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Training / Education
2014-11-07
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications. The majority of the day will be dedicated to the common rail system itself, beginning with a comprehensive overview of the complete system. The instructor will then introduce the main subsystems, including hydraulics and controls. Finally, the subsystems will then be broken-down into their respective components.
Event
2014-10-20
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-10-20
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-10-20
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-10-20
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-04-10
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-04-10
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-04-10
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-04-09
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-04-09
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Event
2014-04-09
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
MIng Huo, Mianzhi Wang, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract In the new combustion strategies such as RCCI and dual-fuel combustion, the diesel pilot injection plays a pivotal role as it determines the ignition characteristics of the mixture and ultimately the combustion and emission performance. In this regard, equivalence ratio distribution resulted from the pilot injection becomes very important. In this work, computation study is carried out using KIVA-3V to simulate the engine compression stroke from intake valve close (IVC) to close to TDC so as to investigate the impact of piston geometry, injection start timing and flow initialization on the equivalence ratio distribution from a pilot injection in HSDI engine. Two piston geometry (the stock piston with bowl-in piston shape and a flat piston), three injection timing (80 CA, 60 CA and 40 CA BTDC) and three velocity initializations (Bessel fit with constant value of 3.11 and 2.2; and a velocity field obtained from PIV measurement on a steady-state bench flow test facility with minimum valve lift) were considered.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Raouf Mobasheri, Seyed Alireza Khabbaz
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an effective pre-treatment technique, which has been widely used to decrease the amount of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission from diesel engines. However, the use of high EGR rates leads to the reduction in oxygen availability in the burning regions of the combustion chamber which impairs the soot oxidation process. Consequently, higher soot generated by EGR leads to long-term usage problems inside the engines such as higher carbon deposits, lubricating oil degradation and enhanced engine wear. In this study, CFD modeling has been carried out to analyze the effects of high EGR rates in conjunction with optimum multiple injection strategies. A heavy-duty DI Diesel engine has been modeled to study the engine performance and emissions with various EGR rates (from 0% to 40%). The selected operating points have been achieved with the same injection profile including a main and post injection for all considered cases. The results showed the effectiveness of multiple injections at controlling soot emission under high EGR conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Remko Baur, Jan Peter Blath, Christian Bohn, Franz Kallage, Matthias Schultalbers
Abstract The precision of direct fuel injection systems of combustion engines is crucial for the further reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. It is influenced by the dynamic behavior of the fuel system, in particular the injection valves and the common rail pressure. As model based control strategies for the fuel system could substantially improve the dynamic behavior, an accurate model of the common rail injection system for gasoline engines - consisting of the main components high-pressure pump, common rail and injection valves - that could be used for control design is highly desirable. Approaches for developing such a model are presented in this paper. For each key component, two models are derived, which differ in temporal resolution and number of degrees of freedom. Experimental data is used to validate and compare the models. The data was generated on a test bench specifically designed and built for this purpose. The test bench consists of the relevant components of a current production four-cylinder gasoline engine which were slightly modified in order to mount sensors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Benedikt Huber, Heinz Ulbrich
Abstract Common rail diesel injectors are multi-domain systems with complex interactions between mechanical, hydraulic and electrical components. For a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior and for further performance improvements, often simulation models are indispensable. Injection dynamics is influenced by the opening and closing dynamics of the solenoid valve. Therefore an accurate simulation model of the solenoid valve is necessary for injector simulations. The objective of this study is to present a validated simulation model of the solenoid valve of a commercially available common rail diesel injector. For modeling the solenoid valve, a division into a mechanical and a magnetic submodel is done. The mechanical submodel is made up by a two mass system representing the pin and the armature of the solenoid valve. Contacts are modeled using linear-elastic spring-damper elements and viscous damping is considered for friction representation. The magnetic submodel is based on experimentally gained static magnetic force data.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Subrata Sarkar, Kailash Golecha, Surbhi Kohli, Vaughn Mills, Mustafa Huseyin, Pritam Bhurke, Stefan Walter, Ravikumar S. Dinni, Shrikrishna Jaywant Deshpande
