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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries.
2015-04-23
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-23
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-22
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-22
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-21
Event
Papers focusing on fuel and fuel additive effects on classical diesel engine combustion with relatively short ignition delay, including papers dealing with low CR and high EGR calibrations. Subject matter may include both experimental and simulation results focused on oxygenated or bio-derived fuels, alternative petroleum formulations, fuel blends, or any other fuel-related factors affecting engine performance and emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
Focuses on SI combustion technologies that employ direct, in-cylinder fuel injection. Topics of particular interest include in-cylinder fuel injection and spray studies, flow/spray interaction and in-cylinder mixture formation studies, and combustion chamber shape optimization. Focus includes "stratified" operation or other modes enabled by DI hardware, DI-specific emissions issues such as particulates and smoke, and technologies enabled by DISI (such as downsizing).
2015-04-21
Event
Papers focusing on fuel and fuel additive effects on classical diesel engine combustion with relatively short ignition delay, including papers dealing with low CR and high EGR calibrations. Subject matter may include both experimental and simulation results focused on oxygenated or bio-derived fuels, alternative petroleum formulations, fuel blends, or any other fuel-related factors affecting engine performance and emissions.
2015-04-21
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-21
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 16-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Charlotte, North Carolina
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0861
Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Brad A. Boyer
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1730
Luca Romani, Giovanni Vichi, Giovanni Ferrara, Francesco Balduzzi, Paolo Trassi, Jacopo Fiaschi, Federico Tozzi
High specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are the main drawbacks of the small crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine. The symmetrical timing of the scavenging ports combined with a carburetor or an indirect injection system leads to a lower scavenging efficiency than a four-stroke engine and to the short-circuit of fresh air-fuel mixture. The use of fuel supply systems as the indirect injection and the carburetor are the standard solutions for a small two-stroke engine equipment, due to necessity of reducing the complexity, weight, overall dimensions and costs. This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the application of an innovative Low Pressure Direct Injection system (LPDI) to an existing 300 cc cylinder formerly equipped with a carburetor. The proposed solution is characterized by two injectors working at 5 bar of injection pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0857
Valentin Soloiu, Martin Muinos, Spencer Harp
In this study, a Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) obtained by sequential dual fueling strategy of n-butanol port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection of ULSD#2 was investigated against binary mixtures combustion (defined as premixed in the tank) of n-butanol and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2) with the same n-butanol to diesel ratios (35%, 50%, 65% by mass) in an omnivorous compression ignition engine. The hypothesis of the study is that combustion phasing (respectively CA50) can be successfully controlled by the above named strategies. Both fueling strategies controlled the high reactivity of the ULSD#2 and slowed down the chemical reactions with the low cetane number fuel, n-butanol. These processes led to fuel reactivity stratification and an increase in the ignition delay observed as the amount of n-butanol increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1647
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux, Jerome Cherel, Vivien Delpech
Euro VI standards for heavy duty vehicles require the use of a DPF in order to fulfill the particulate matter threshold. Although passive regeneration of soot by NO2, promoted by a DOC located upstream the DPF, is preferred, the use of an active regeneration might be required whenever the DPF soot mass trapped increases. Some manufacturers made the choice a fuel injection in the exhaust system in order to generate an exothermic reaction in the DOC that helps to regenerate the particulate filter. This dedicated circuit avoids the use of post-injection which may induce oil dilution by diesel. The DPF regeneration is efficient and the DOC works durably if the exhaust diesel spray is completely vaporized before entering DOC and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0831
Wonah Park, Youngchul Ra, Eric Kurtz, Werner Willems, Rolf D. Reitz
The low temperature combustion concept is very attractive for reducing NOx and soot emissions in diesel engines. However, it has potential limitations due to higher combustion noise and CO and HC emissions. A multiple injection strategy is an effective way to reduce unburned emissions and noise in LTC. In this paper, the effect of multiple injection strategies was investigated to reduce combustion noise and unburned emissions in LTC conditions. A hybrid surrogate fuel model was developed and validated, and was used to improve LTC predictions. Triple injection strategies were considered to find the role of each pulse and then optimized. The split ratio of the 1st and 2nd pulses fuel was found to determine the ignition delay. Increasing mass of the 1st pulse reduced unburned emissions and an increase of the 3rd pulse fuel amount reduced noise. It is concluded that the pulse split ratio can be used as a control factor for emissions and noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0847
