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2016-10-24
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-04-15 ...
  • April 15, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
2016-04-14
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-04-14
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-04-13
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-04-13
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-04-12
Event
This session is devoted to experimental and computational work in the area of fuel injection systems and sprays. Topics include: spray characterization, cavitation, multi-phase jet modeling, CFD models for spray processes, wall films and impingement, hydraulic circuit analysis, and dissolved gas effects. Studies of both gasoline and diesel fuel sprays and fuel injection equipment are encouraged.
2016-04-12 ...
  • April 12-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 5-6, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0863
In spark ignition engines, the nozzle design, fuel pressure, injection timing, and interaction with the cylinder/piston walls govern the evolution of the fuel spray inside the cylinder before the start of combustion. The fuel droplets, hitting the surface, may rebound or stick forming a film on the wall, or evaporate under the heat exchange effect. The face wetting results in a strong impact on the mixture formation and emission, in particular, on particulate and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior, atomization, and vaporization of impinging sprays on the metal surface. A mono-component fuel, iso-octane, was adopted in the spray-wall studies inside an optically-accessible quiescent chamber by imaging procedures using a Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up in combination with a high-speed C-Mos camera.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0867
Yanfei Li, Haichun ding, Hengjie Guo, Xiao Ma, Daliang Jing, Jian-Xin Wang
The spray characteristics is the key to achieve the clean combustion in diesel engines and the in-cylinder conditions are one of the factors affecting the spray process. In this work, the diesel spray characteristics were studied over a range of injection pressures and ambient pressures in a constant volume chamber and a single-hole common rail diesel injector was used. The present work is to decouple the effect of ambient pressure and ambient density on near-field spray process by using different ambient gas (He, N2, and CO2). The spray process was captured by a Photron SA X2 camera with speed of 300,000 fps and resolution of 256 by 80.The spray process were analyzed in terms of penetration length and spray spreading angle. Difference in penetration length and spray angle were found at the same ambient density and/or ambient pressure when different ambient gases were used.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0839
Wenbin Yu, Wenming Yang, Balaji mohan, Kunlin Tay, Feiyang zhao, Yunpeng zhang, Siawkiang chou, Markus Kraft, Malcolm Andrew Alexander, Alfred Yong, Kwokhow Lou
In this study, the internal nozzle flow and macroscopic spray characteristics of a kind of wide distillation fuel (WDF) – kerosene were investigated both with numerical and experimental approaches. Simulation results indicate that compared with diesel fuel, kerosene cavitates more due to higher turbulent kinetic energy as a result of lower viscosity. The results from experiment indicate that under lower charge density, the spray penetration for kerosene is obviously shorter than that for diesel, especially for the lower injection pressure. This is because lower fuel viscosity results in a reduction in the size of the spray droplets, leading to lower momentum. However the spray angle of kerosene is larger compared with diesel due to stronger turbulence in the nozzle flow caused by increased cavitation for kerosene, which also accords well with the simulation results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0859
Fatemeh Salehi, Matthew J. Cleary, Assaad R. Masri
This paper presents a detailed sensitivity analysis of the sparse-Lagrangian multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) model to different parameters in simulations of n-dodecane flame A which is adopted by the engine combustion network (ECN). The model is fully coupled with a large eddy simulation (LES) approach. A gas-jet model is used for the fuel injection. The MMC-LES model is first examined for a non-reacting case and the sensitivity of the results to variations in the inlet turbulence intensity are examined. It is found that the mixture fraction profiles agree well with the experimental data. The vapour penetration is overpredicted but there is significant improvement by increasing the turbulence intensity of the inlet jet from 10% to 15%. The model sensitivities to inlet turbulence intensity, mixing model parameters and chemical kinetics is then investigated for reacting cases. Simulations are performed at various levels of ambient oxygen (13% - 21%).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0017
Alessandro Biondi, Marco Di Natale, Youcheng Sun
Several application developers are currently faced with the problem of moving a complex system from a single-core to a multicore platform. The problem encompasses several issues that go from modeling issues (the need to represent the system features of interest with sufficient accuracy) to analysis and optimization techniques, to the selection of the right formulations for constraints that relate to time. We report on the initial findings in a case study in which the application of interest is a fuel injection system. We provide an analysis on the limitations of AUTOSAR and the existing modeling tools and we discuss applicable optimization methods and analysis algorithms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0991
Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
