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2017-08-15 ...
  • August 15-16, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010.
2017-05-08 ...
  • May 8-9, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
2017-04-05
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-04
Event
This session describes the design, modeling and performance validation of cylinder heads, lubrication systems and pumps, coolant systems and pumps, intake manifolds, exhaust manifolds, and engine block structures.`
2017-04-03 ...
  • April 3-4, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0964
Jakob Heide, Mikael Karlsson, Mireia Altimira
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx through injection of Urea-Water-Solution (UWS) into the hot exhaust gas stream is an effective and extensively used strategy in internal combustion engines. Even though actual SCR systems have 95-96% de-NOx efficiency over test cycles, real driving emissions of NOx are much higher, hence proving that there is room for improvement. The efficiency of the NOx conversion is highly dependent on the size of UWS droplets and their spatial distribution. These factors are, in turn, mainly determined by the spray characteristics and its interaction with the exhaust gas flow. The main purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the sensitivity to the modelling framework of the evaporation and mixing of the spray upstream of the catalyst. The dynamics of discrete droplets is handled through the Lagrangian Particle Tracking framework, with models that account for droplet breakup and coalescence, turbulence effects, and water evaporation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0141
Ray Host, Peter Moilanen, Marcus Fried, Bhageerath Bogi
Future vehicle North American emissions standards (e.g., North American SULEV 30) require the exhaust catalyst to be >80% efficient by 20 seconds after the engine has been started in the Federal Test Procedure. Turbocharged engines are especially challenged to deliver fast catalyst lightoff since the presence of the turbocharger in the exhaust flow path significantly increases exhaust system heat losses. A solution to delivering cost effective SULEV30 emissions in turbocharged engines is to achieve fast catalyst light-off by reducing exhaust system heat losses in cold start, without increasing catalyst thermal degradation during high load operation. A CAE methodology to assess the thermal performance of exhaust system hardware options, from the exhaust port to the catalyst brick face is described, which assures compliance with future emissions regulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA’s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1085
Todd Brewer, Cagri Sever, Ruichen Jin, Michael Herr, Xingfu Chen, Reda Adimi
In a different SAE paper (Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance), cylinder head high cycle fatigue analysis approach and damage calculation method were developed and presented. In this paper, the high cycle fatigue damage calculation method is used for risk assessment related to customer drive cycle. Cylinder head high cycle fatigue damage is generated by repeated stress alternation in different engine operation conditions. The high cycle fatigue CAE process can be used as a transfer function to translate engine operating conditions to cylinder head life. There are many inputs to the cylinder head high cycle fatigue damage CAE transfer function such as cylinder pressure, component temperature, valve seat press fit, and cylinder head manufacturing method. Material properties and the variation in material properties are also important considerations in the CAE transfer function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1086
Cagri Sever, Todd Brewer, Scott Eeley, Xingfu Chen, Ruichen Jin, Emad Khalil, Michael Herr
For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is the thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes many different operating conditions while it is cold and during the warmed up condition. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Integrated exhaust manifold heads are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. For field risk assessment, the customer usage profiles are analyzed and corresponding duty cycles are built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0530
Ted Holmberg, Andreas Cronhjort, Ola Stenlaas
In the striving to build more efficient internal combustion engines more focus is placed on simulations as this would reduce costs and speed up the development process. The only cost effective way of simulating an entire engine today is with one dimensional simulation software. Flow losses in complex geometries such as valves and ports are described using flow coefficients. It is generally assumed that pressure ratio over the valve has a negligible influence on the flow coefficient. However during the exhaust valve opening the pressure difference between cylinder and port is large which questions the accuracy of this assumption. In this work the pressure ratio dependence of the exhaust valve flow coefficient has been investigated experimentally in a steady-flow test bench. Two cylinder heads from a Heavy-duty engine with different valve shapes and valve seat angles, 30 and 45 degree, were investigated. The pressure ratio over the exhaust port was varied from 1.1:1 to 5:1.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0931
Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Joseph Ulrey
While not commonly in production today, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are likely to see widespread deployment to meet stringent EU6.2 and China particulate number (PN) standards. In many ways the operating conditions for GPFs are orthogonal to those of their diesel counterparts, and this leads to different and interesting requirements for the control strategy. We will present some generic system architectures for exhaust systems containing a GPF and will lay out an architecture for the GPF control strategy components which include: regeneration assist feature, soot estimation algorithm, GPF protection. Lastly, we will show validation data of the control strategy under different operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1031
Xinyan Wang, Jun Ma, Hua Zhao
