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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries.
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-13 ...
  • April 13, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 28, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
Journal Article
Tobias Breuninger, Jürgen Schmidt, Helmut Tschoeke, Martin Hese, Andreas Kufferath, Frank Altenschmidt
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
WIP Standard
This productis designed for use in aircraft integral fuel tanks, fastener seals , overcoating of fasteners, and sealing fueselage seams and joints, for service from -80 to +320 °F (-62 to +160 °C), with short-term recurring exposures (approximately 6 hours) up to 400 °F (204 °C) but usage is not limited to such applications. Sealing compound must be applied at temperatures above 50 °F (10 °C), but will cure at lower temperatures.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) delineates two complementary filter element performance ratings: (1) dirt capacity, and (2) filtration efficiency, and corresponding test procedures. It is intended for non-cleanable (disposable), fine fuel filter elements used in aviation gas turbine engine fuel systems.
This session will focus on the unique requirements and challenges to optimize fuel delivery and combustion quality for small engine applications, due to wide ranging environmental conditions as well as fuel type and quality. It will include presentations related to fuel pumps, injectors and other components related to the delivery of the fuel from the tank to the engine as well as optimization of the combustion process, and will discuss systemic and component related issues.
Technical Paper
Giovanni Bonandrini, Rita Di Gioia, Luca Venturoli, Domenico Papaleo, Lucio Postrioti, Leonardo Zappalà
Abstract Diesel engine technology is continuously focused on higher performances and lower emission levels. Reduced costs and lower fuel consumption are key factors in engine development too, in particular for small diesel engine, both for on-road and non-road application. In order to fulfill emission legislation requirements, improve engine performance and reduce fuel consumption, nowadays the common rail injection system with electronic actuation is widely used in diesel engines. Nevertheless, conventional common rail system cost is quite high, mainly due to the complex indirect actuation of the injector, and the injector backflow leads to inefficiencies in the injection system. In this work an analysis of a medium pressure injection system for small diesel engines is presented, focusing on the achievable engine performances and emissions.
Technical Paper
Mohd Al-Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Misato Nakagiri, Naoya Uwa, Yuzuru Nada, Seiji Miyashiro
Abstract High boosting technology is commonly applied to diesel engines in recent years. Amid this trend, the study of spray behavior at ignition delay period still plays an important role in diesel combustion. This study focuses on the effect of ambient condition on diesel spray. The study investigates both macro-scale and micro-scale dynamic behaviors of diesel spray affected by ambient density and temperature at early stage of injection. A study via dual nano-spark shadowgraph method and rapid compression machine has been carried out to simulate real diesel engine combustion and to further understand the dynamics behavior of droplet evaporation and size distribution at early stage of mixture formation in the chamber. The micro-scale images captured reveal a shape variation of branch-like structures formed at the spray boundary. The evaporation of droplets is also captured clearly in macro- and micro scale photographs under the condition of high temperature ambient.
Technical Paper
John Walters, Francois Brun
Abstract Stringent emissions legislation is being applied to small motorcycles and scooters around the world. This is forcing, gradually, the replacement of carburetors by electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems. The integration of this new technology creates new constraints on the engine and also on the vehicle. This study will provide an overview of these constraints and also technical solutions to reduce the impact on engine and vehicle. A special focus will be done on the fuel system, where the development of an advanced technology will be discussed in detail. This technology marks a break with the standard automotive fuel system architecture in order to fulfill the specific requirements of scooters and small motorcycles: low size, low weight, low energy demand, as well as simple integration.
Technical Paper
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
Abstract In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. The paper is mainly focused both on the capability of the injection apparatus/temperatures controller system to realize flash-boiling conditions, and the diagnostic setup to catch the peculiarities of the spray behavior. The work aims reporting the spray characterization under normal and flash-boiling conditions.
Technical Paper
Kenta Sugimoto
Abstract Cost reduction is an important development goal for small motorcycles (1). As a way to reduce costs, we have developed an electronically controlled fuel injection (hereafter FI) system without a throttle position sensor (hereafter TPS). Ordinarily, the high throttle range is controlled and computed by TPS, and the low throttle range by manifold pressure sensor (hereafter MPS). The intake airflow is estimated with consistent high precision regardless of the engine load, and the basic fuel injection is executed accordingly. Also, transient correction monitors the size of TPS changes, to inject fuel immediately when a TPS change equal to or greater than a threshold value is detected. In our development, we replaced these functions with control by MPS. For calculation of basic fuel injection quantity by MPS, we carried on the conventional method. However, MPS transient correction control had some aspects with poor tracking.