Abstract The primary objective of this study was to provide an efficient system solution for the removal of fuel from an Active Drain Liquid Trap (ADLT), used in automotive vent systems; using a Jet Pump. The Voice of Customer was collected and analyzed. The two major focus areas identified were - improvement in robustness of Jet Pump performance and maximization of induced flow. Robust design of such a Jet Pump was carried out using Taguchi's Orthogonal Crossed Array based parameter design, through computer simulation. Two Jet Pumps were designed for Gasoline based vehicles; one with the conventional approach and the other with the robust design approach. Both were put on a field trial, integral with the vent system. The robust design showed a tremendous improvement in performance over the conventional design, due to the elimination of cavitation and insensitivity to noises.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Ming Huo, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, because of their potential to be produced from renewable sources and their characteristics suitable for clean combustion, are considered potential fuels which can be blended with fossil-based gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. As such, n-butanol has received a lot of attention in this regard and has shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation is one of the major methods to produce bio-butanol. The goal of this study is to investigate the combustion characteristics of the intermediate product in butanol production, namely ABE, and hence evaluate its potential as an alternative fuel. Acetone, n-butanol and ethanol were blended in a 3:6:1 volume ratio and then splash blended with pure ethanol-free gasoline with volumetric ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% to create various fuel blends. These blends were tested in a port-fuel injected spark-ignited (SI) engine and their performance was evaluated through measurements of in-cylinder pressure, and various exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Eric Hein, Adam Kotrba, Tobias Inclan, Andrew Bright
Secondary fuel injection is applied to facilitate active soot management of the particulate filter within diesel aftertreatment systems, avoiding concerns with fuel delivery via in-cylinder post-injection. System performance is dependent on the thermo-fluid interactions of the injected fuel with the exhaust stream, with the intent of having more fully vaporized fuel and a well-mixed air-fuel mixture at the inlet of the oxidation catalyst for uniform thermal distribution as it exothermically reacts. Pre-heating the fuel with a diesel vaporizer prior to its delivery into the exhaust enables improved system performance, reducing droplet sizes and mixing demands. A diesel vaporizer is applied within the exhaust of a medium duty truck application, and the response of the catalyst is characterized across a variety of conditions. Cross-sectional measurements at the catalyst and filter outlet are described, including gas velocity, temperature, and HC concentration, and the effect of poor fuel vaporization is demonstrated.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
Abstract Advanced injection systems play a major role in reducing engine out emission in modern diesel engines. One interesting technology is the common rail injection system which is becoming more vital in controlling emission due to its flexibility in injection pressure, timing and number of injection events. Many studies have showed the advantages of using such injection parameters to meet the strict emission and improve engine performance. A glow plug/ ion current sensor was used to measure ionization produced during the combustion process. The ion current signal contains many valuable information including combustion phasing, duration and combustion resonance. In prior publications, it was demonstrated the capability of the ion current to control the combustion phasing and the ability to detect combustion resonance. Therefore, the experimental testing was conducted under controlled combustion phasing using the feedback from the ion current sensor. Since the combustion noise is mainly produced by combustion resonance, the ion current sensor was used to detect combustion resonance in this work.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward, Thomas Steffen
Abstract A three-pulse fuel injection mode has been studied by implementing two-input-two-output (2I2O) control of both peak combustion pressure (Pmax) and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The engine test results show that at low engine speed, the first main injection duration and the second main injection duration are able to be used to control Pmax and IMEP respectively. This control is exercised within a limited but promising area of the engine map. However, at high engine speed, Pmax and IMEP are strongly coupled together and then can not be separately controlled by the two control variables: the first and the second main injection duration. A simple zero-dimensional (0D) combustion model together with correlation analysis method was used to find out why the coupling strength of Pmax and IMEP increases with engine speed increased. It was found that the closer coupling of Pmax and IMEP at higher engine speeds is due to the following reasons: (i) combustion occupied a larger crank angle; (ii) there was lower maximum heat release rate and (iii) there was a stronger correlation between IMEP and manifold air pressure (MAP) and promoted by the turbocharger.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Roberto Krenus, Marcos R. V. Passos, Thiago Ortega, Kenneth Mowery, Young Jin Kim, Lucille G. Lavan, Kuho Lee, C.J. Park, Kwang Han
Abstract After the second worldwide oil crisis, Brazil put in place by 1975 a strategic plan to stimulate the usage of ethanol (from sugar cane), to be mixed to the gasoline or to be sold as 100% ethanol fuel (known as E100). To enable an engine to operate with both gasoline and ethanol (and their mixtures), by 2003 the “Flex Fuel” technology was implemented. By 2012 calendar year, from a total of about 3.8 million vehicles sold in the Brazilian market, 91% offered the “Flex Fuel” technology, and great majority used a gasoline sub-tank to assist on cold starts (typically below 15°C, where more than 85% of ethanol is present in fuel tank). The gasoline sub-tank system suffers from issues such as gasoline deterioration, crash-worthiness and user inconvenience such as bad drivability during engine warm up phase. This paper presents fuel injector technologies capable of rapidly electrically heating the ethanol fuel for the Brazilian transportation market. These heated fuel injectors can be used for cold starting ethanol fueled engines as presented in SAE paper 2009-01-0615 [1] and to enable emissions reduction with a variety of automotive fuels as presented in SAE paper 2010-01-1265 [2].
