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2017-04-04
Event
The purpose of this session is to bring awareness among the automotive aerodynamics, thermal and hydraulic systems development community to address the need of reliability analysis and robust design to improve the overall product quality. This session also introduces CAE based optimization of aero-thermal and fluid systems to improve automotive fuel economy. This session presents papers covering both testing and simulation.
2017-03-07
Event
2016-11-02 ...
  • November 2-4, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Hydraulic brake systems, one of the most important safety features on many road vehicles today, must meet manufacturer and customer requirements in addition to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. This course will analyze automotive braking from a system's perspective, emphasizing legal requirements as well as performance expectations such as pedal feel, stopping distance, fade and thermal management. Calculations necessary to predict brake balance and key system sizing variables that contribute to performance will be discussed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8121
Riccardo Bianchi, Addison Alexander, Andrea Vacca
Vibrations at the cabin or at the implements of construction machinery represents important drawbacks from the points of view of machine productivity, safety and operator comfort. Oscillations of these machines are particularly relevant due to the absence of shock absorbers, typical of many machines such as wheel loaders, and their use in uneven ground conditions. Several hydraulic solutions have been proposed in the past to reduce oscillations at both the cabin or at the machine boom. Particularly, cabin oscillations can be attenuated by properly counteracting the exciting oscillatory forces from the tires with motion of the boom. Many state of the art machine utilize a passive methods to implement this strategy. The present work introduces a novel active solution, based on the control of the boom actuator without involving modifications of the standard hydraulic system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8079
Zhiwei Zhang, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Zhongjie Yang, Mengzuo Han
Abstract: Hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device. Because of its large braking torque in high speed, smooth braking, low noise, long service life and small size, it is widely used on modern vehicles. Transmission fluid of traditional hydraulic retarder is cooled by engine cooling system, which is a waste of vehicle energy to discharge the exhausted heat directly. On account of the working characteristics of hydraulic retarder, this study designs a set of waste heat recovery system based on Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC). Under the premise of ensuring stable performance of hydraulic retarder, waste heat energy in transmission fluid is recycled to supplement energy requirements for cooling system. First of all, the principle model of 100:1 is established for thermal power of D300 retarder. Then through theoretical calculations, components' structural parameters of ORC are determined.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8120
Marco Francia, Massimo Milani, Luca Montorsi
Abstract The paper focuses on the development of an innovative methodology for the direct measurement of the main kinematic variables in multibody hydraulic actuation systems. The analysis investigates how the motion capture technique has been applied to the experimental determination of position, velocity and acceleration of hydraulically controlled actuation systems for off-highway machines. A number of earth-moving machines has been taken into account, in particular a mini-excavator articulated arm has been equipped with both a standard mechanical system for position and acceleration measurement (including different accelerometers, linear and angular transducers), and a set of IR markers for motion capture application. First, the hydraulically controlled boom-arm-bucket system has been operated using a control routine reproducing a reference operating condition, in order to define the accuracy of the motion capture system in detecting the kinematic quantities’ variations.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8063
David Ferreira, Thomas Howell, Peter Jo
Abstract Current heavy duty diesel valvetrains are not able to utilize hydraulic lash adjusters (HLA) in conjunction with an engine brake. During a braking event the engine brake introduces substantial lash into the vehicle valvetrain. The HLA reacts by pumping out to take up the lash encountered during braking, thereby preventing the valves from properly seating at the end of the cycle. Jacobs Vehicle Systems has developed a new mechanism to allow the inclusion of an engine brake into a valvetrain equipped with hydraulic lash adjusters. The fulcrum system maintains a load on the hydraulic lash adjuster during engine brake operation preventing the HLA from extending. HLA are appealing to engine manufacturers because they allow for simpler manufacturing, less maintenance, reduced NVH and valve motion enhancements. This paper describes the design, simulation and testing of the lashless valvetrain with engine brake including the next steps in the development of the valvetrain.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8114
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Pietro Marani, Michele Selvatici
Stationary brake is a very important and safety related function in many machine types. The new transmissions and the X-by wire systems increase the role of stationary brake criticality, as it is also an emergency brake, and it’s often used to hold the vehicle while the transmission is not locking the wheel in all stationary condition and sometimes if it is faulty. As an example, dual clutch and power-shift transmission gear systems, as well as hydrostatic transmissions are often unable to hold the vehicle stopped and the function is provided by the stationary brake. Due to the main need of having the brake actuated when vehicle is stopped, without any hydraulic and electric active power source, the brake configuration is normally a “negative” configuration, but this obviously lead to the brake actuation when de-energized, even in case of fault occurrence.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8113
Xiaohua Zeng, Guanghan Li, Dafeng Song, Sheng Li, Xianghua Li
This paper introduces the configuration and operation principle of the hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system for heavy truck, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. In order to achieve coordinate distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic system, the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed. A layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed to improve vehicle performance. Finally, the simulation model is built in the MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim platform and the co-simulation is conducted to verify the proposed control strategy. The results show that the strategy could realize effective control and the traction force increased proportion can be up to 15.6~17%, which would significantly improve the drivability and passing capacity of heavy truck.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8117
Xingyu Zhang, Bo Yang, Can Wang, Zhilei Li, Yongqiang Ge, Zhongjie Yang, Xue Liu