In this study, the effect of the intake plenum design on the scavenging process in a newly proposed 2-stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine was studied in detail by three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the BUSDIG engine, the intake scavenge ports are integrated into the cylinder liner and their opening and closure are controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head. Our previous studies have showed that the BUSDIG engine can achieve excellent scavenging performance with the optimized scavenge port design. In order to accommodate the optimized scavenge ports in the real engine application, the intake plenum with an inlet pipe and a scavenge chamber was designed and connected to the 12 evenly distributed scavenge ports in a single cylinder BUSDIG engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1354
Timothy Morse, Michael Cundy, Harri Kytomaa
One potential fire ignition source in a motor vehicle is the hot surfaces of the engine exhaust system. These hot surfaces can come into contact with combustible liquids (such as engine oil, transmission fluid, brake fluid, gasoline, or diesel fuel) due to a fluid leak, or during a vehicle collision. If the surface temperature is higher than the hot surface ignition temperature of the combustible liquid in a given geometry, a fire can ignite and potentially propagate. In addition to automotive fluids, another potential fuel in post-collision vehicle fires is grass, leaves, or other vegetation. Studies of hot surface ignition of dried vegetation have found that ignition depends on the type of vegetation, surface temperature, and on the duration of contact. Ignition can occur at surface temperatures as low as 300 °C, if the vegetation is in contact with the surface for 10 minutes or longer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation system (EGR) has been used for years for NOx emissions control in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every regulation while durability requirements are increasing, so EGR systems manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. Commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs, but same engine has multiple applications with totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with the consequent impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of and EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibrations, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1311
Suman Mishra, Nagesh Gummadi, Lloyd Bozzi, Neil Vaughn, Rob Higley
Air rush noise is exhaust gas driven flow induced noise in the frequency range of 500-6500 Hz. It is very essential to understand the flow physics of exhaust gases with in the mufflers in order to identify any counter measures that can attenuate this error state. This study is aimed at predicting the flow physics and hence of air rush noise of exhaust mufflers in the aforementioned frequency range at a typical exhaust flow rate and temperature. The study is performed on 2 different muffler designs which show a significant air rush noise level difference when tested on the vehicle. The transient computational study was performed using DES with 2nd order spatial discretization and 2nd order implicit scheme for temporal discretization in StarCCM+. To compare with test data, a special flow test stand is designed so that all high and low frequency contents emanating from the engine are attenuated before the flow enters the test part.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1083
Chawin Chantharasenawong
This study focuses on achieving a lower overall lap time at SAE Formula Student competition through a modification to the standard intake system. The lower lap time is achieved by widening the range of engine RPM which produces torque higher than 90% of the maximum value and lowering the engine RPM corresponding to the maximum torque. An intake system with ‘variable runner length’ is introduced to the 2015 racecar of KMUTT team. The values of intake lengths are determined from the wave equation with the goal of producing over 90% of the maximum torque of the baseline configuration over a range of engine RPM. Computer simulations are performed to determine the pressure at engine entry at various runner lengths. Finally, a prototype variable runner length intake system with linear motor actuators is constructed and installed on the racecar. Chassis dynamometer tests are performed to determine the engine torque for 3,000 – 10,500 RPM at all interested runner lengths.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1709
Zhigang Wei, Sarat Das, Ryan Barr, Greg Rohrs, Robert Rebandt, Xiao Wu, HongTae Kang
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1079
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sayak Mukherjee, Rahul Jain, Shivdayal Prasad, Kamal Rohilla
Flex Connectors are intended for mitigating the relative movement of exhaust system components along the axis of the system arising from the thermal expansion due to intermittent engine operation. Flex connectors must not be installed in locations, where they will be subjected to destructive vibration. Hence, the stiffness of the flex connector plays an important role, while designing/selecting the right design. It consists of a multi-ply bellows combined with an inside and an outside steel braid. The liner is included to reduce the temperature of the bellows and improve flow conditions. The braid is included for mechanical protection and to limit the possible extension of the joint. It has only axial translational motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1081
Chongzhi Zhong, Tieqiang Fu, Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Ke Wu, Wangwen Gu
To study on the influence of L/D, diameter of the adsorption tube, purge tube and air tube about carbon canister, based on the ORVR canister and ordinary canister whether with single or double cavity. The results demonstrate that the similar of L/D,efficient work ability and efficient adsorption rate of the carbon canister with partition is better than the one without partition; the diameter of adsorption tube is smaller or as similar as purge tube. For ORVR canister, it is larger than purge tube and similar as air tube, which makes more effective for canister gas adsorption from the fuel tank. The vehicle purge flow test results demonstrate that the maximum purge flow of double cavity canister is bigger than that of single cavity, while the total amount of purge flow is similar with each other. The change of the quality about double cavity canister is smaller than that of single cavity. The results provide theoretical basis for canister design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1088
