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Training / Education
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
Training / Education
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2017-12-01
WIP Standard
J2045
This SAE Standard encompasses the recommended minimum requirements for non-metallic tubing and/or combinations of metallic tubing to non-metallic tubing assemblies manufactured as liquid- and/or vapor-carrying systems designed for use in gasoline, alcohol blends with gasoline, or diesel fuel systems. This SAE Standard is intended to cover tubing assemblies for any portion of a fuel system which operates above –40 °C (–40 °F) and below 115 °C (239 °F), and up to a maximum working gage pressure of 690 kPa (100 psig). The peak intermittent temperature is 115 °C (239 °F). For long-term continuous usage, the temperature shall not exceed 90 °C (194 °F). It should be noted that temperature extremes can affect assemblies in various manners and every effort must be made to determine the operating temperature to which a specific fuel line assembly will be exposed, and design accordingly.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0147
Clayton B. Zabeu, Luana C. X. Camargos, Luiz Rafael Marinsek, Rafael C. R. Berti, Renan L. Nicola, Rafael Serralvo Neto
Abstract The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the automotive sector has demanded an increase in the efficiency of internal combustion engines as well as the use of renewable fuels, with ethanol being one of the most promising fuels. In SI PFI engines, the quality of the air-fuel mixture formed during the injection event is dependent on several factors, such as: physical-chemical properties of the fuel (density, viscosity, surface tension, latent heat of vaporization), interaction between fuel spray and gas flow / pipe walls / back surfaces the intake valves.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0388
Fernanda Pinheiro Martins, Santiago Daniel Martinez Boggio, Pedro Texeira Lacava, Claudia Regina de Andrade, Alexander Penaranda, Maycon Ferreira Silva, Maria Esther Sbampato
Abstract In the last few decades a significant effort has been stablished in the automotive industry as well as in academic community towards increasing the renewable fuels applications in internal combustion engines, such as alcohol and gas derived sources. Meanwhile, turbo charging direct-injection spark-ignition engines have become fundamental features to achieve downsizing purposes, increasing power generation efficiency and attending high restrictive emissions regulations that have being taking place recently. For this study, experimental tests were carried out in a single cylinder research engine considering direct injection (DI) and port fuel injection (PFI) operations with anhydrous ethanol. The aim of this paper is to present a review and conduct further investigation about methodologies applied for imaging post processing considering chemiluminescence technique applied in an optical research engine.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0415
Antônio Adalberto Cavalcante M Filho, Iago Henrique Lima Santiago, João Telésforo Nóbrega de Medeiros, Manoel Fernandes de Oliveira Filho
Abstract The atomization process in a Diesel engine is directly involved with its efficiency, emissions and damage. The biodiesel insertion brought with it interactions not expected by the components involved in the injection process and, consequently, different wear mechanisms. This paper aims to evaluate the injector nozzle hole wear and the consequences to the atomized jet profile by using a high-speed camera. The tests were run in a common rail test rig using two injectors, one to each biodiesel formulation during the period of 20 hours, non-continuous, for each one The injection parameters were set to 800 bar, 700 μs and 18 Hz (representing partial load in a usual common rail engine), for the pressure, time and frequency of injection, respectively.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0272
Victor Hugo de Castro Lima, Carlos Alberto Gomes Júnior, Márcio Expedito Guzzo, Thiago Rodrigo Vieira da Silva, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta, Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho
Abstract The growing demand for more efficient and less polluting engines has lead the scientific community to further develop the road map engine technologies, including direct fuel injection. Direct injection research demands the investigation of spray formation and its characteristics. The present work performs the characterization of the macroscopic parameters of ethanol sprays (E100) produced with a fuel gauge pressure of 80 bar and gauge back pressures of 0, 5 and 10 bar. The sprays analysis was performed using high speed filming by means of Shadowgraph technique. Computational routines of matrix analysis were applied to measure the spray cone angles, penetration and penetration rate. The spray visualization demanded an experimental apparatus composed of a pressurized cylinder with nitrogen, a fuel tank as pressure vessel, an injection driver equipped with a peak and hold module controlled by a MoteC M84, a Phantom V7.3 high speed camera and LEDs for illumination.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0360
Raphael Meireles Braga, Marilia Gabriela Vaz, Clarissa de Moraes Martins, Gustavo Hindi, Rudolf Huebner
