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2017-04-04
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2017-04-04
Event
Mixed mode with auto ignition but inhomogeneous charge. Injection-controlled but with EOI before SOC. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and PPC injection strategies are invited and will be placed in appropriate sub-sessions. Papers with an emphasis on the modeling aspects of combustion are encouraged to be submitted into PFL110 or PFL120 modeling sessions.
2017-04-04
Event
This session focuses on fuel injection, combustion, controls, performance and emissions of SI engines fueled with gaseous fuels such as methane, natural gas (NG), biogas, producer gas, coke oven gas, hydrogen, or hydrogen-NG blends. Papers on Diesel-NG or diesel-hydrogen dual-fuel engines will also be accepted in this session.
2017-04-04
Event
The session covers advances in the development and application of models and tools involved in multi-dimensional engine modeling: advances in chemical kinetics, combustion and spray modeling, turbulence, heat transfer, mesh generation, and approaches targeting improved computational efficiency. Papers employing multi-dimensional modeling to gain a deeper understanding of processes related to turbulent transport, transient phenomena, and chemically reacting, two-phase flows are also encouraged.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0001
Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Nigel Foxhall, Oliver Schoegl
Rotax high performance engines are used in many different BRP powersports applications. In several of these applications 2-stroke engines play an important role. The direct injection technology is a key technology for 2-stroke engines to fulfil both the customers’ request for high power and the environmental requirements concerning emissions and efficiency. As the load spectrum differs from one application to the other, it was interesting to find out if different injection technologies can answer the needs of different applications more efficiently regarding performance but also economic targets. Therefore, the results of the Rotax 600 cm³ E-TEC (direct injection system) engine are compared to the same base engine but adopted with the SDI (semi direct injection) technology and the LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology. The comparison is done by a 17 points measurement program representing different engine speeds and load cases.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0068
FNU Joel Prince Lobo, James Howard Lee, Eric Oswald, Spenser Lionetti, Robert Garrick
The performance and exhaust emissions of a commercially available, propane fueled, air cooled engine with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) were investigated by varying relative Air to Fuel Ratio (λ), spark timing, and Compression Ratio (CR). Varying λ and spark timing was accomplished by modifying the EFI system using TechniCAL Industries’ engine development software. The CR was varied through using pistons with different bowl sizes. Strong relationships were recorded between λ and spark timing and the resulting effect these parameters have on engine performance and emissions. Lean operation (λ > 1) has the potential to significantly reduce NOx production (3,000 PPM down to 300 PPM). Unfortunately, it also reduces engine performance by up to an order of magnitude (31 Nm down to 3 Nm).
2016-10-24
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2191
Peter Deckelmann, Tina Dietrich
This paper will focus on a powertrain injector application (PIA) solution for R&D and production. PIA is a product for triggering and analyzing current and newly developed injection valves (both piezo and solenoid). The article examines an important obstacle of injection testing, which is creating realistic environmental conditions for injectors. It shows, how PIA realizes this through high-end ECU simulation for current and new generations, creating different operating conditions. Berghof Testing combined control, performance and measuring technology into PIA. The compact, intelligent and economical device can be integrated into all existing injector test systems. In addition to the standard version the application offers enhancements such as intelligent injections, injector calibration, polarity detection and image processing for spray analyses. This excludes evaluations based on erroneous fundamentals of the injection behavior to make sure injection can in fact get cleaner.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2193
Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Fukei Sha, Kota Tashiro
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become widely used in diesel engines, and regular regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, so-called post fuel injection, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with this high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90 CA ATDC, and the fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner in some cases. The research group of Buddie and Pischinger have reported oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations. Such adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2185
Jialin Liu, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Zeyu Zou, Mingfa Yao