The influence of oxygenates on particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines has differing reports in the literature. It is hypothesised that these conflicting results can be explained by fuel vaporisation, and its composition in terms of aromatic content and heavy end components. For good control of the experiments M15 fuels have been mixed from pure fuel components and this enables the distillation characteristics to be matched to those of an M15 ULG. Code has been written to predict the vapour pressure of the non-ideal M15 blends; by controlling the fuel temperature experiments can be conducted with flashing and non-flashing fuel sprays. Two contrasting M15 fuels have been used: one ‘clean’ fuel, and a second ‘heavy’ fuel in terms of the vapour pressure, T90, aromatic content. Rig studies with backlit illumination and Mie scattering have been used for characterization of penetration length, spray angles (and collapse) and bulk evaporation rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0558
Christoph Poetsch, Tomaz Katrasnik
The steadily decreasing emission limits and the continuous quest to improve fuel economy are key driving forces to optimize internal combustion engines. Turbocharged, direct injection Diesel engines equipped with various EGR strategies and advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems are a promising technology. Still, great potential to further improve the emission vs. BSFC trade-off lies in the optimization of the whole engine process. Model based optimization techniques have become indispensable in the development process, both in the office simulation as on the HiL testbed. If identical models can be used in both environments, process time and costs are significantly reduced. Therefore it is necessary to combine the high degree of modeling depth of physical based models for injection, combustion and emission with fast calculation times of real-time engine models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0852
Nwabueze Emekwuru
The results of the numerical characterisation of the hydrodynamics of Soybean Oil Methyl Ester (SME) fuel spray using a spray model based on the moments of the droplet size distribution function are presented. A heat and mass transfer model based on the droplet surface-area-averaged temperature is implemented in the spray model and the effects on the SME fuel spray tip penetration and droplet sizes at different ambient gas temperature (300k to 450k) and fuel temperature (300k to 360k) values are evaluated. The results indicate that the SME fuel spray tip penetration values are insensitive to variations to the fuel temperature values but increase with increasing ambient gas temperature values. The droplet size values increase with increasing SME fuel temperature. The fuel vapour mass fraction is predicted to be highest at the spray core, with the axial velocity values of the droplets falling with increases in the SME fuel spray temperature.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0870
Kaushik Saha, Sibendu Som, Michele Battistoni, Yanheng Li, Eric Pomraning PhD, P. K. Senecal
The present work involves modeling of internal and near-nozzle flows of a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) nozzle. The ECN Spray G conditions have been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. Initially best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. Mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Capability of assessing the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature have been established, by predicting non-flashing, moderate flashing and intense flashing and correlating with degree of superheat and non-dimensional numbers such as, Jakob number.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0775
Zhanteng Chang, Chao Yu, Haiyan Zhang, Shuojin Ren, Zhi Wang, Boyuan Wang, Jianxin Wang
Homogeneous charge induced ignition (HCII) combustion is realized by using a port injection of gasoline to form a homogeneous charge and using a direct injection of diesel fuel to ignite.Compared to conventional diesel combustionwith high injection pressures (normally more than 1000 bar), HCII has the potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiency with significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions with relatively low-pressure injection, which would benefit the engine cost savings remarkably. In this paper, the impacts of injection pressure (400 to 800 bar) on HCII were studied in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at a medium engine load (8 bar). Combustion characteristics, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0843
Huifeng Gong, Zongjie Hu, Yaozu Zhang, Qiong Yang, Liguang Li
Fuel spray evaporation strongly determines the formation of in-cylinder fuel vapor for direct injection engines, and thus greatly affects the ignition, combustion, and pollutants formation. However, the evaporation process of actual spray is quite complex due to the multi-scale, multi-phase and highly transient nature. This work presents an experimental study on the evaporating droplet-laden two-phase flow. In this study, the liquid fuel n-heptane is pre-atomized by an ultrasonic nozzle to produce droplet cluster of 15μm in median diameter, and a continuous cold air flow is applied to carry the fuel droplet cluster to emerge from a nozzle tube, producing a free turbulent jet of droplet stream. The droplet stream is introduced as the central jet into a square-shaped channel with heated air flow so as to investigate the evaporation characteristics under various conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0874
Giuseppe Quaremba, Luigi Allocca, Amedeo Amoresano, Vincenzo Niola, Alessandro Montanaro, Giuseppe Langella
The characterization of a stationary spray, such as gas turbine, or of an unsteady one, such that in i.c. engines, is mainly based on the study of fluid dynamic parameters such as the average velocity, both radial and axial, the droplet diameters distribution, etc. These data are mostly recovered by using optical diagnostic systems such as LDV, PDPA, PIV. Furthermore, it is necessary to associate to these data other geometric and morphologic parameters, giving information about the length of the spray, the jet penetration and the cone angle. Finally, a time-analysis of the jet behavior is necessary to understand its evolution within the combustion chamber. This information is retrieved by means of optical measurement techniques such as Schlieren imaging and light scattering, by using sensors to be connected to cameras and therefore subject to the laws of the geometrical optics. In fact, the images thus recorded are real matrices and can be processed by advanced digital techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0856