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Saiful Bari, Idris Saad
Abstract The performance of a compression ignition (CI) engine run with alternative fuel is inferior to when it is run with petro-diesel resulting in lower power, higher fuel consumption and higher carbon deposits. This is due to the poorer properties of the alternative fuel for the CI engine compared to petro-diesel, for instance, higher viscosity. Due to this factor, this research has grouped these fuels as higher viscous fuels (HVFs). In order to solve or reduce the problem of higher viscosity, this paper presents research that has sought to improve the in-cylinder airflow characteristics by using a guide vane so that the evaporation, diffusion, mixing and combustion processes can be stimulated eventually improving or at least reducing the problem. The in-cylinder airflow was studied using ANSYS-CFX with the help of SolidWorks. Firstly, the validated base model replicated from the generator of a CI engine was prepared. Then, 10 guide vane models with various numbers of vanes were adapted to simulate the in-cylinder airflow characteristics.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daniela Anna Misul, Mirko Baratta, Hamed Kheshtinejad
Abstract Sustainable mobility has become a major issue for internal combustion engines and has led to increasing research efforts in the field of alternative fuels, such as bio-fuel, CNG and hydrogen addition, as well as into engine design and control optimization. To that end, a thorough control of the air-to-fuel ratio appears to be mandatory in SI engine in order to meet the even more stringent thresholds set by the current regulations. The accuracy of the air/fuel mixture highly depends on the injection system dynamic behavior and to its coupling to the engine fluid-dynamic. Thus, a sound investigation into the mixing process can only be achieved provided that a proper analysis of the injection rail and of the injectors is carried out. The present paper carries out a numerical investigation into the fluid dynamic behavior of a commercial CNG injection system by means of a 0D-1D code. The model has been validated by comparing the experimental readings to the numerical outputs in terms of injection system pressure profiles versus time.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Roy Hartfield, Timothy W. Ledlow
Abstract This paper describes the conception, development, and analysis of a new engine type. The continuous flow rotary vane engine described in this work represents a new paradigm in heat engine technology in that positive displacement compression and expansion processes are incorporated in a steady flow, continuous pressure gain combustion design. This concept is explored through an ideal gas cycle analysis and a more realistic engineering analysis in which the gas losses are accounted for using a zero dimensional energy based analysis and the friction losses are accounted for using a one-dimensional analysis. Realistic performance estimates are included. An ongoing prototype development effort to test the performance predictions is included and as assessment of applicability for the engine concludes the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bo Yang, Xing Wei, Ke Zeng, Ming-Chia Lai
Abstract Natural gas has been considered to be one of the most promising alternative fuels due to its lower NOx and soot emissions, less carbon footprint as well as attractive price. Furthermore, higher octane number makes it suitable for high compression ratio application compared with other gaseous fuels. For better economical and lower emissions, a turbocharged, four strokes, direct injection, high pressure common rail diesel engine has been converted into a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. For dual-fuel engine operation, natural gas as the main fuel is sequentially injected into intake manifold, and a very small amount of diesel is directly injected into cylinder as the ignition source. In this paper, a dual-fuel electronic control unit (ECU) based on the PowerPC 32-bit microprocessor was developed. It cooperates with the original diesel ECU to control the fuel injection of the diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. Also, a real-time diesel substitution rate control strategy for the dual-fuel engine was implemented.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Donald Selmanaj, Harald Waschl, Michael Schinnerl, Sergio Savaresi, Luigi del Re
Abstract Especially in view of more and more stringent emission legislation in passenger cars it is required to reduce the amount of pollutants. In the case of Diesel engines mainly NOx and PM are emitted during engine operation. The main influence factors for these pollutants are the in-cylinder oxygen concentration and the injected fuel amount. Typically the engine control task can be divided into two separate main parts, the fuel and the air system. Commonly air system control, consisting of a turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation control, is used to provide the required amount of oxygen and address the emission targets, whereas the fuel is used to provide the desired torque. Especially in transient maneuvers the different time scales of both systems can lead to emission peaks which are not desired. Against this background in this work instead of the common way to address the air system, the fuel system is considered to reduce emission peaks during transients. The idea is to start from a base calibration and adapt the injection parameters, like start and amount of pilot and main injection, to reduce transient emission peaks.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rickard Solsjo, Mehdi Jangi, Clément Chartier, Oivind Andersson, Xue-Song Bai
Abstract The paper presents a large eddy simulation investigation on the effect of fuel injection pressure on mixing, in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine. Recent investigation on impinging wall jets at constant-volume and quiescent conditions exhibited augmented air entrainment in wall jets with increasing injection pressure, when compared with a free jet. The increased mixing rates were explained as owing to enhanced turbulence and vortex formation in the jet-tip in the recirculation zone. A recent investigation carried out in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine indicated however a negligible effect of injection pressure on the mixing in the engine environment. The effect of enhanced turbulence and vortex formation of the jet-tip in the recirculation zone is believed weaker than the effect of engine confinement, due to the presence of fuel from adjacent jets limiting the mixing the fuel with the ambient gas. The aims of this paper are to investigate this issue and to look into more details about the nature of the mixing process in diesel engines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yoshihiro Sukegawa, Kengo Kumano, Kenichiro Ogata
Abstract A technique of estimating particulate matter (PM) from gasoline direct injection engines is proposed that is used to compute mass density and particle number density of PM by using fuel mass in rich mixtures obtained by using non-combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD code that was developed by the authors employed a Cartesian coordinates system as a discretization method and large eddy simulation (LES) as a turbulence model. Fuel spray droplets were treated with the discrete droplet model (DDM). The code was verified with some experimental data such as those obtained from in-cylinder gas-flows with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and in-cylinder fuel concentration with laser induced fluorescence (LIF). PM emissions from a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to determine the model constants that were required in the estimation model. We confirmed that the technique could be applied to various engine operating conditions and fuel spray patterns.
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