In this work, both the ‘SCR-only’ and ‘EGR+SCR’ technical routes are compared and evaluated after the optimizations of both injection strategy and turbocharging system over the World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC) in a heavy duty diesel engine. Moreover, the emissions and fuel economy performance of different turbocharging systems, including wastegate turbocharger (WGT), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), two-stage fixed geometry turbocharger (WGT+FGT) and two-stage variable geometry turbocharger (VGT+FGT), are investigated over a wide EGR range. The NOx reduction methods and EGR control strategies for different turbocharger systems are proposed to improve the fuel economy. The requirement of turbocharging system at various NOx emissions and their potential to meet future stringent emission regulations are also discussed in this paper.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2199
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Maurizio Lazzaro, Giovanni Meccariello
Mixture formation is fundamental for the development of the combustion process in internal combustion engines, for the highest release of energy and lowering the formation of pollutants. Regarding the spark ignition engines, the direct injection technology is being considered as an effective mean to achieve the optimal air-to-fuel ratio distribution at each engine operating condition. That either through charge stratification around the spark plug and stoichiometric mixture under the high power requirements. The impact of a spray on the piston or on the cylinder walls causes the formation of liquid film (wall-film) and droplet secondary atomization. The wall-film may have no negligible size, especially where the mixture formation is realized under a wall guided mode. This work aims to report the effects of the fueling injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic parameters of the spray impinging on the wall.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2284
Yuan Wen, Yinhui Wang, Chenling Fu, Wei Deng, Zhangsong ZHAN, Yuhang Tang, Xuefei Li, Haichun ding, Shijin Shuai
Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) engine developed rapidly in recent years driven by the requirements of higher fuel efficiency and lower fuel consumption, but faces the challenges of injector deposit and emissions especially particulate emission compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine. However it has not been revealed through system approach that the qualitative and quantitative impact of injector deposit formation on particulate emission of DIG vehicle through vehicle emission testing and injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a DIG vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to investigate the impact of injector deposit on spray and particulate emissions. The DIG car accumulated with 13,000 km mileage was subject to emissions testing including gaseous emissions, particulate mass (PM) and fuel economy on a chassis dynamometer, then replaced all coking injectors with new injectors and tested emissions again.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2261
Maira Alves Fortunato, Aurelie Mouret, Chrsitine Dalmazzone PhD, Laurie Starck
The use of biodiesel has risen worldwide in the last decade. In Europe the authorized biodiesel content into diesel blends is 7%v/v (8%v/v in France). In Asia and in some countries in South America this percentage can go up to 15%v/v with prospects to achieve 30%v/v in some regions by 2020. In addition, different countries will use different biodiesel feedstocks to supply their needs which will depend on the resources available locally. In parallel with this feature, some problems due to biodiesel content and feedstock quality are largely pointed out in the literature, which includes cold flow properties issues of methyl esters, especially Palm Methyl esters PME. The present work was carried out on diesel-biodiesel blends from 0 to 30%PME in order to evaluate the impact of crystals formation on fuel filter plugging using a rig test. The fuel was maintained at 5°C and 20°C during soaking.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2255
Martin Krieck, Marco Günther, Stefan Pischinger, Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Heinze, Matthias Thewes
Direct injection of LPG (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG fuel, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems (LPG PFI) to downsized gasoline DI engines. Furthermore higher combustion efficiencies are achieved with LPG DI operation compared to LPG PFI. For state-of-the-art gasoline direct injection engines, mechanically driven high pressure fuel pumps are used to compress fuel prior to injection into the cylinder. Since the thermal conditions of these pumps are considerably influenced by heat transfer of the engine, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in LPG evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump. This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2300
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, Joakim Pagels
In order to reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower UHC and CO emissions; however, on the other hand, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas due to increased fuel stratifications. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC). Combustion phasing was fixed by adjusting inlet temperature at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2307
Guillaume Bourhis, Jean-Pascal Solari, Roland DAUPHIN, Loic De Francqueville
