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2015-10-26 ...
  • October 26-28, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • May 9-11, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Safety continues to be one of the most important factors in motor vehicle design, manufacture and marketing. This seminar provides a comprehensive overview of these critical automotive safety considerations: injury and anatomy; human tolerance and biomechanics; occupant protection; testing; and federal legislation. The knowledge shared at this seminar will enable attendees to be more aware of safety considerations and to better understand and interact with safety experts. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 18 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2868
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness and investigate regulations and industry trends in relation to truck occupant protection. The paper provides analysis of truck driver casualties in crashes to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms and to review regulatory and industry initiatives concerned with reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit vehicles in the NHTSA Class 7 & 8 weight range. The study used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types.
2015-09-17 ...
  • September 17-18, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • July 26-27, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Side impact crashes account for approximately twenty-six percent of all motor vehicle fatal crashes, second only to frontal crashes, according to a report by the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA). While car companies and suppliers continue to develop new technologies that make vehicles safer, NHTSA rolled out updated safety regulations (FMVSS 214) based on new research studies, making vehicle safety design more and more complex. This seminar is designed to familiarize participants with the engineering principles behind vehicle and restraint designs for occupant safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
Abstract In a car accident which is involving pedestrians, head injuries occur very frequently as the head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate the pedestrian injury, and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion by changing the design and/or materials.. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test, e.g. a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful results from single test and thus, tests should be executed several times. In this study, a lab-scale windshield impact test was performed using a modified instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Tests were carried out by switching test conditions such as the impact speed, the size of the head form and the specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract Injury distributions of belted drivers in 1998-2013 model-year light passenger cars/trucks in various types of real-world frontal crashes were studied. The basis of the analysis was field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The studied variables were injury severity (n=2), occupant body region (n=8), and crash type (n=8). The two levels of injury were moderate-to-fatal (AIS2+) and serious-to-fatal (AIS3+). The eight body regions ranged from head/face to foot/ankle. The eight crash types were based on a previously-published Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The results of the study provided insights into the field data. For example, for the AIS2+ upper-body-injured drivers, (a) head and chest injury yield similar contributions, and (b) about 60% of all the upper-body injured drivers were from the combination of the Full-Engagement and Offset crashes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Abstract Fatal injuries suffered by cyclists in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents are investigated to provide information for the introduction of safety countermeasures. We analyzed characteristics of cyclist injuries in real fatal accidents and compared them with severity levels of head injury in impact tests against a road surface. In the accident analyses, we investigated the main body regions whose injuries led to fatalities using a macro vehicle-cyclist accident database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we investigated the frequency of cyclist fatalities by gender, age group, vehicle speed, and the source of fatal head injury (impact with the vehicle or road surface). Results indicated that head injuries are the most common cause of cyclist fatalities in car-cyclist accidents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1419
Raymond M. Brach
Abstract Numerous algebraic formulas and mathematical models exist for the reconstruction of vehicle speed of a vehicle-pedestrian collision using pedestrian throw distance. Unfortunately a common occurrence is that the throw distance is not known because no evidence exists to locate the point of impact. When this is the case almost all formulas and models lose their utility. The model developed by Han and Brach published by SAE in 2001 is an exception because it can reconstruct vehicle speed based on the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and pedestrian. The Han-Brach model is comprehensive and contains crash parameters such as pedestrian launch angle, height of the center of gravity of the pedestrian at launch, pedestrian-road surface friction, vehicle-road surface friction, road grade angle, etc. Such an approach provides versatility and allows variations of these variables to be taken into account for investigation of uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract In the present study, various risk curves for moderate-to-fatal head injury (AIS2+) were theoretically assessed by comparing model-based injury rates with field-based injury rates. This was accomplished by applying the risk curves in corresponding field models. The resulting injury rates were considered from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph events) and point-estimate (higher-speed, barrier-like events). Four risk curves were studied: a HIC15-based curve from Mertz et al. (1997), a BRIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2011), a BrIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2013) and a Concussion-Correlate-based curve from Rowson et al. (2013). The field modeling pertained to adult drivers in 11-1 o'clock, towaway, full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, calendar years = 1993-2012), and the model-year range of the passenger vehicles was 1985-2010.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Abstract Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, and weight among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used. The head was instrumented with an accelerometer array.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1451
