Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 4423
2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Liquid fuel atomization and spray formation is the heart of the majority of stationary and mobile power generation machines that we rely on. This seminar focuses on the process of liquid atomization and spray formation and how it relates to fuel injection systems and emission of pollutants in modern engines. The seminar begins with background coverage of terminology, the purposes of liquid atomization and spray formation, and different designs of atomizers and nozzles employed in various industries.
2015-04-21
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2015-04-21
Event
Focuses on SI combustion technologies that employ direct, in-cylinder fuel injection. Topics of particular interest include in-cylinder fuel injection and spray studies, flow/spray interaction and in-cylinder mixture formation studies, and combustion chamber shape optimization. Focus includes "stratified" operation or other modes enabled by DI hardware, DI-specific emissions issues such as particulates and smoke, and technologies enabled by DISI (such as downsizing).
2015-04-21 ...
  • April 21-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 16-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Charlotte, North Carolina
  • August 24-25, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0794
Zongyu Yue, Randy Hessel, Rolf Reitz
The application of close-coupled post injection in Diesel engine has been proved to be an effective in-cylinder strategy for soot reduction, without much fuel efficiency penalty. But due to the complex condition of in-cylinder combustion, the soot reduction mechanism of post-injection is difficult to be explained clearly and remains ambiguous. Here, a simulation study, using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, coupled with SpeedChem chemistry solver and semi-detailed soot model, is carried out to investigate post-injection in a constant volume combustion chamber model, which is more simple and controllable in respect to boundary conditions. A 2-D axisymmetric grid of radius of 2 cm and height of 5 cm is used to represent the geometric confine for spray from one nozzle in an optical engine. Post-injection duration, initial temperature, initial oxygen concentration is swept respectively to study efficacy of post-injection under different combustion condition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0924
Joseph Camm, Richard Stone, Martin Davy, David Richardson
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0922
Fulvio Palmieri
Relatively recent investigations, basing on experiments as well as on modeling, have highlighted that the needle displacement in common-rail diesel injectors is affected by radial components. The effects of such “off-axis” needle displacement on fuel flow features have been so far investigated within the nozzle, only. The objective of this work is to extend the attention towards the formation of fuel sprays, when needle off-axis condition is encountered. In such a viewpoint, the development of each fuel spray has been modeled taking into account the hole-to-hole variations induced by the needle misalignment. The investigation has been carried out basing on 3D-CFD campaigns, in AVL FIRE environment. The modeling of diesel nozzle flow has been interfaced to the spray simulation, initializing the break-up model on the basis of the transient flow conditions (fuel velocity, turbulence and vapor fraction) at each hole exit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0927
Luca Marchitto, Gerardo Valentino, Simona Merola, Cinzia Tornatore
The use of alcohols as alternative to gasoline for fuelling spark-ignition (SI) engines is widespread. Growing interest is paid for n-butanol because of its characteristics that are similar to gasoline, if compared with other alcohols. This paper reports the results concerning an experimental investigation on velocity fields of alcohol sprays injected by a 6-hole nozzle for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engine. 2D Mie-scattering Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an optically accessible injection vessel at ambient temperature and pressure. Two different fuels were used: commercial gasoline and pure n-butanol. The fuel were injected at two different injection pressures: 5 MPa and 10 MPa. The effect of n-butanol using on the liquid spray morphology, tip penetration, cone angle and velocity vector distribution of the liquid fuel droplets was explored.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0928
Anand Kumar, Balaji Sekar, G Devaradjane
In present day automobile plays a major role in road transportation across the globe. The primary source for propulsion in many vehicles is an internal combustion engine. The present emission norm demands engine which can support for a green environment with high performance and low emissions. There are many factors like fuel type, climatic conditions, injection pressure, injection timing, nozzle hole, combustion chamber shape, swirl rate, fuel quantity etc. which affects direct injection diesel engine characteristics. In this present work the injection pressure is considered and its effects on the Biodiesel - diesel blend is investigated. The injection pressure is increased to 1600 bar using a high pressure pump. The experiment is carried out in 5HP, single cylinder, and direct injection diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500rpm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0916
Yevgeniy Salykin, Viktor Slavutskiy, Denis Berezyukov, Valentin Lipilin, Aleksey Skorobogatov
Range of requirements is made to modern diesel engines fuel-feed systems. The first is providing of necessary pressure level of fuel injection to cylinder at various operation regimes of diesel engine along with flexible management of fuel-feeding process. Common Rail systems fulfill those requirements. Those systems are widely distributed at present time, for example, at automotive diesel engines. However diesel engines without those systems are produced up to now. For example universal diesel engines with cylinder number less than three are of that type. Those engines mainly don’t have electronic control system and don’t provide required injection pressure level especially at regimes with low crankshaft rotational speeds. New method of fuel-feed in diesel engine is proposed for eliminating of those disadvantages. That method uses principle of speed forcing of fuel-injection pump.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0917
Alessandro Montanaro, Michela Costa, Ugo Sorge, Luigi Allocca