Xiao Ma, Haoye Liu, Yanfei Li, Zhi Wang, Hongming Xu, Jian-Xin Wang
Stoichiometric Dual-fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) combustion has good potential both in emission control and thermal efficiency. It was found that split injection of diesel can effectively enlarge the controllable range in combustion phase control and increase the flexibility in the fuel selection. This study focuses on the effects of split injection strategies at low and mid loads in SDCI mode. The impacts of split ratio, the pilot and main injection timing are studied, including their interaction with the available maximum gasoline-to-diesel ratio. The simplified principles of the fuel supply strategy design was promoted to avoid complicated multi-factor optimization. Generally, larger percent of the pilot injection at an early crank angle results in better PM emissions, but the main injection duration should be long enough to supply proper amount of diesel for an optimized combustion phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1731
Yanxiang Yang, Bingqian Tan, Changwen Liu, Ping Zhang, Daguang Xi
Fuel supply unit for small engine management system usually has two ends, pump and injector, in which fuel is mostly metered by controlling the injector and pump is driven mechanically or electrically to produce injection pressure. This paper presents a pump-end control technology for pump-nozzle fuel supply unit, in which the pump is driven and controlled electrically for pressurizing and metering the fuel fed into an engine. The fuel supply unit is composed of a solenoid driven plunger pump and an auto-open nozzle, and it is directly driven by PWM signals from ECU. The pump and nozzle are connected with a high-pressure fuel tube of a length in a large scope. For such a fuel supply unit, the PWM pulse time T1 actuated on the solenoid can only be co-related to the fuel injected amount with large errors because too many factors may affect the result.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0967
Tingjun Hu, Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Bin Chen
Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GTDI) engines have a flat torque curve with the maximum torque covering a wide engine speed range. Increasing the high-speed-end torque for a GTDI engine provides better acceleration performance to the vehicle powered by the engine but it also leads to longer injection durations to deliver the fuel requested. In this study, results are reported of experimental investigation of impact of fuel injection on dilution of the crankcase oil for a highly-boosted GTDI engine lubricated with SAE 5W30 synthetic engine oil. It is found that the high-speed-end torque for the GTDI engine has a significant influence on fuel dilution because longer injection durations result in impingement of large fuel drops on the piston top and considerable levels of fuel dilution. Test results indicate that the higher the torque at the rated-power, the higher the level of fuel dilution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0925
Erik Elmtoft, A. S. (Ed) Cheng, Nick Killingsworth, Russell Whitesides
Injection spray dynamics is known to be of great importance when modeling turbulent multi-phase flows in compression-ignition engines. Two key aspects of spray dynamics are liquid breakup and penetration, both of which are affected by the initial sizes of the injected droplets. In the current study, injection of n-heptane is characterized with droplet sizes smaller than the 100 μm nozzle diameter by using a uniform distribution based on the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). This is done for a RANS RNG k-ε turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 125 μm and for a LES-Viscosity turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 62.5 μm. The turbulence models are validated against non-reacting experimental data from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Multiple realizations are also performed for LES-Viscosity to represent individual experimental injections. The results show that multi-phase physics of sprays can be adequately captured when the initial size distribution is chosen appropriately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0950
Jonas Galle, Roel Verschaeren, Sebastian Verhelst
The need for simulation tools for the internal combustion engine is becoming more and more important due to the complex engine design and increasingly strict emission regulation. This implies models that are able to give more accurate results while keeping the time efforts for calculations at an acceptable level. Fuels consist of a complex mixture of different molecules which cannot realistically be handled in computations. Simplifications are required and are realized using fuel surrogates. The main goal of this work is to show that the choice of the surrogates is of importance if simplified models are used and that the performance strongly depends upon the sensitivity of the fuel properties that refer to the main model hypotheses. This is important as this is usually not taken into consideration by modelers. As a consequence of these influences, too much tuning needs to be done to match experiments with the modeling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0878
Guanzhang He, Hui Xie