Anand Sai Gudlur, Theresa Atkinson
Abstract The current study examined field data in order to document injury rates, injured body regions, and injury sources for persons seated in the second row of passenger vehicles. It was also intended to identify whether these varied with respect to age and restraint use in vehicles manufactured in recent years. Data from the 2007-2012 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS/CDS) was used to describe occupants seated in the second row of vehicles in frontal crashes. Injury plots, comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were used to seek factors associated with increased risk of injury. Restraint use reduced the risk of AIS ≥ 2 injury from approximately 1.8% to 5.8% overall. Seventy nine percent of the occupants in the weighted data set used either a lap and shoulder belt or child restraint system. The most frequently indicated injury source for persons with a MAIS ≥ 2 was “seat, back support”, across restraint conditions and for all but the youngest occupants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun Yang
Abstract Each year, more than 270,000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world's roads. Globally, pedestrians constitute 22% of all road traffic fatalities, and in some countries this proportion is as high as two thirds of all road traffic deaths. Millions of pedestrians are non-fatally injured and some of whom are left with permanent disabilities. These incidents cause much suffering and grief as well as economic hardship. To lower the rate of pedestrian injuries and fatalities, the Euro-Ncap committee adopted an overall impact star-grade system in 2009, making the pedestrian protection cut-off score required to obtain the best impact-star grade more stringent until 2016. It is very difficult to surpass the enhanced pedestrian cut-off score using past methods. In this paper, I determine the hood's worst-performing areas in terms of pedestrian protection by analyzing previous pedestrian test results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1471
Hiroyuki Asanuma, Yukou Takahashi
Abstract The evaluation of pedestrian safety performance of vehicles required by regulations and new car assessment programs (NCAPs) have been conducted. However, the behavior of a pedestrian in an actual car-pedestrian accident is complex. In order to investigate injuries to the pedestrian lower body, the biofidelity of the lower limb and the pelvis of a pedestrian dummy called the POLAR II had been improved in past studies to develop a prototype of the next generation dummy called the POLAR III. The biofidelity of the thigh and the leg of the POLAR III prototype has been evaluated by means of 3-point bending. However, the inertial properties of these parts still needed to be adjusted to match those of a human. The biofidelity of the pelvis of the POLAR III prototype has been evaluated in lateral compression. Although the experiment using PMHSs (Post Mortem Human Subjects) was conducted in dynamic condition, the dummy tests were performed only in quasi-static condition.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1470
Takahiro Isshiki, Atsuhiro Konosu, Yukou Takahashi
Abstract Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles. In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
Abstract Multibody human models are widely used to investigate responses of human during an automotive crash. This study aimed to validate a commercially available multibody human body model against response corridors from volunteer tests conducted by Naval BioDynamics Laboratory (NBDL). The neck model consisted of seven vertebral bodies, and two adjacent bodies were connected by three orthogonal linear springs and dampers and three orthogonal rotational springs and dampers. The stiffness and damping characteristics were scaled up or down to improve the biofidelity of the neck model against NBDL volunteer test data because those characteristics were encrypted due to confidentiality. First, sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential scaling factors among the entire set using a design of experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Munenori Shinada
Abstract Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) clearly shows that the extent and the degree of pedestrian's lower extremity injury depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, bumper to knee ratio, bumper lead angle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of the pedestrian at the time of impact. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small-shorter, medium-height and large-taller pedestrian with respect to the “pedestrian to BLE height-ratio” in order to quantify the degree of influence of lower leg injuries in each group. Large adult male finite element model (95th percentile male: 190 cm and 103 kg) was developed by morphing the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) 50th percentile male.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1461
Dietmar Otte
Abstract During most pedestrian-vehicle crashes the car front impacts the pedestrian and the whole body wraps around the front shape of the car. This influences the head impact on the vehicle. Meanwhile the windscreen is a major impact point and tested in NCAP conditions. The severity of injuries is influenced by car impact speed; type of vehicle; stiffness and shape of the vehicle; nature of the front (such as the bumper height, bonnet height and length, windscreen frame); age and body height of the pedestrian; and standing position of the pedestrian relative to the vehicle front. The so called Wrap Around Distance WAD is one of the important measurements for the assessment of protection of pedestrians and of bicyclists as well because the kinematic of bicyclists is similar to that of pedestrians. For this study accidents of GIDAS were used to identify the importance of WAD for the resulting head injury severity of pedestrians and bicyclists.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1439
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yukou Takahashi