Efficiency of spark ignition engines is limited towards high loads by the occurrence of knock, which is linked to the octane number of the fuel. Running the engine at its optimal efficiency requires a high octane number at high load whereas a low octane number can be used at low load. Saudi Aramco, along with its long-term partner IFP Energies nouvelles, is developing an “Octane on Demand” (OOD) concept: the fuel octane number is adjusted “on demand” to prevent knock occurrence by adapting the fuel RON injected in the combustion chamber. Thus, the engine cycle efficiency is increased by always keeping combustion phasing at optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON base fuel and a high-RON octane booster. The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted to fit the RON requirement function of engine operating conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2192
Mohammadreza Anbari Attar, Tawfik Badawy, Hongming Xu
This paper presents a systematic study of multi-hole gasoline direct injector (GDI) coking effects on fuel injection and mixture preparation. Experimental works were carried out in a constant volume chamber and a single-cylinder optical GDI engine. Clean injectors were coked in a designed conditioning cycle. Droplet size and velocities were measured with a Particle Doppler Phase Analyser (PDPA) system. Spray angle, plumes’ penetration length and velocity were quantified using high-speed imaging. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed for investigation of in-cylinder charge stratification at vicinity of spark plug prior to ignition. Experimental data were used to assess differences between clean and the coked injectors to attain better understanding of coking phenomenon.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2200
Tobias Knorsch, Philipp Rogler, Maximilian Miller, Wolfram Wiese
In order to satisfy future emission classes, such as the EU6c in particular, the particulate number (PN) of Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines must be reduced. For these engines, different components influence the combustion process and thus also the formation of soot particles and deposits. Among other engine components, the injector nozzle influences the particulate number and deposits in both fuel spray behavior and nozzle “tip wetting”. In case of non-optimized nozzle layouts, fuel may impinge on piston and liner in an unfavorable way, which implies low-oxygen diffusive combustion by retarded vaporizing wall films. For the tip wetting, wall films are present on the actual surface of the nozzle tip, which is also caused by unadapted nozzles. For non-optimized nozzles, the latter effect can become quite dominant. This paper deals with systematic nozzle development activities towards low-deposit nozzle tips and thus decreasing PN values.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2306
Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Jun Goto, Lin Jiang
The engine performance and the exhaust gas emissions in a dual fuel compression ignition engine with natural gas as the main fuel and a small quantity of pilot injection of diesel fuel with the ultra-high injection pressure of 250 MPa as an ignition source were investigated at 0.3 MPa and 0.8 MPa IMEP. With increasing injection pressure the unburned loss decreases and the thermal efficiency improves at both IMEP. At the 0.3 MPa IMEP, there is no deterioration in thermal efficiency and emission characteristics when increasing the injection pressure, but at 0.8 MPa IMEP, the NOx emissions and maximum rate of pressure rise increase with increasing injection pressure. At 0.3 MPa the THC and CO emissions are significantly reduced when decreasing the volumetric efficiency by intake gas throttling, but the NOx emissions increase and excessive intake gas throttling results in a decrease in the indicated thermal efficiency due to increases in pumping and cooling losses.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2174
Reza Golzari, Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as downsizing combined with single and multistage boosting (turbocharging and/or supercharging), dual injection and fuelling systems, variable valve timing and lift devices, variable compression and expansion ratio using Miller and Atkinson cycles. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture quality and therefore enhance the combustion which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine equipped with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2202
Naoya Ochiai, Jun Ishimoto, Akira Arioka, Nobuhiko Yamaguchi, Yuzuru Sasaki, Nobuyuki Furukawa
The advanced development and optimization of fuel atomization in port and direct injection systems for automobile engine is desired for the improvement of fuel combustion performance and thermal efficiency of the engine. Computational prediction and design of injector nozzle spray flow is an effective method for that. However, a practical simulation method of the continuous primary, secondary spray breakups and the spraying behavior have not been developed yet. In this study, we have developed the integrated computational method of the total fuel atomization process of the injector nozzle. This new computational approach is taking into account the nozzle internal flow to form the primary breakup using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in connection with the spray flow characteristics to the engine cylinder using Discrete Droplet Model (DDM).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2194
Muhsin M. Ameen, Prithwish Kundu, Sibendu Som
In this work, a turbulent combustion model is developed for large eddy simulation (LES) using a novel flamelet tabulation technique based on the framework of the multi-flamelet representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model. The overall aim is to develop a detailed model with elaborate chemistry mechanisms, LES turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of a tabulated model. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries without the use of progress variables is proposed. These flamelet libraries use the residence time as one of the independent variables instead of using the traditional progress variable approach. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using the tabulated turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2237