Technical Paper
Kazuyoshi Shimatani
Abstract Various sensors including throttle position sensors (TPS), manifold pressure sensors (MPS), crank angle sensors, engine temperature sensors, and oxygen sensors are mounted in electronically controlled fuel injection (FI) systems to accurately regulate the air-fuel ratio according to the operating state and operating environment. Among these vehicle-mounted sensors, TPS has functions for detecting a fully-closed throttle and estimating intake air volume by the amount of throttle opening. Currently, we have conducted a study on transferring TPS functions into the MPS (manifold pressure sensor) in order to eliminate the TPS. Here we report on detecting a fully-closed throttle for achieving fuel cut control (FCC) and idle speed control (ISC) in fuel injection systems. We contrived a means for fully-closed throttle detection during ISC and controlling changes in the bypass opening during FCC in order to accurately judge each fully-closed throttle state via the manifold pressure.
Technical Paper
Horizon Walker Gitano, Ray Chim, Jian Loh
Abstract Recent concern over air quality has lead to increasingly stringent emissions regulations on ever smaller displacement engines, resulting in the application of Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) to the 100cc-200cc class 2-wheelers in many countries. In the pursuit of ever smaller and less expensive EFI systems a number of unique technologies are being explored, including resistive type oxygen sensors. In this paper we investigate the application of a prototype resistive oxygen sensor to a small motorcycle EFI system. Measurements of the exhaust system temperatures, and Air/Fuel Ratio (AFR) and resistive sensor response are carried out, and compared to the standard zirconia oxygen sensor to create an estimate of the sensor's in-use performance. Motorcycle performance data are compared using both a standard zirconia switching type oxygen sensor, and the new resistive type oxygen sensor to control the air/fuel ratio.
Technical Paper
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
Abstract The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of FAME mixed with diesel oil. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the KL factor were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The FAMEs examined in this study are PME, RME and CME, and compared with the combustion characteristics of diesel oil. From the systematic experiments, it is confirmed that the ignition delay and combustion period of bio diesel fuels are almost equivalent with those of diesel oil. The flame temperature decreased slightly with the bio fuel. Furthermore the total KL factor, a measure of the amount of soot in flame, decreased drastically by using the bio diesel fuel in the order of the mass fraction of oxygen in the molecule.
Journal Article
Antonio Agresta, Francesca Di Puccio, Paola Forte, Gabriele Benigni
Abstract NVH simulations for an automotive component industry represent a convenient mean to compare different solutions and make decisions on design choices based on the predictions of the component vibro-acoustic behavior. This paper presents the vibro-acoustic characterization and comparison of two fuel rail assemblies (FRAs) by mean of simulations in Ansys Workbench & LMS Virtual.Lab. These simulations required a preliminary finite element (FE) modal analysis on the FRAs. To verify the reliability of the FE models, an experimental modal analysis was performed on one of the two fuel rails in free-free condition. The correlation between FE and test models highlighted some differences: a sensitivity study proved that the differences depend on the modeling of some brazed joints. The results of the following NVH simulations were checked by performing an acoustic impact test on the two FRAs in free-free condition inside an anechoic chamber.
Journal Article
Jonathan Tenenbaum, Michael Shapiro, Leonid Tartakovsky
Abstract The paper presents an analytical two-dimensional model of two-phase turbulent jets with focus on fuel sprays in internal combustion engines. The developed model allows prediction of the fuel spray parameters including local fuel concentration and mixture velocity. The model proposed in this paper is based on the single-phase steady-state laminar axisymmetric jet flow field solution by Schlichting. This solution is amended to include transport of the discontinuous fuel phase in a stagnant air in the limit of a dilute fuel concentration. This two-phase jet flow model admits a closed form analytical solution for the fuel concentration distribution. This solution is then applied to turbulent jet flow as per the approach described by Schlichting and in other studies, and used to predict point-wise properties of fuel sprays in internal combustion engines. The results of model simulations are compared with the available experimental data.
Journal Article
Keiya Nishida, Kuichun LI, Takeru Matsuo, Daisuke Shimo, Wu Zhang
Abstract Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray.
Journal Article
Yongming Bao, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes
Abstract The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6558


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