Abstract The high frequency of fatal head injuries is one of the important issues in traffic safety, and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) without skull fracture account for approximately half of them in both occupant and pedestrian crashes. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance for TBIs in these crashes using anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), a comprehensive injury criterion calculated from the rotational rigid motion of the head is required. While many studies have been conducted to investigate such an injury criterion with a focus on diffuse brain injuries in occupant crashes, there have been only a limited number of studies focusing on pedestrian impacts. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive injury criterion based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head suitable for both occupant and pedestrian crashes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0264
Jeya Padmanaban
Abstract This study examined the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Death Certificate file to identify frequency and rate of accidental CO poisoning deaths associated with exhaust gases of stationary vehicles in enclosed areas. A comprehensive search was then made to determine whether or not there was an increase in such deaths with the introduction of “smart keys” (available as standard equipment beginning in 2004). For 2000-2011 CY, the CPSC file contained 4,760 death certificate records for ICD-10 code X47 (accidental poisoning by exposure to other gases and vapors). The manual review of narratives for these records covered 2004-2011 and found 1,553 CO poisoning deaths associated with vehicle exhaust, including 748 for enclosed areas. For these 748 incidents, information on victim and location was then identified, and an exhaustive effort was undertaken to determine whether the vehicles involved were equipped with rotary or smart keys.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1447
Hirotoshi Ishikawa, Kunihiro Mashiko, Tetsuyuki Matsuda, Koichi Fujita, Asuka Sugano, Toru Kiuchi, Hirotsugu Tajima, Masaaki Yoshida, Isao Endou
Abstract Event Data Recorders (EDRs) record valuable data in estimating the occupant injury severity after a crash. Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) with the use of EDR data will determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle accidents. In order to obtain basic information in injury estimation using EDR data, frontal collisions for 29 vehicles equipped with EDRs were analyzed as a pilot study by retrieving the EDR data from the accident vehicles and collecting the occupant injury data from the database of an insurance company. As a result, the severity of occupant injury was closely related to the Delta V recorded on an EDR. However, there were several cases in which the predicted injury level was overestimated or underestimated by the Delta V. Therefore, caution is required when predicting the level of injury in frontal collisions based upon the Delta V alone.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1479
Adria Ferrer, Eduard Infantes
Abstract The introduction of the new NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) oblique test configuration presents a new and critical load case that manufacturers are on the way to solving. Towards providing the best tools for passive safety development, this paper presents the work carried out to enable the analysis of the loads transmitted to the barrier in this kind of test. These data enable the identification of the elements of the vehicle that take part in the absorption of energy during the crash and are a valuable tool to improving the safety of vehicles by comparing the loads transmitted to the barrier in oblique tests. To record these data, a load cell wall system located between the deformable barrier and the trolley was installed. To assess the barrier design, one oblique test with the RMDB barrier was carried out. The deformable barrier for the oblique test is instrumented with 9 columns of 3 and 4 load cells with a total of 32 x-axial load cells.
2015-04-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9151
Eric S. Winkel, Daniel E. Toomey, Robert Taylor
Abstract Thoracolumbar vertebral fractures are most commonly due to compressive loading modes and associated with falls from height. Two injury metrics are generally referenced for assessing the potential for compressive thoracolumbar injury; the Dynamic Response Index (DRI) and the compressive load measured between the pelvis and lumbar spine using the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) title 49 part 572 subpart B anthropomorphic test device (ATD). This study utilizes an ATD to investigate the injury mitigation potential of a variety of seat cushions during vertical impact in an unrestrained seated posture. ATD responses and DRI are reported for 65 vertical impacts with and without cushions from heights between 4 and 80 inches. The cushions investigated reduced ATD peak pelvic acceleration 63 +/− 11% and compressive lumbar load 42 +/− 9% on average.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0024
Jaehaeng Yoo
Abstract For the robust passenger NCAP(New Car Assessment Program) 5star and the stable neck injury performance, a new concept of passenger airbag has been required. Especially, the deployment stability and the vent hole control technology of the passenger airbag can be improved. According to these requirements, the deployment stability technique has been studied and the ‘Active Vent’ technology has been developed. As a result, these technologies have led to achieve the robust NCAP rating and are applied to the production vehicles.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0160
Adria Ferrer, Stefanie de Hair, Oliver Zander, Rikard Fredriksson, Swen Schaub, Frederic Nuss, Marie Caspar
Abstract Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more efficient and reliable safety systems. This paper reflects the related work carried out within the AsPeCSS project. The results summarized out of virtual and physical tests provide valuable information for further development. 1168 virtual and 120 physical tests were carried out with adult and child pedestrian headform as well as upper and lower legform impactors representatives of 4 different vehicle front geometries in a wide range of impact speeds, angles and locations. This test matrix was based on previous work carried out within the AsPeCSS project.