Abstract The fuel injection in internal combustion engines plays a crucial role in the mixture formation, combustion process and pollutants' emission. Its correct modeling is fundamental to the prediction of an engine performance through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. In the first part of this work a tridimensional numerical simulation of a multi-hole’s injector, using ethanol as fuel, is presented. The numerical simulation results were compared to experimental data from a fuel spray injection bench test in a quiescent vessel. The break up model applied to the simulation was the combined Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor, and a sensitivity analysis of the liquid fuel penetration curve, as well on the overall spray shape was performed according to the model constants. Experimental spray images were used to aid the model tuning. The final configuration of the KH-RT model constants that showed best agreement with the measured spray was C3 equal to 0.5, B1, 7 and Cb, 0.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0077
Herman Saputro, Laila fitriana, Masato Mikami
Experiments of flame-spread of fuel droplets have been performed in microgravity actively. However, the experiment has limitation in the number of droplets due to relatively short microgravity durations in the ground based facilities. It is difficult to conduct flame spread experiments of large scale droplet clouds in microgravity. This study conducted simulation of flame-spread behavior in randomly distributed large-scale droplet clouds by using a percolation approach, in order to make a theoretical link the gap between droplet combustion experiments and spray combustion phenomenon with considering two-droplet interaction. Droplets are arranged at lattice points in 2D lattice. The occurrence probability of group combustion (OPGC) is calculated as a function of the mean droplet spacing (S/d0)m.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0054
Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo, Phonethip Trichanh, Kevin Ferdyamin, Mega Zulfikar Akbar
This research aims to investigate the effect of ethanol blends with pure gasoline to the rate of fuel consumption and emissions of fuel injection motorcycle 115 cc with automatic transmission which is the population is dominant in Indonesia. Variations of the bioethanol mixture are 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% ethanol. The experiment conducted in two different conditions by using three ways catalytic converter (TWC) in the exhaust pipe and without using TWC in the exhaust pipe. First, all engine setting was originally manufacture setting. Second, the AFR is set in stoichiometry condition (λ = 1) and ignition timing set in MBT timing using modified ECU. The experiment performed on the chassis dynamometer and referred on the standard cycle ECE 15. The results of this experiment showed that increment of ethanol content in the fuel makes the rate of fuel consumption and CO2 emission both increased but CO and HC emissions decreased.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0059
Yoshinori Nakao, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Kozo Suzuki, Katsumi Sobakiri
In this paper, it is also elucidated that the influence of the downstream injection, which caused different fuel behavior in contrast with upstream injection, on the THC after warm-up and at the maximum power, as well as its mechanism. The mechanism is clarified by use of the intake port visualization system. First, at each injection position, the effect of injection timing on THC emission after warm-up was evaluated. In the downstream injection, THC emission increases during the injection timing, in which the fuel spray directly flows in-cylinder during the intake process (hereinafter defined as the intake valve opening injection timing), and the amount of THC emission is reduced at the other injection timing (hereinafter defined as the intake valve closing injection timing). Based on the results of visualizing the intake port, injected fuel phase near the intake valve is spray in the downstream injection.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0067
Ranjana Meena, Pradeep Ramachandra, Adwitiya Dube
With the increased demand of mobility in the form of two-wheelers and the continued dominant share of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) in Indian market, there is considerable influence on the deterioration of air quality. The regulators in this region have legislated Bharat Stage 6 (BS6) as a measure to restrict tail pipe emissions, which necessitates the automotive industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Some of the factors influencing this includes, air-fuel mixture formation, spray targeting, fuel properties, flow dynamics, combustion chemical kinetics, exhaust after-treatment etc. The focus area of this paper is to study the influence of air-fuel mixture formation which is highly dependent on fuel droplet atomization, injection timing, fuel injector, injection pressure and mixture preparation techniques to reduce the engine out emissions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0032
Rizal Mahmud, Seong Bum Kim, Toru Kurisu, Keiya Nishida, Yoichi Ogata, Jun Kanzaki, Tadashi Tadokoro
Heat loss is more critical for the thermal efficiency improvement in small size diesel engines than large-size diesel engines. More than half of total heat energy in the internal-combustion engine is lost by cooling through the cylinder walls to the atmosphere and the exhaust gas. Therefore, the new combustion concept is needed to reduce losses in the cylinder wall. In a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine, the spray behavior, including spray-wall impingement has an important role in the combustion development to reduce heat loss. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanism of the heat transfer from the spray and flame to the impinging wall. Experiments were performed in a constant volume vessel (CVV) at high pressures and high temperatures. Fuel was injected using a single-hole injector with a 0.133 mm diameter nozzle. Under these conditions, spray evaporates, then burns near the wall. Spray/flame behavior was investigated with a high-speed video camera.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0046