The cooling system with two fans is generally driven by electrical motors in the small cars. Compared with the traditional cars, heavy duty trucks have the larger heat dissipation power of cooling system. The motors power consumption of dual fans will be larger and the two electrical motors will occupy a large space in the engine cabin. Hydrostatic drive refers to the cooling fan is driven by hydraulic motor, but it has the low transmission efficiency. According to the engine water temperature value and the actual working status of the hydraulic system, the actual speed of cooling fan can be controlled by the computer, which guarantees the normal working water temperature of the engine. Hydrostatic drive is generally applied to heavy vehicles, engineering machinery and excavators as driving source of cooling fan which contains the advantages of large output power, overload protection, continuous speed regulation and flexible space arrangements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8115
Jaehong Kim, Jae Y. Lee, Ahnkyun Jung
Construction equipment machines today benefits from hydraulic system due to high power density. And, the development of an excavator using “open center system with spool valves”, in general, requires iterative hardware design tuning activities for optimized performance and fuel economy while matching operator’s commands. Instead of traditional hydraulic and multi-body dynamic simulation with an operator simulation model, this paper focuses on the methodology development of an real-time excavator simulation model including the hydraulic system of an excavator’s boom, arm, bucket, and travel as well as multi-body dynamic system. The real-time capability is realized by reducing unnecessary compressible units and achieving numerical stability. The real-time simulation model has been verified later with an actual Volvo CE excavator machine, and the correlation was quite satisfactory.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8085
Yanjun Ren, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Li Zhou, Ruobing Zhan
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device generally equipped on commercial vehicles. Its oil temperature change influences the brake performance of hydraulic retarder. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a good means to recover exhausted heat. Moreover, it can cool oil and stably control oil temperature with the help of heat absorption related with evaporation. Comprehensively considering the heat-producing characteristics of hydraulic retarder and the temperature control demand, the aimed boundary conditions are determined. Also the changing rules about the working medium flow rate are obtained. In this work, the heat-producing properties of hydraulic retarder under different conditions and the oil external circulating performance is firstly analyzed. By researching the system’s adaptation to the limiting conditions, the aimed temperature to control is prescribed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8119
Jun Sun, Xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo, Yanqiang Zhao
Abstract In order to overcome hysteresis and dead zone problems caused by friction for the proportional solenoid valve, and improve rapidity and stability of the pneumatic system on hydraulic retarder, a closed-loop control strategy based on valve coil current was proposed. The high-frequency low-amplitude dither signal was introduced into the proportional solenoid valve. With the proper dither signal, the stick-slip motion of the valve core was transformed into a steady one, and its dynamic performance was improved. Consequently, response time of retarder was reduced during gear changing. The proportional valve coil current was measured as a feedback for a closed-loop control strategy. Combining with the closed-loop strategy, the PI control algorithm was adopted to make sure that valve current was in accordance with the target value. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal was used for the driving of proportional solenoid valve.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1941
Tie Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Shengguang Xiong, Zhiwei Zhang, Xin Gao
Vehicle hydraulic retarder is applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling system of hydraulic retarder, working fluid is introduced into heat exchanger to transfer heat to cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by engine cooling system, not enabling waste heat of working fluid used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on Rankine cycle, organic working fluid transfers heat with hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1938
Xin Gao, Gangfeng Tan, Binyu Mei, Mengzuo Han, Tie Wang
Hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary brake used by commercial vehicle in long slope brake. Working liquid generates a lot of heat during hydraulic retarder working. If the heat is not properly managed, it will seriously affect hydraulic retarder braking performance. Refrigerant outlet temperature of condenser in Rankine cycle is lower, condensing more fully. But the two-phase area of evaporator reduces or even disappears. Anyhow, Rankine cycle evaporate-condensate system parameter setting not reasonable will affect efficiency of whole system and the temperature stability of hydraulic retarder. The article uses Rankine cycle which refrigerant is R141b to replace hydraulic retarder original cooling system. It can make hydraulic retarder heat exchange in time and working fluid temperature stability in a smaller range.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1954
Zhe Xiong, Xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo, Chengcai Zhang
In this paper a new pressure control method of a modified accumulator-type Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHB) is proposed. The system is composed of a hydraulic motor pump, an accumulator, an integrated master cylinder, a pedal feel simulator, valves and pipelines. Two pressurizing modes are switched between by-motor and by-accumulator to adapt different pressure boost demands. A differentiator filtering raw sensor signal and calculating pedal speed is designed. By using the pedal feel simulator, the relationship between wheel pressures and brake force is decoupled. The relationships among pedal displacement, pedal force and wheel pressure are calibrated by experiments. A model-based PI controller with predictor is designed to lower the influences caused by delay. Moreover, a self-tuning regulator is introduced to deal with the parameter’s time-varying caused by temperature, brake pads wearing and delay variation.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1927
Christian Riese, Frank Gauterin
Abstract New technologies like alternative power trains and driver assistance systems have a big impact on brake system development. Most of the development work aims at the improvement of the actuation and modulation components of the brake system. The basic hydraulic network remained nearly the same over decades and still has to meet these new requirements. Previous papers have focused mainly on studying the behavior of single components, like for example the brake hose fluid consumption in detail. Other papers studied the complete system but simplified it extremely, so that some relevant effects are neglected. In this work, one focus is to study the influence of single relevant components, like the hydraulic unit and the hoses on the overall system performance. For this measurements with a complete hydraulic brake system, including a state of the art electromechanical brake booster and single component measurements for identification, are conducted.
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