterns and wall flow PM capture methodology. Conventional modeling techniques include a two-channel (inlet/outlet) formulation that is applicable up to three-dimensions. However, the numerical stiffness that results from the need to couple the solution of these channels in compressible flow can result in relatively long run times. Previously, the author presented a lumped DPF model using dynamically incompressible flow intended for an Engine Control Unit (ECU) in order to generate a model that runs faster than real time using a high-level programming language.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1027
David Culbertson, Magdi Khair, Sanhong Zhang, Julian Tan, Jacob Spooler
SCR Cold Start Effects are increasingly important for meeting today’s emission requirements [1]. A significant challenge toward quickly achieving NOX abatement is the presence of moisture in the catalyst at lower temperatures [1]. An electric heater is able to effectively raise the temperature of the exhaust and overcome the effect of moisture, allowing NOX conversion to begin sooner. A model of the moisture storage and removal is presented, along with test results from both flow stand and engine tests. Results show that it is possible to achieve NOX conversion temperatures quickly with robust heater technology that is suited for diesel applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0557
Katherine Avery, Jwo Pan, Carlos Engler-Pinto
High silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) nodular cast iron is a common material for high temperature engine components, such as exhaust manifolds, due to its good tensile strength and good resistance to creep and thermal fatigue. Automotive exhaust manifolds may see maximum temperatures of around 800°C, as well as severe thermal cycles during vehicle operation. In order to understand the performance of HiSiMo cast iron in the exhaust manifold application, it is necessary to characterize the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life and failure behavior at temperatures representative of those experienced during vehicle operation. In this paper, the effect of the minimum temperature and maximum temperature on the TMF life of a HiSiMo cast iron is investigated. Tensile data at different temperatures are also presented. The data show that decreasing the minimum temperature (or increasing the temperature range) has a detrimental effect on the TMF life for this material.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1743
TANMAY SANTRA, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel gasket (MLS), strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, block, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1008
Vitaly Prikhodko, Josh Pihl, Todd Toops, John Thomas, James Parks, Brian West
Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1026
Padmanabha Reddy Ettireddy, AdamJ Kotrba, Thirupathi Boningari, Panagiotis Smirniotis
The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst as an active, durable and selective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start conditions. A series of various metal oxide- incorporated zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques, the resulting catalysts were characterized and tested in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz reactor using ammonia as the reductant. Once the catalysts with the best performance were identified, experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type. Initial catalyst formulations have been achieved optimum NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 ºC – 350 ºC (at a GHSV of 80,000 h-1).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1735
Robert Wade, Jerry C. Hsieh
Exhaust manifold design is one of the more challenging engine components due to the harsh thermal and sever vibration environment. Extremely high exhaust gas temperatures and dynamic loading combine to subject the manifold to high cyclic stress with downgraded material fatigue strength. A long service life before a fatigue failure is the objective in exhaust manifold design. Accumulation of fatigue damage can occur from dynamic loading or thermal loading. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is a primary mechanism for accumulating fatigue damage. TMF typically occurs when a vehicle driving cycles has operating conditions that repeatedly change the exhaust gas temperature between hot and cold. Another way to experience temperature cycling is through splash quenching. Splash quenching has been analyzed and found to rapidly accumulate fatigue damage. An experimental and analytical method is presented to quantify splash quenching and the impact on exhaust manifold durability.
2015-03-23 ...