Tomoyuki Mukayama, Ryota Nishigami, Annisa Bhikuning, Go Asai, Masaki Kuribayashi, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
The CO2 gas dissolved fuel for the diesel combustion is effective to reduce the NOx emissions to achieve the internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) effect by fuel. This method has supplied EGR gas to the fuel side instead of supply EGR gas to the intake gas side. The fuel has followed specific characteristics for the diesel combustion. When the fuel is injected into the chamber in low pressure, this CO2 gas is separated from the fuel spray. The distribution characteristics of the spray are improved and the improvement of the thermal efficiency by reduction heat loss in the combustion chamber wall, and reduce soot emissions by the lean combustion is expected. Furthermore, this CO2 gas decreases the flame temperature. Further, it is anticipated to reduce NOx emissions by the spray internal EGR effect.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0002
N. Balasubramanian, G. R. Keerthi, J. T. Nithin, S. Jayabalan, T. N. C. Anand
This paper presents the results of tests using a prototype pump-integrated port fuel injector that is designed for small gasoline engines. The unique construction of the injector eliminates the need for a separate feed pump. The device is intended as a solution to meet the upcoming emission norms similar to Euro 6 standards, to be implemented in Asian countries. In particular, the Indian two-wheeler market which produces around 20 million vehicles annually [1], migrates to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission standards in the year 2020. This market is largely cost-driven and currently most of the motorcycles use carburettors as fuelling systems. It is expected that the adoption of port fuel injection would be inevitable to meet the BS VI emission norms. To minimize the increase in cost due to such a change, a new injector is developed, which integrates the fuel pump within the injector, making the system simple and compact, while calling for no change in the fuel tank.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0017
Yuzuru Sasaki, Nobuhiko Yamaguchi, Akira Arioka, Katsunori Komuro, Dai Kataoka, Shunji Akamatsu
Abstract In recent times, due to the improvement of internal cylinder flow analysis technology with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the prediction accuracy of fuel consumption and emission has improved. However, small motorcycles often have complex intake ports which restrict the layout of injectors. Therefore optimization of injection spray to achieve high combustion efficiency and less wall wetting is a challenge. In this study, we predicted fuel consumption and emission performance by the simulation result of air fuel distribution and wall wetting amount with an actual motorcycle engine model. We optimized injector nozzle length, spray angle and spray tip penetration. After the optimization, we evaluated the emission performance and fuel consumption with an actual engine. As a result, we were able to confirm the improvement of fuel consumption and emission performance.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0103
T. Painrungrot, C. Charoenphonphanich, H. Kosaka, M. Tongroon
Ethanol is a good choice for alternative fuel which is prefer to dual fuel diesel engine. In this study, ethanol will be injected in to the intake manifold to cool down the intake temperature and reduce the amount of diesel fuel consumption. And also, use a technique called internal exhaust gas recirculation. The exhaust valve will be reopened during the intake stroke for 4mm. to vaporized the injected ethanol in the combustion chamber. The objective of this research is to study the effect of injection timing of dual fuel (diesel) on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged, single cylinder 4-stroke direct injection compression ignition engine including ethanol fumigation and internal EGR, and also varying the injection pressure of diesel. Then using ethanol fuel as a secondary fuel to replace the energy input from diesel fuel by 10, 20, and 30%.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0096
H. R. Guru Kiran, J. M. Mallikarjuna
Today, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are becoming very popular because of their potential to reduce soot and nitric oxides (NOx) emissions simultaneously. But, their performance and emission characteristics are very much dependent upon fuel injection strategy and parameters. However, they also have many challenges viz., improper combustion phasing, high rate of pressure rise and narrow operating range. Therefore, addressing them is very essential before making them a commercial success. This study focuses on evaluating the effect of fuel injection strategy and parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In this study, a four-stroke engine operating in the HCCI mode is considered and the CFD analysis is carried out by using the CONVERGE.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0115
Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hidenori Kosaka
To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5017
Ronith Stanly, Gopakumar Parameswaran, R Rajkiran
Abstract Conventionally, influence of injector coking deposits has been studied using accelerated coking methods. For this work we used in-use vehicles fitted with Common Rail Direct injection (CRDi) injectors in “as-is where is” condition with considerable coked injector deposits. They were then cleaned with a commercial fuel system cleaning solution which did not require the removal of injectors; the influence of injector deposits on vehicular performance and spray field were studied. It was observed that the removal of coking deposits resulted in an increase in the peak power of the vehicle, a lower fuel injected quantity and lower fuel injection duration. It was also observed that the fuel system cleaning procedure resulted in better atomization of fuel spray, better uniformity of the multiple spray jets and an increase in the flow rate of the test injectors.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2287