Christopher Kim Blomberg, Lucas Zeugin, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
This study investigates n-dodecane split injections of “Spray A” from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using two different turbulence treatments (RANS and LES) in conjunction with a Conditional Moment Closure combustion model (CMC). The two Modeling approaches are first assessed in terms of vapor spray penetration evolutions of non-reacting split injections showing a clearly superior performance of the LES compared to RANS: while the former successfully reproduces the experimental results for both first and second injection events, the slipstream effect in the wake of the first injection jet is not accurately captured by RANS leading to an over-predicted spray tip penetration of the second pulse. In a second step, two reactive operating conditions with the same ambient density were investigated, namely one at a diesel-like condition (900K, 60bar) and one at a lower temperature (750K, 50bar).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2299
Qinglong Tang, Haifeng Liu, Mingkun Li, Mingfa Yao
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is a potential combustion concept to achieve high engine efficiency as well as low NOx and soot emission. The impact of double injection strategy on the fuel/air mixing and combustion process of GCI was evaluated by fuel-tracer laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and high-speed naturally luminosity imaging techniques on an optical engine in this paper. The primary reference fuel, PRF70 (70% iso-octane and 30% n-heptane by volume) was chosen to represent gasoline. By fixing the second fuel injection timing at -25° after top dead center, the impact of the first fuel injection timing and the two fuel injections mass ratio were comparatively studied. The results indicate that the combustion process of GCI is initiated by multipoint auto-ignition and these ignition spots lie in the position where local equivalence ratio is relatively high. Then these ignition spots evolves to flame fronts which progress to the region with lower fuel concentration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2169
Carrie M. Hall, James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner
The high octane rating and more plentiful domestic supply of natural gas make it an excellent alternative to gasoline. Using natural gas in dual fuel engines provides one possible strategy for leveraging the advantages of both natural gas and gasoline and such engines have shown the potential to improve overall engine efficiencies. While the benefits of these engine structures are still being explored, one concern with natural gas combustion is its tendency for more incomplete combustion particularly when direct injected. Because of such combustion differences, pollutant formation may vary dramatically for different blends of gasoline and natural gas. This study explores the variations in speciated hydrocarbon emissions which occur for different fuel blends of E10 and compressed natural gas and for different fuel injection strategies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2211
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro 1) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro 6) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip results in even more challenge for the SCR technology. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of UREA solution need to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2196
Stefan Stojanovic, Andrew Tebbs, Stephen Samuel, John Durodola
With a push to continuously develop traditional engine technology efficiencies and meet stringent emissions requirements, there is a need to improve the precision of injection rate measurement used to characterise the performance of the fuel injectors. New challenges in precisely characterising injection rate present themselves to the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), with the additional requirements to measure multiple injection strategies, increased injection pressure and rate features. One commonly used method of measurement is the rate tube injection analyser; it measures the pressure wave caused by the injection within a column of stationary fluid. In a rate tube, one of the significant sources of signal distortion is a result of the injected fluid pressure waves reflected back from the tube termination.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2303
Changhwan Woo, Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt R. Hawkes, Qing Nian Chan
Ethanol has been selected for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion, considering its higher resistance to auto-ignition, higher evaporative cooling and oxygen contents than widely used gasoline, all of which could further improve already high brake efficiency and low smoke/NOx emissions of GCI engines. The in-cylinder phenomena and engine-out emissions were measured in a single-cylinder automotive-size diesel engine equipped with a conventional common-rail system with a special emphasis on double injection strategies implementing early first injection near BDC and late second injection near TDC.
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