2014-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2014 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Overlap/angled frontal crash testing and real-world performance • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Rollover and side-impact crashes and computational modeling
2014-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2014 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Overlap/angled frontal crash testing and real-world performance • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Rollover and side-impact crashes and computational modeling
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0480
Xavier Da Silva, Adrià Ferrer
Abstract Recent studies identified new trends in frontal accident configurations, i.e. small overlap. This emerging type of crash represents a higher injury risk for the occupants compared to other frontal crashes with longer overlap due to the small interaction of the structural energy absorption elements. In response to this new accident reality, IIHS introduced a new type of crash to evaluate crashworthiness: the Small Overlap Impact (SOI). The purpose of this study is to analyze the accident trend in Spain to study the changes in the overlap in frontal crashes and identify crashworthiness similarities between an SOI crash test and a real crash. This research focuses on real accident data from Spain gathered in IDIADA's accident database with a crash configuration similar to SOI. Through the analysis of structural damage in real accidents and analysis of SOI tests performed, several deformation patterns have been detected in SOI tests and also in real accidents.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0247
Eloi Boix, José Antonio Azpeitia, Sergi Ferris, Juan José Alba
Abstract According to the “Report 2010” of the Association des Constructeurs Européens de Motocycles (European motorcycle manufacturers' association), the number of motorcycles throughout the European Union rose from 16 million to more than 22 million between 2001 and 2008. Taking all two-wheeled motor vehicles into account, in 2008 approximately 33 million vehicles were registered. At the same time, motorcycles are by far the most dangerous means of transport. Two groups (children and elderly people) are especially vulnerable due to their weakness against impact, reflexes and reaction to risk, resistance to the generated forces, etc. According to the latest accidents data from the European Community database on road accidents (CARE), more than 110 children under 14 years old who were passengers on PTW's were killed on the roads of the Community between 1991 and 2000.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0485
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko
Abstract The high frequency of fatal head injuries of elderly people in traffic accidents is one of the important issues in Japan. One of the causes may be vulnerability of the aged brain. While a human head/brain FE model is a useful tool to investigate head injury mechanism, there has not been a research result using a model considering the structural and qualitative changes of the brain by aging. The objective of this study was to clarify the generational difference of intracranial responses related to traumatic brain injuries (TBI) under impact loading. In this study, the human head/brain FE models in their twenties (20s) and seventies (70s) were used. They were developed by reflecting the age-specific characteristics, such as shape/size and stiffness of brain matter and blood vessels, to the baseline model developed by Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) LLC.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0515
Tushar Baviskar, Jagadish Mahadevaiah, Vijay Shankar Iyer, Mark Neal
Abstract EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactors have been used to assess the risk of pedestrian upper leg injuries with respect to regulatory and consumer metric rating requirements. The paper compares the femur injury responses between the finite element models of the EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactor, the FlexPLI and the 50th percentile male GM/UVa pedestrian model on two sample vehicle architectures, for a sedan and a sports utility vehicle. The study shows that the peak femur load and maximum bending moment response are higher in the EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactor than the FlexPLI and the human body model. Variation studies are carried out to study the influence of impact location on the vehicle, impactor knee height, additional upper body mass and human body model size on the femur injury responses.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0520
Yukou Takahashi, Miwako Ikeda
Abstract The validity of evaluating FlexPLI peak injury measures has been shown by the correlation of the peak measures between a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model. However, comparisons of tibia bending moment time histories (BMTHs) between these models show that the FlexPLI model exhibits a higher degree of oscillatory behavior than the human model. The goal of this study was to identify potential improvements to the FlexPLI such that the legform provides more biofidelic tibia BMTHs at the normal standing height. Impact simulations using a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model were conducted against simplified vehicle models to compare tibia BMTHs. The same series of impact simulations were conducted using the FlexPLI models that incorporated potential measures to identify measures effective for further enhancement of the biofidelity. An additional analysis was also conducted to investigate the key factor for minimizing the oscillation of the tibia BMTH.
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