Aniseh Abdalla, Guoyang Wang, Jun Zhang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Abstract Advanced exhaust after-treatment technology is required for heavy-duty diesel vehicles to achieve stringent Euro VI emission standards. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most efficient system that is used to trap the particulate matter (PM), and particulate number (PN) emissions form diesel engines. The after-treatment system used in this study is catalyzed DPF (CDPF) downstream of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) with secondary fuel injection. Additional fuel is injected upstream of DOC to enhance exothermal heat which is needed to raise the CDPF temperature during the active regeneration process. The objective of this research is to numerically investigate soot loading and active regeneration of a CDPF on a heavy-duty diesel engine. In order to improve the active regeneration performance of CDPF, several factors are investigated in the study such as the effect of catalytic in filter wall, soot distribution form along filter wall, and soot loads.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2286
A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract Ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and fuel injection strategies influence the cold start performance of gasoline engines. Despite the cold start period is only a very small portion in the legislative emission driving cycle, but it accounts for a major portion of the overall driving cycle emissions. The start ability tests were carried out in the weather controlled transient dynamometer - engine test cell at different ambient conditions for investigating the cold start behavior of a modern generation multi-point fuel injection system spark ignition engine. The combustion data were analyzed for the first 200 cycles and the engine performance and emissions were analyzed for 300 s from key-on. It is observed that cumulative fuel consumption of the engine during the first 60 s of engine cold starting at 10 °C was 60% higher than at 25 °C and resulted in 8% increase in the value of peak speed of the engine.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
Abstract In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2293
Jim Barker, Jacqueline Reid, Sarah Angel Smith, Colin Snape, David Scurr, Graham Langley, Krina Patel, Anastarsia Carter, Cris Lapthorn, Frank Pullen
Abstract Studies of diesel system deposits continue to be the subject of interest and publications worldwide. The introduction of high pressure common rail systems resulting in high fuel temperatures in the system with the concomitant use of fuels of varying solubilizing ability (e.g. ULSD and FAME blends) have seen deposits formed at the tip of the injector and on various internal injector components. Though deposit control additives (DCAs) have been successfully deployed to mitigate the deposit formation, work is still required to understand the nature and composition of these deposits. The study of both tip and internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) has seen the development of a number of bench techniques in an attempt to mimic field injector deposits in the laboratory. One of the most used of these is the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester or JFTOT (ASTM D3241).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2283
Anand Prabu Kalaivanan, Gnanasekaran Sakthivel
Abstract Electronic Fuel Injection Systems have revolutionised Fuel Delivery and Ignition timing in the past two decades and have reduced the Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions, ultimately enhancing the Economy and Ecological awareness of the engines. But the ignition/injection timing that commands the combustion is mapped to a fixed predefined table which is best suited during the stock test conditions. However continuous real time adjustments by monitoring the combustion characteristics prove to be highly efficient and be immune to varying fuel quality, lack of transient performance and wear related compression losses. For developing countries, Automotive Manufacturers have been Tuning the Ignition/Injection timing Map assuming the worst possible fuel quality. Conventional knock control system focus on engine protection only and doesn't contribute much in improving thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2266
Bin Yang, Hu Wang, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Jialin Liu, Naifeng Ma, Qiping Wang, Haien Zha, Peng Chen
Abstract Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2269
Shijun Dong, Xiaobei Cheng, Biao Ou, Can Yang, Zhaowen Wang, Fumin Pan
Abstract Based on a composed PRF/ethanol/PAH mechanism, simulations were conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of n-heptane spray under premixed ethanol/air and iso-octane/air atmosphere in a combustion vessel. The effects of premixed ethanol and iso-octane on ignition delay, important soot precursors and soot volume fraction of n-heptane spray were studied. Also, simulated results with and without considering the cooling effects of premixed fuel vaporization were compared. When the cooling effect of premixed fuel vaporization was not considered, simulations showed that premixed ethanol could increase the ignition delay of n-heptane spray at ambient temperatures below 850K. However, premixed iso-octane showed little inhibition effect on ignition of n-heptane spray. Also, it was found that both premixed ethanol and iso-octane contributed to faster ignition under high ambient temperatures.
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