Katherine Randall, Cody Bradford, Jeremy Ross, Jeremy Church, Nolan Dickey, Adam Christian, Matthew Dunn
Variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in I4 engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through measured vehicle data and an understanding and explanation of the physics related to engine operation the relationship between crankcase volume change throughout the engine cycle and crankcase pressure fluctuations. It can be demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of key engine design parameters of number of cylinders, firing frequency, engine displacement, crankcase volume and engine stroke the frequency and amplitude and frequency of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0943
Cory S. Hendrickson, Devesh Upadhyay, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction and control of NH3 slip, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1076
Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani, Esra Demren
Engine and transmission oil pumps are one of the primary sources of tonal noise or whine inside the vehicles. The whine is specially a cause for NVH concern during vehicle coast down when the engine background noise acting as sound masking for the whine is decreasing. To prevent and/or reduce the risk of oil pump-induced tonal noise, upfront NVH evaluation of the oil pump is required. Through analytical CAE approach oil pump pressure pulsations corresponding to different orders of the pump can be evaluated. And modifications to the oil pump design can be studied in order to reduce the pressure peaks and/or breaking down the peaks over their frequency spectrums to introduce self-masking effect. In this presentation, a couple of CAE case studies addressing oil pump-induced whine in an I4 during coast down along with test data are reviewed. The studied pump is of a variable displacement vane type.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1065
Douglas R. Martin, Benjamin Rocci
Paper Title: Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurement Abstract: Exhaust temperature models are widely used in the automotive industry to estimate catalyst and exhaust gas temperatures and to protect the catalyst and other vehicle hardware against over-temperature conditions. Modeled exhaust temperatures rely on air, fuel, and spark measurements to make their estimate. Inaccuracies or errors in any of these measurements have a large impact on the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, air-fuel imbalances, air leaks, ECT or ACT inaccuracies, or any unforeseen source of heat entering the exhaust may also have a large impact on the accuracy of the modeled estimate. Modern UEGO sensors have heaters with controllers in the UEGO ASIC to precisely regulate the oxygen sensing element temperature. These controllers are duty cycle based and supply more or less current to the heating element depending on the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gas.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0927
Carl Justin Kamp, Shawn Zhang, Sujay Bagi, Victor Wong, Greg Monahan, Alexander Sappok, Yujun Wang
Diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment components, especially the diesel particulate filter (DPF), are subject to various modes of degradation over their lifetimes. One form of DPF degradation is the significant rise in pressure drop due to the accumulation of engine lubricant-derived ash which coats the inlet channel walls effectively decreasing the permeability of the wall. The decreased permeability due to ash in the DPF can result in increased filter pressure drop and decreased fuel economy. A unique two-step approach, consisting of experimental measurements and direct numerical simulations using ultra-high resolution 3D imaging data, has been utilized in this study to better understand the effects of ash accumulation on engine aftertreatment component functionality. In this study, ash permeability was directly measured on the surface of ceramic (cordierite) wafers as a function of ash type (field ash, lab-generated and with chemical/morphological variations) and packing density.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0944
Ryuji Ando, Takashi Hihara, Yasuyuki Banno, Makoto Nagata, Tomoaki Ishitsuka, Nobuyuki Matsubayashi, Toshihisa Tomie
Cu-SSZ-13 is widely used as a material for Cu-SCR catalyst. The Cu-SCR catalyst shows high NOx performance and has high thermal durability but it deteriorates in NOx performance when it suffers Sulfur poisoning. Authors investigated the detailed mechanism how the catalyst is poisoned by Sulfur, and also studied the optimum de-Sulfation conditions. As to the Sulfur adsorption site in the Cu-zeolite, we performed DFT calculation to know the site candidate and we performed precise characterization. As characterization techniques of Sulfur poisoning of the catalyst, we mainly used EUPS (Extreme Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and DRIFTS. By those techniques, we found out that Sulfur adsorbs on ion-exchanged Cu site and Al site in the Zeolite structure. Especially the Cu site is an active site of the catalyst and thus the Cu-SCR catalyst deteriorated by the Sulfur poisoning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0988
Michael Cunningham, Mi-Young Kim, Venkata Lakkireddy, William Partridge
Abstract Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1078
Walid Ashraf, Sherif Khedr, Aya Diab, Hashim Elzaabalawy
Abstract A throttle valve is one of the main components of the intake system of a vehicle and is used to control the air flow rate into the combustion chamber at different engine speeds. Consequently, it has considerable effect on the engine power and performance especially at high engine speeds. The butterfly throttle valve is more common in commercial vehicles due to its simplicity. However, the butterfly throttle plate may affect the engine performance by incurring some pumping losses at high engine speeds even with the plate at wide open throttle (WOT) position. Hence it is proposed in this research work to replace and compare the performance of a spark ignition engine butterfly throttle valve to a newly designed barrel-shaped one with regards to the induced air mass flow rate. The main benefit of the proposed barrel-shaped throttle valve is the elimination of the flow restriction at WOT and high engine speeds.
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