  • March 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0051
Bradley Glenn Orr, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh, Petros Lappas
The internal combustion engine, used in a majority of automobiles, does not convert all of the energy in the fuel into mechanical work. Most of the energy is converted into heat which is in the exhaust gases. All this heat is wasted when the exhaust gases are expelled to the atmosphere. An exhaust heat recovery system will extract some of this heat and convert it into electricity. This electricity will be used to charge a car battery therefore reducing the load on the car alternator and consequently saving fuel. Any fuel saving results in the reduction of CO2 emissions. This project will make use of two particular technologies, heatpipes and thermoelectric generators (TEGs). Heatpipes are a passive heat transfer devices which can have thermal conductivity values which are orders of magnitude higher than copper. TEGs are heat engines with no moving parts. When there is a temperature difference over the two sides of the TEG, a voltage is created and consequently power can be generated.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0057
Jooyoung Park, Daehyun Choi, Yeonsik Kang, Seangwock Lee, Yongseok Cho, Taemin Kim
Regulations on emissions of diesel engines are being enhanced with the increase of worldwide concern on harmful effects of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on health. To satisfy these emission regulations, various after-treatment systems such as Lean NOx Traps (LNT) and Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) technology have been developed. Among them, Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) is known as one of the most effective methods to satisfy emission standards. SCR system injects urea-water solution on the exhaust gas flow, generating ammonia (NH3), through the decomposition reaction of urea-water solution, removing NOx through three types of chemical reaction of SCR catalyst. One type of reaction is standard SCR reaction, which occurs when there is more NO than NO2 in the exhaust gas. When the amount of NO is the same with NO2, the type of SCR reaction, called, 'fast reaction', becomes popular among the three reactions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan Venkatachalam, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
Abstract As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Vehicle manufacturers' develop new ways and technologies to meet the norms levied for cleaner vehicles. Especially in diesel engines, NOx emissions are considered an important pollutant to be treated. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for diesel engines. In order to meet such stringent emission norms without compromising on engine performance, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the solution to achieve EURO 6 NOx emission levels from diesel engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through ammonia which is injected into exhaust stream in the form of Aqueous Urea solution known as DEF.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0214
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Kavin Raja, Sundaravadivelu Mohan, Balaji Manivannan
Abstract Automotive exhaust system components are exposed to many types of vibrations, from simple sinusoidal to maximum random excitations. Computer-Aided engineering (CAE) plays an inevitable role in design and validation of hot vibration shaker assembly. Key Life Test (KLT), an accelerated hot vibration durability test, is established to demonstrate the robustness of a catalytic converter. The conditions are chosen such a way that the parts which passes key life test will always pass in the field, whereas the parts which fail in the key life test need not necessarily fail in the field. The hot end system and the test assembly should survive in these aggressive targeted conditions. The test fixture should be much more robust than the components that it should not fail even if the components fail. This paper reveals the computational methodology adopted to address the design, development and validation of the test assembly.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0182
Swapnil D Vyas, Ashok Patidar, Suresh K Kandreegula, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract A Coupled CFD - FE Analysis, referred as Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) Analysis or Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), is very important for the processes that involves simultaneous energy exchange between solid and fluid domains. If we consider IC engines, Exhaust Manifold is one of the critical areas where above mentioned phenomenon takes place. In this paper, temperature distribution in solid parts of exhaust manifold is obtained through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis which uses Finite Volume Method (FVM) for solving Navier-stokes equation and energy equation. Whereas thermal stresses are predicted through FE analysis which is based on Finite Element Methods (FEM). It is obvious to validate CFD process before evaluating thermal stress. Therefore initially CFD results are compared with experimental results and found more than 88% correlation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0037
Kartik Kulkarni, Ayush Sood
The heat losses through exhaust gases and the engine coolant contribute significantly towards reduction in thermal efficiency of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine. This largely impacts the fuel economy and power output. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) has proven to be an effective method of overcoming these challenges. A Rankine cycle is a reverse refrigeration cycle that circulates a working fluid through the four basic components namely the pump, evaporator, turbine and condenser. It is a popular WHR approach in automotive applications with varying levels of success in the past. As the heat transfer capability in organic working fluids is greater than the conventionally used inorganic fluids, the former is used to capture maximum waste heat from low grade heat sources such as the automobile engine. A dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is proposed for a heavy duty IC Engine with working fluids R245fa and R236fa for the High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) loops respectively.
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