The work analyses, from both the experimental and the numerical point of view, the interaction of a spray generated from an injector for GDI applications with a solid wall. In GDI mixture formation, a relevant quantity of the injected gasoline may unintentionally impact on the combustion chamber walls, or be intentionally directed towards the piston head to redirect the spray towards the spark plug, as in the wall-guided configuration. Spray droplets may hit on the surface and being rebounded, stick to form a film or being heated and undergo secondary evaporation. The deposited fuel on the wall evaporates more slowly than free droplets and does not permit a sufficient homogeneity of the mixture prior of the start of the ignition. The deposition of a gasoline film on the chamber walls, indeed, is a relevant source of pollutants production like unburned hydrocarbon and particulate matter.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0941
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
Spray processes, such as primary breakup, play an important role for subsequent combustion processes and emissions formation. Accurate modeling of these spray physics is therefore key to ensure faithful representation of both the global and local characteristics of the experimentally measured spray. However, the physical mechanism underlying primary breakup in fuel sprays is still not known. Several theories have been proposed, the most widely used being aerodynamic-induced breakup or liquid turbulence-induced breakup. There is therefore a need to assess the appropriateness of each of these breakup theories and compare the predicted spray morphologies over a wide range of conditions relevant to engine operation. Failure to adequately validate the physical basis of spray models can compromise their predictive capabilities in engine and spray combustion simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0937
Philip Zoldak, Joel John Joseph, William Shelley, Jaclyn Johnson, Jeffrey Naber
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the U.S. and relatively low cost compared to diesel has renewed interest in the conversion of medium and heavy duty diesel engines to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel systems. The objective of NG fuel systems is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining or even improving overall vehicle fuel economy. This is seen by many as a path to help the U.S. achieve energy independence from foreign oil sources. Traditionally, premixed spark-ignited combustion has been applied as the conversion technology for medium and heavy duty engines with widespread use. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon which requires spark timing retard at the high load limits.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle’s internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs due to large changes in refractive index between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle 500µm in diameter.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0949
Mathis Bode, Tobias Falkenstein, Vincent Le Chenadec, Seongwon Kang, Heinz Pitsch, Toshiyuki Arima, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and emissions levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is one of the major topics of today's injection system research. The performance of GDI systems depends on multiple physical processes. The internal flow and the mixing of the coherent liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment are two examples. Studying these processes is very difficult due to the overall complexity and the involved small length and time scales. Especially the region just after exiting the nozzle, where the primary breakup occurs, is experimentally hardly accessible, but a clear understanding of this region is particularly important, because primary breakup affects multiple other physical processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0914
Ehsan Tootoonchi, Gerald Micklow
Today, our nation faces tremendous energy, economic and environmental challenges. Significant changes in the production and consumption of energy must take place to minimize adverse energy and environmental impacts. Global fuel conservation and a reduction of our reliance on foreign oil supplies as well as environmental concerns are compelling reasons to find cost-effective solutions to both reduce our consumption of energy and transition to renewable sources. The automobile has a broad impact on the U.S. economy, and is an integral part of our daily lives. Therefore, it is imperative that proposed goals of increased fuel efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions be implemented immediately. Increasing engine efficiency will reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions. Improving the combustion process and/or changing the type of fuel burned can both markedly increase engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0940
Yun Bai, Liyun Fan, Xiuzhen Ma, Enzhe Song, Xin Yan
Electronic in-line pump system (EIPS) is a new time controlled electronic fuel injection system which meets China’s emission regulation. It has advantages in flexible adjustability both of injection timing and injection rate. The stability of fuel injection quantity (FIQ) is the key injection characteristics for the system to match diesel engines successfully. The interaction between parameters has significant effects on the stability and coherence of FIQ because of the EIPS is a complex multi-physics field coupling system which assembled together mechanical, hydraulic and electrical magnetic. In this paper, combining numerical modeling with experimental design methods, a numerical model of the EIPS was built in the AMESim environment for the purpose of creating a design tool for engine application and system optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0936
Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Zak Tilocco, Nicolas Sovis, Christopher F. Powell
Recent advancements in spray radiography diagnostics at Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, rather than ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole, diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, resulting in 15 different conditions. We calculate two dimensional standard fluctuation fields, which illuminate the spatial and temporal extend of variability between each spray event. Regions of large fluctuations are seen move downstream during the initial spray period reach a steady state location. This steady state location is observed to have dependencies on rail pressure and ambient pressure. Correlation analysis is presented to investigate inherent time scales in the data at each spatial location.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0934
Pascal Tetrault, Etienne Plamondon, Matthieu Breuze, Camille Hespel, Christine Mounaïm-Rousselle, Patrice Seers
