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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries. The focus is then directed to gasoline and diesel fuel injections, injector designs, and performance...
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but...
2015-01-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9053
Tobias Breuninger, Jürgen Schmidt, Helmut Tschoeke, Martin Hese, Andreas Kufferath, Frank Altenschmidt
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations. In order to characterise the recirculation zone of the hollow cone spray that is relevant to the ignition behaviour, laser-optical measuring methods were used.
2014-11-18
Event
This session will focus on the unique requirements and challenges to optimize fuel delivery and combustion quality for small engine applications, due to wide ranging environmental conditions as well as fuel type and quality. It will include presentations related to fuel pumps, injectors and other components related to the delivery of the fuel from the tank to the engine as well as optimization of the combustion process, and will discuss systemic and component related issues.
2014-11-18 ...
  • November 18, 2014 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • April 13, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications. The majority of the day will be dedicated to the common rail system itself,...
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0040
John Walters, Francois Brun
Abstract Stringent emissions legislation is being applied to small motorcycles and scooters around the world. This is forcing, gradually, the replacement of carburetors by electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems. The integration of this new technology creates new constraints on the engine and also on the vehicle. This study will provide an overview of these constraints and also technical solutions to reduce the impact on engine and vehicle. A special focus will be done on the fuel system, where the development of an advanced technology will be discussed in detail. This technology marks a break with the standard automotive fuel system architecture in order to fulfill the specific requirements of scooters and small motorcycles: low size, low weight, low energy demand, as well as simple integration. The discussion will disclose: the advantages and drawbacks of different fuel system architectures, the detailed description of the technology selected to achieve the requirements, the modelling approach used for the sizing and optimization of the design, and finally the performance achieved on the test bench.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0041
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
Abstract In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. The paper is mainly focused both on the capability of the injection apparatus/temperatures controller system to realize flash-boiling conditions, and the diagnostic setup to catch the peculiarities of the spray behavior. The work aims reporting the spray characterization under normal and flash-boiling conditions. Flash-boiling is a phenomenon that occurs in certain engine conditions when the in-cylinder pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel, and leads to internal boiling and vapor bubbles creation near the nozzle exit.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0062
Jonathan Tenenbaum, Michael Shapiro, Leonid Tartakovsky
Abstract The paper presents an analytical two-dimensional model of two-phase turbulent jets with focus on fuel sprays in internal combustion engines. The developed model allows prediction of the fuel spray parameters including local fuel concentration and mixture velocity. The model proposed in this paper is based on the single-phase steady-state laminar axisymmetric jet flow field solution by Schlichting. This solution is amended to include transport of the discontinuous fuel phase in a stagnant air in the limit of a dilute fuel concentration. This two-phase jet flow model admits a closed form analytical solution for the fuel concentration distribution. This solution is then applied to turbulent jet flow as per the approach described by Schlichting and in other studies, and used to predict point-wise properties of fuel sprays in internal combustion engines. The results of model simulations are compared with the available experimental data. It was found that the analytical model predicts satisfactorily spray properties without additional assumptions or fitting coefficient.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0059
Antonio Agresta, Francesca Di Puccio, Paola Forte, Gabriele Benigni
Abstract NVH simulations for an automotive component industry represent a convenient mean to compare different solutions and make decisions on design choices based on the predictions of the component vibro-acoustic behavior. This paper presents the vibro-acoustic characterization and comparison of two fuel rail assemblies (FRAs) by mean of simulations in Ansys Workbench & LMS Virtual.Lab. These simulations required a preliminary finite element (FE) modal analysis on the FRAs. To verify the reliability of the FE models, an experimental modal analysis was performed on one of the two fuel rails in free-free condition. The correlation between FE and test models highlighted some differences: a sensitivity study proved that the differences depend on the modeling of some brazed joints. The results of the following NVH simulations were checked by performing an acoustic impact test on the two FRAs in free-free condition inside an anechoic chamber. The comparison between the test and FE results proved that only a tuned FE model provides reliable results.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0125
Mohd Al-Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Misato Nakagiri, Naoya Uwa, Yuzuru Nada, Seiji Miyashiro
Abstract High boosting technology is commonly applied to diesel engines in recent years. Amid this trend, the study of spray behavior at ignition delay period still plays an important role in diesel combustion. This study focuses on the effect of ambient condition on diesel spray. The study investigates both macro-scale and micro-scale dynamic behaviors of diesel spray affected by ambient density and temperature at early stage of injection. A study via dual nano-spark shadowgraph method and rapid compression machine has been carried out to simulate real diesel engine combustion and to further understand the dynamics behavior of droplet evaporation and size distribution at early stage of mixture formation in the chamber. The micro-scale images captured reveal a shape variation of branch-like structures formed at the spray boundary. The evaporation of droplets is also captured clearly in macro- and micro scale photographs under the condition of high temperature ambient. Detailed observation and analysis of the images show that high ambient density affects the spray atomization at the upper stream of diesel spray at the early stage of injection.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0124