A two stage turbocharging system is adapted to simulate the power turbine that is installed downstream the charging turbine to further recover waste energy in the exhaust. The potential of energy recovery from the exhaust gas is investigated. The effect of two important controllable factors including injection timing and position of VGT (variable geometry turbocharger) vanes is studied though experiments. The overall fuel consumption benefit, fuel energy distribution, and link efficiency along the energy flow path are involved in the analysis. It is found that total power output of whole system can be enhanced when the exhaust gas is adequate corresponding to the high speed and load engine operating condition. The energy recovered will be counteracted or even less than the power loss of the original engine when low speed and load running condition is considered. The increment of pumping loss plays the dominant role in limiting the further enhancement of total power.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1264
Junseok Chang, Yoann Viollet, Abdullah Alzubail, Amir Faizal Naidu Abdul-Manan, Abdullah Al Arfaj
This paper explores the potential for reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by introducing high-efficiency spark-ignition engines with a dual-fuel injection system to customize octane of the fuels based on real-time engine requirements. Recent study [1] shows that 4-6% GHG emissions can be reduced by replacing 2/3 light duty vehicle fleet with high efficiency engines that are designed with higher compression ratio and boost levels. However, this can be only possible if premium gasoline fuel (Research Octane Number, RON=98 or 100) is readily available on a large scale to supply a fleet demand. From a refinery perspective, increasing the octane of the fuels to such high levels could potentially require significant and costly upgrades to the reforming and isomerization units as well as lower gasoline yield, and thus, this is not an economically attractive option for many of the refiners. In our study, we considered different strategy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0938
Prashanth Karra, Thomas Rogers, Petros Lappas
The air entrainment process of a compressed natural gas transient fuel jet was investigated in a constant-volume chamber using Schlieren and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Jet to ambient pressure ratios of 20, 40, and 60 were tested. In each test, nitrogen was used to fill the chamber as an air surrogate before the jet of natural gas was injected. Schlieren high speed videography and PIV experiments were performed at the same conditions. Schlieren mask images were used to accurately identify the jet boundary which was then superimposed onto a PIV image. Vectors adjacent to the Schlieren mask in the PIV image were used to calculate the spatial distribution of the air entrainment at the jet boundary. The effects of ambient density and injection pressure on the air entrainment and contour shape at various parts of the jet are investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0913
Ryo Uchida, Daisuke Tanaka, Toru Noda, Shinya Okamoto, Keiji Ozawa, Tsuneaki Ishima
In a direct injection gasoline engine, the impingement of injected fuel on the oil film, i.e. cylinder liner gives rise to various problems such as abnormal combustion, oil dilution and particulate matter emission. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. However, there is little information on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the oil film, whereas many investigations on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the fuel film are reported. In this study, fundamental investigations were performed for the purpose of clarifying the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. A single fuel droplet mixed with fluorescence dye was dripped on the oil film. To separately measure the fuel and the oil after impingement, simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0949
Mathis Bode, Tobias Falkenstein, Vincent Le Chenadec, Seongwon Kang, Heinz Pitsch, Toshiyuki Arima, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and emissions levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is one of the major topics of today's injection system research. The performance of GDI systems depends on multiple physical processes. The internal flow and the mixing of the coherent liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment are two examples. Studying these processes is very difficult due to the overall complexity and the involved small length and time scales. Especially the region just after exiting the nozzle, where the primary breakup occurs, is experimentally hardly accessible, but a clear understanding of this region is particularly important, because primary breakup affects multiple other physical processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0946
Yongjin Jung, Julien Manin, Scott Skeen, Lyle M Pickett
A variation in spreading angle of diesel spray from a 3-hole nozzle injector was seen by a long distance microscopy in non-reacting and non-evaporating conditions. The variation from an axial single-hole injector with a nominally identical nozzle size does not occurred in non-reacting or reacting conditions. To investigate the effect of the variation in the spreading angle, liquid penetration length were measured by the Mie scattering in a horizontal configuration to avoid a temperature gradient within the combustion vessel. In addition, the diffused back illumination (DBI) was applied to the vertically injected configuration after matching an ignition delay in both configurations to be similar. Schlieren was employed to quantity the penetration and the spreading angle of vapor jet. The liquid penetration increased gradually after a rapid ramp-up region and starts a hump at around 600 us, which corresponds to the convergence of the spreading angle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Liquid spray breakup and atomization, two multi-phase phenomena, strongly affect the ignition and combustion processes. High-speed jet-to-jet impingement in water sprays could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O’Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation.
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