Meghan J. Borz, Yoontak Kim, Jacqueline O'Connor
Advanced injection schedules involving multiple injections are used for reducing the peak cylinder pressure, phasing heat release rates, and reducing emissions in diesel engines. The timing and duration of injections determine the injection schedule efficacy, and the goal of this work is to better understand the interaction mechanisms between subsequent injections. Both timing and duration effects are captured by using three different dwell times and seven injection durations. To capture the driving fluid mechanics of interacting injections, experimental gas jet studies are conducted using schlieren, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). The jet penetration rate results reveal a slip-streaming effect by which the second injection penetrates at a faster rate than the first injection near the start of injection (SOI).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0845
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has become a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of engine combustion phenomena. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating in the experimental effort carry out tests at well-defined boundary conditions and using well-characterized hardware. In this framework, the reference Spray A injectors have produced different results even when tested in the same facility, highlighting that the nozzle employed and its fouling are important parameters to be accounted for. On the other hand, the number of the available Spray A injectors became an issue, due to the increasing number of research centers and simultaneous experiments taking place in the ECN community. The present work has a double aim: on the one hand, to seek for an appropriate methodology to “validate” new injectors for ECN experiments and to provide new hardware for the ECN community.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0747
Vicente Bermudez, Raul Payri, J. Javier Lopez, Daniel Campos, Gilles Coma, Frederic Justet
Nowadays, 2-stroke CAI engines are under investigation in the context of direct injection gasoline engines as a solution to the CO2 future legislations. Since the main part of these investigations are centered on engine performance or some engine processes simulation, leaving aside particle number (PN) emission evaluation, this paper will focus on this last topic: particle emission analysis when using two different injectors, and a global comparison of PN emission of the present engine with its corresponding 4-stroke engine at three operating conditions keeping the same BMEP. This work has been performed in a single-cylinder gasoline engine with 0.3 l displacement, equipped with an air-assisted direct-injection fuel injection system. The equipment used in this study is a TSI-EEPS 3090 device for particle measurement and a DEKATI-FPS 4000 as a dilution system. Concerning the two injectors evaluated, significant differences in particle emission have been found.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered as a clean alternative fuel to diesel fuel due to a number of properties such as short ignition delay and soot-free combustion. To prevent corrosion of fuel supply lines and overcome low lubricity of DME, hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) has been used previously for DME injection with its unique feature of pressure intensification. In this study, a 1-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile that later contributes significantly to spray and combustion characteristics. SIMULINK model has three advantages: high degree of flexibility, the ability to model a nonlinear system, and the ability to take on non-zero initial conditions. The outputs of model is compared with experimental ROI data of both diesel and DME at different injection pressure, injection duration, and single-hole/multi-hole nozzles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0853
Francesco Catapano, Michela Costa, Guido Marseglia, Paolo Sementa, Ugo Sorge, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Performance of internal combustion engines is well known being greatly affected by the air-fuel mixture formation process. In GDI engines, the impact of the gasoline spray on the piston or cylinder walls is a key factor, especially under the so-called wall-guided mixture formation mode, but not only. The impact causes droplets rebound and/or the deposition of a liquid film (wallfilm). After being rebounded, droplets undergo what is called secondary atomization. The wallfilm, on the other hand, may remain of no negligible size and evaporate slowly. This leads to increased unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter emissions. In the present paper, the experimental characterization of a multi-hole spray in its impact over the piston shaped is carried out through optical diagnostic developed under different injection strategies to investigate the effect of the wall temperature distribution on the phenomenon.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0678
Haifeng Lu, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Fangen Yuan, Degang Xie, Shuang Yuan, Yuan Shen
China’s State Council has released the Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicle Industrialization Plan, which states an expected fleet average target of 5.0L/100km by 2020. This means that the OEMs must apply much more advanced technologies to their production models. Compared to the EGR technology in diesel engines, the gasoline engine EGR is not a large-scale application in the market. But it has a promising potential to optimize the fuel economy for its anti-knock effect, pumping loss reduction and compatibility to the three-way catalyst. In this research, a 1.3L turbocharged PFI gasoline engine was used to evaluate the LP(low pressure) water-cooled EGR technology. The operating conditions vary from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar, and the common engine operating points in NEDC cycle are tested separately. Meanwhile, the compression ratio is changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to get higher fuel efficiency.
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