Keiya Nishida, Kuichun LI, Takeru Matsuo, Daisuke Shimo, Wu Zhang
Abstract Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray. Discussion was made on the mechanisms behind these spray behaviors.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0134
Giovanni Bonandrini, Rita Di Gioia, Luca Venturoli, Domenico Papaleo, Lucio Postrioti, Leonardo Zappalà
Abstract Diesel engine technology is continuously focused on higher performances and lower emission levels. Reduced costs and lower fuel consumption are key factors in engine development too, in particular for small diesel engine, both for on-road and non-road application. In order to fulfill emission legislation requirements, improve engine performance and reduce fuel consumption, nowadays the common rail injection system with electronic actuation is widely used in diesel engines. Nevertheless, conventional common rail system cost is quite high, mainly due to the complex indirect actuation of the injector, and the injector backflow leads to inefficiencies in the injection system. In this work an analysis of a medium pressure injection system for small diesel engines is presented, focusing on the achievable engine performances and emissions. The new injection system makes use of an innovative solenoid directly actuated injector (DDI) with a lower maximum rail pressure in respect with conventional common rail systems.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9079
Yongming Bao, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes
Abstract The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup. It is observed that at 4 MPa injection pressure, the tip penetration length of ethanol sprays is shorter than that of gasoline sprays, likely due to lower injection velocity and increased nozzle loss associated with higher density and increased viscosity of ethanol, respectively.
2014-10-22
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2014-10-22
WIP Standard
AS7997A
This specification covers constant displacement hydraulic motors, generally remotely mounted, using hydraulic fluid under pressure as the energy transfer medium for driving various accessories. Hydraulic motors shall be suitable for use in aircraft hydraulic systems conforming to and as defined in MIL-H-5440 and MIL-H-8891 as applicable.
2014-10-21
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2014-10-21
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2014-10-21
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2014-10-15
Event
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2560
Jacek Andrzej Czarnigowski
Abstract The paper presents the results of experiments on the effects of supply pressure and supply voltage on the pulse gas injector opening time. Two characteristics have been investigated into: the opening lag time and the time of opening. The injector's opening lag was defined as the time between the occurrence of a control signal and the moment of the valve's starting to move. The injector's time of opening was defined as the time of the valve element's movement from the closed to the fully open position. The analysis covered 6 injector types differing in the design of the valve element and the coil. The injectors types were representative of designs most popular in the market: piston and plate injectors calibrated by means of the piston stroke or the outlet diameter. The experiments were conducted in a bespoke test bed, and compressed air was used in lieu of gas fuel. The paper presents the test bed and discusses the method of determining the moment of the valve element's starting to move and stopping.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2565
Harun Mohamed Ismail, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suyin Gan, Tommaso Lucchini
Abstract Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions. Simulation results are compared against data from the Chalmers High-Pressure-High-Temperature Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber (HPHT-CVCC) experimental test-bed studies in terms of liquid-droplet penetration length, vapour penetration length and spray temporal distribution.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2556
Hiroshi Tashima, Daisuke Tsuru
Abstract The discrete multi-component model for residual heavy fuel oil (HFO), developed in the mid-2000s, proved to be a simple but practical approximation in reproduction of the combustion process of HFO sprays on a couple of CFD simulation codes. The model succeeded in providing qualitative explanation about the spray and flame progression of HFO inside constant-volume chambers (CVC), but its practical use is still underway because of its higher calculation costs. Two-component HFO model, which was introduced relatively recently, separates every spray droplet virtually into two smaller droplets of each component to calculate their evaporation process separately. The model showed good agreement with the observation results on the various HFO spray behaviors in some visualized CVCs (VCVCs). However, all the above examinations were done only qualitatively not quantitatively since the heat releases measured in the visualizing-oriented chambers of large internal volume were difficult to detect accurately.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2577
Arash Hamzehloo, Pavlos Aleiferis
Abstract International obligations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply, indicate a need to diversify towards the use of cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen has been recommended as an encouraging gaseous fuel for future road transportation since with reasonable modifications it can be burned in conventional internal combustion engines without producing carbon-based tailpipe emissions. Direct injection of hydrogen into the combustion chamber can be more preferable than port fuel injection since it offers advantages of higher volumetric efficiency and can eliminate abnormal combustion phenomena such as backfiring. The current work applied a fully implicit computational methodology along with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to study the mixture formation and combustion in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with hydrogen fuelling. Hydrogen was issued into the combustion chamber by a six-hole side-mounted injector.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6537

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