Many diesel fuel spray models have been proposed in the literature. In some instance, they are based on experimental correlations such as (Pastor et al., 2011) who proposed a correlation based on a statistical analysis of Fischer-Tropsch and biodiesel experimental fuels spray under evaporating conditions and found that the liquid length of the spray was sensitive to the fuel boiling range and highly sensitive to the ambient temperature. Other models are based on physical principles such as the one proposed by (Desantes et al., 2006) who presented a fuel spray tip penetration model based on the measurements of momentum flux that they successfully compared against experimental data. While some models are useful only during the injector needle opening or for very long injection, (Roisman, Araneo et Tropea, 2007) analyzed the tip of the spray and proposed a two regions model based on the early stage of the spray and the far field penetration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Liquid spray breakup and atomization, two multi-phase phenomena, strongly affect the ignition and combustion processes. High-speed jet-to-jet impingement in water sprays could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O’Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0911
Juliane Wetzel, Michael Henn, Mark Gotthardt, Hermann Rottengruber
The optimization of the mixture formation represents a great potential for the decrease of fuel consumption and emissions of the spark-ignition engine. The injector and the nozzle have the main influence in this case. In order to adjust the nozzle geometry according to the requirements an understanding of the physical transactions in the fuel spray is indispensable. In particular the primary spray break-up is still inadequately described due to the difficult accessibility with optical measuring instruments. This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of the nozzle-near spray development, which substantially influences the entire spray shape. Single hole injectors of the gasoline direct injection (GDi) with different nozzle hole geometries were investigated at a high pressure chamber by using the MIE scattering technique. To magnify the spray very close to the nozzle exit a long-distance microscope in combination with a Nd:YAG-laser were used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0925
Erik Elmtoft, A. S. (Ed) Cheng, Nick Killingsworth, Russell Whitesides
Injection spray dynamics is known to be of great importance when modeling turbulent multi-phase flows in compression-ignition engines. Two key aspects of spray dynamics are liquid breakup and penetration, both of which are affected by the initial sizes of the injected droplets. In the current study, injection of n-heptane is characterized with droplet sizes smaller than the 100 μm nozzle diameter by using a uniform distribution based on the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). This is done for a RANS RNG k-ε turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 125 μm and for a LES-Viscosity turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 62.5 μm. The turbulence models are validated against non-reacting experimental data from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Multiple realizations are also performed for LES-Viscosity to represent individual experimental injections. The results show that multi-phase physics of sprays can be adequately captured when the initial size distribution is chosen appropriately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0931
Zihan Wang, Andrew Swantek, Riccardo Scarcelli, Daniel Duke, Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, Sibendu Som, Ronald Reese, Kevin Freeman, York Zhu
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays are simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time are compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations are simulated and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior are investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0930
J Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, Parthasarthy Murugesan, Dhinesh Balasubramanian, K Annamalai
In this investigation, the effect of injection pressure on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine powered with turbulence inducer piston is studied. Engine tests have been carried out using conventional diesel and 20% blend of Adelfa biodiesel [A20]. Results obtained from renewable fuel A20 in conventional engine shown reduction in brake thermal efficiency by poor air fuel mixing characteristics, because of its higher viscosity. This prompted the research towards improvement of turbulence for better air fuel mixing by a novel turbulence inducer piston [TIP]. The further investigation was carried out to study the combined effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston. Considerable improvement in emission characteristics like hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke were obtained as a result of optimized injection pressure. Nevertheless, the nitrogen oxide emissions were slightly higher than the conventional unmodified engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0938
Prashanth Karra, Thomas Rogers, Petros Lappas
The air entrainment process of a compressed natural gas transient fuel jet was investigated in a constant-volume chamber using Schlieren and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Jet to ambient pressure ratios of 20, 40, and 60 were tested. In each test, nitrogen was used to fill the chamber as an air surrogate before the jet of natural gas was injected. Schlieren high speed videography and PIV experiments were performed at the same conditions. Schlieren mask images were used to accurately identify the jet boundary which was then superimposed onto a PIV image. Vectors adjacent to the Schlieren mask in the PIV image were used to calculate the spatial distribution of the air entrainment at the jet boundary. The effects of ambient density and injection pressure on the air entrainment and contour shape at various parts of the jet are investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0950
Jonas Galle, Roel Verschaeren, Sebastian Verhelst
The need for simulation tools for the internal combustion engine is becoming more and more important due to the complex engine design and increasingly strict emission regulation. This implies models that are able to give more accurate results while keeping the time efforts for calculations at an acceptable level. Fuels consist of a complex mixture of different molecules which cannot realistically be handled in computations. Simplifications are required and are realized using fuel surrogates. The main goal of this work is to show that the choice of the surrogates is of importance if simplified models are used and that the performance strongly depends upon the sensitivity of the fuel properties that refer to the main model hypotheses. This is important as this is usually not taken into consideration by modelers. As a consequence of these influences, too much tuning needs to be done to match experiments with the modeling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0920
J. Sureshkumar, R Elayaraja, J M Mallikarjuna, Ganesan V
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system, which uses high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection duration and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4423

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: