Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 3660
2015-11-17 ...
  • November 17-18, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Tysons, Virginia
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Aircraft accident and incident investigations should be supported by all engineering disciplines and departments involved with design, manufacturing, certification, and field operations. For individuals called upon to serve as advisors or technical representatives to official aircraft accident investigation (AAI) teams, an understanding of aircraft accident investigation and reconstruction methodology and processes is critical to success in this supportive role. This two-day seminar will begin with the basic requirements for conducting proper accident investigations, including investigative philosophies...
2015-05-06 ...
  • May 6-8, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
  • November 3-5, 2015 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Although many have an idea of what the term “driver distraction” means, there is no common definition within the research community. Additionally, there are many studies that have investigated the topic, but with varying and sometimes conflicting results. What should be made of these discrepancies? This four-hour web seminar will provide an overview of driver distraction (predominantly electronic devices): the problem; how to define it; the current state of research and how to critically evaluate that research to make informed decisions; and the effectiveness of state laws and fleet policies to...
2015-01-22
Event
This session addresses the development of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs such as THOR, WorldSID, FlexPLI), computational human models (such as GHBMC), injury prediction methodologies (such as BRIC), and laboratory test procedures. Presentations will focus on efforts to understand the human response to impact and associated injury risk in frontal, oblique, and lateral loading conditions.
2014-10-27 ...
  • October 27-29, 2014 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
  • April 20-22, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • September 9-11, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 7-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Norwalk, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. EDR’s are not new, but are becoming more prevalent in part due to a new federal regulation. 49 CFR, Part 563, which affects vehicles produced after September 30, 2012, will result in a standardized and publicly available EDR in 90% of new vehicles.
2014-10-07
Magazine
Outlook for autonomous driving includes cloud Connectivity with off-board data and services and among vehicles will be crucial in maintaining safety and security in future autonomous vehicles. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner. SAE 2014 Convergence preview Interest in advanced driver-assistance technologies is surging, with automotive engineers and decision makers at OEMs and suppliers working feverishly on the convenience vs. safety trade-off and other electronics-related challenges. Cooled EGR shows benefits for gasoline engines Exhaust gas recirculation systems now in use on diesel engines are used mainly to meet emissions regulations. In gasoline engines, they are an appealing way to meet ever more stringent fuel-economy standards
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2388
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Abstract Trucking fleets are increasingly installing video event recorders in their vehicles. The video event recorder system is usually mounted near the vehicle's rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras: one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education, but the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated. However, the calculated speeds and distances from video event recorder data may differ from reconstructions based on data taken from engine control modules (ECM's) or classic reconstruction techniques.
2014-08-18
WIP Standard
J98
This SAE Standard is intended to be used as a guide for manufacturers and users of general purpose industrial machines to provide a reasonable degree of protection for personnel during normal operation and servicing. This document excludes skid steers which are covered by SAE J1388. Avoidance of accidents also depends upon the care exercised by such persons (see SAE J153). Inclusion of this standard instate, federal, or any laws or regulations where flexibility of revision is lacking is discouraged.
2014-07-09
Standard
J232_201407
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
2014-07-09
Standard
J1001_201407
The guidelines for operator and bystander protection in this recommended practice apply to towed, semimounted or mounted flail mowers and flail power rakes when powered by a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kw (20 hp), intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries and along roadways and highways. The use of the word "industrial" is not to be confused with "in-plant industrial equipment". This document does not apply to: 1. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. 2. Machines designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. 3. Self powered or self propelled mowers or mowing machines. Where other standards are referenced, such reference applies only to the document identified, not revisions thereof. 1.1 Purpose—To establish guidelines for operator and bystander protection for flail mowers and flail power rakes whose intended use falls within the scope of this document.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0025
Frederico A. A. Barbieri, Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Joel Boaretto
Abstract Brazil presents a very diverse road and traffic conditions and due to several factors the number of truck accidents is very high. Inside truck accidents group, the one that causes the highest number of losses and fatalities is the rollover crash and understanding rollover dynamics is very important to prevent such events. The diversity of cargo vehicles arrangements requires a detailed study regarding the dynamic behavior these vehicle combinations in order to increase operation safety. The same tractor unit can be used with different types and numbers of trailers and/or semi-trailers, each one with different suspension configurations. These truck combinations have distinct dynamic performances that need evaluation. In this sense, this work presents a first phase study on the dynamic behavior of different types of cargo vehicle configuration. A 6×2 tractor is combined with a two distinct grain semi-trailer with different types of suspension: pneumatic and leaf spring. The study is conducted in order to verify the difference in dynamic behavior and the resulting stability of the two configurations in different conditions of speed and maneuvers.
2014-04-10
Event
Rollover collisions present special problems to practitioners who analyze them for the purposes of reconstructing the crash sequence, as well as, those who are examining occupant injury mechanics. As someone who has been involved in the analysis of rollover crashes for over 20 years I would enjoy discussing the complexities of rollover analysis with anyone who is interested.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0961
Alan R. Wedgewood, Patrick Granowicz, Zhenyu Zhang
Abstract Materials used in automotive components play a key role in providing crash safety to passengers and pedestrians. DuPont's lightweight hybrid material technology, which combines injection molded fiber reinforced plastics with drape molded woven composite materials, provides safety engineers with stiff energy absorbing alternatives. In an effort to validate the hybrid material's crash performance while avoiding expensive crash testing, numerical tools and methodologies are applied in evaluation of a hybrid composite test beam. Multi-scale material models capturing nonlinear strain-rate dependency, anisotropic characteristics, and failure criteria, are calibrated on a fiber reinforced plastic and a woven fabric. The fiber orientation and warp/weft angles were extracted from injection and drape molding simulation. The material laws and orientation information are coupled in a single finite element analysis to predict the performance of the hybrid composite beam under a dynamic three point bending load.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0811
Horst Lanzerath, Niels Pasligh
Abstract Structural adhesives are widely used across the automotive industry for several reasons like scale-up of structural performance and enabling multi-material and lightweight designs. Development engineers know in general about the effects of adding adhesive to a spot-welded structure, but they want to quantify the benefit of adding adhesives on weight reduction or structural performance. A very efficient way is to do that by applying analytical tools. But, in most of the relevant non-linear load cases the classical lightweight theory can only help to get a basic understanding of the mechanics. For more complex load cases like full car crash simulations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) with explicit time integration is being applied to the vehicle development process. In order to understand the benefit of adding adhesives to a body structure upfront, new FEM simulation tools need to be established, which must be predictive and efficient. Therefore new FEM crash methods for structural adhesives have been investigated and validated with the help of test results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0464
Nathan A. Rose, Neal Carter, David Pentecost
Abstract PC-Crash™, a widely used crash analysis software package, incorporates the capability for modeling non-constant vehicle acceleration, where the acceleration rate varies with speed, weight, engine power, the degree of throttle application, and the roadway slope. The research reported here offers a validation of this capability, demonstrating that PC-Crash can be used to realistically model the build-up of a vehicle's speed under maximal acceleration. In the research reported here, PC-Crash 9.0 was used to model the full-throttle acceleration capabilities of three vehicles with automatic transmissions - a 2006 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI), a 2000 Cadillac DeVille DTS, and a 2003 Ford F150. For each vehicle, geometric dimensions, inertial properties, and engine/drivetrain parameters were obtained from a combination of manufacturer specifications, calculations, inspections of exemplar vehicles and full-scale vehicle testing. In each case, the full-throttle acceleration of the vehicles modeled in PC-Crash showed good agreement with the acceleration of the real vehicles in our road tests.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0397
Pit Schwanitz, Sebastian Werner, Johannes Zerbe, Dietmar Göhlich
Abstract A new methodology for crash sensitive vehicle structures has been developed to be used during the early stage of the Product Development Process (PDP). By frontloading significant and simplified CAE simulations and the use of stochastic optimization methods in conjunction with highly parametric CAD models, new concepts can be quickly identified and evaluated based on reliable product insight. Vehicle crashboxes have been chosen for verification of the methodology. An analysis of different but comparable vehicles showed a large variety of designs although they all absorb the energy of low speed crashes within a velocity of up to 15km/h. A powerful optimization model with a parametric geometry engine, a crash-solver and suitable optimization software, used within a batch process, has been established. The optimal results for one particular crashbox concept are presented to demonstrate the methodology and the benefit of the approach. Due to the relocation of the variant calculation at early stage, the optimization potential can be used extensively.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0569
Ishika Zonina Towfic, Jennifer Johrendt
Abstract The development of a collision severity model can serve as an important tool in understanding the requirements for devising countermeasures to improve occupant safety and traffic safety. Collision type, weather conditions, and driver intoxication are some of the factors that may influence motor vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify the major determinants or contributors to fatal collisions based on various driver, vehicle, and environment characteristics obtained from collision data from Transport Canada. The developed model will have the capability to predict similar collision outcomes based on the variables analyzed in this study. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network model with feed-forward back-propagation architecture is used to develop a generalized model for predicting collision severity. The model output, collision severity, is divided into three categories - fatal, injury, and property damage only.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0534
Jan Vychytil, Jaroslav Manas, Hana Cechova, Stanislav Spirk, Ludek Hyncik, Ludek Kovar
Abstract The paper concerns the development of a new scalable virtual human body model. The model has been developed to assess safety risk during various complex crash scenarios including impacts from different directions. The novel approach described couples the basic multi-body structure with deformable segments, resulting in short calculation time. Each multi-body structure segment carries the particular surface parts that are linked to the segment with non-linear springs representing the behavior of related soft tissues. The response of particular body segments (head, thorax, pelvis, lower extremities) is validated in known impact scenarios and the response of the model is tuned to the experimental corridors obtained from literature. The tuning process involved the adjustment of both model material and numerical parameters in order to get the correct response for all the tests. Several energy level impacts from different directions are usually considered in order to generalize the model; to test its robustness and correct biofidelic performance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0544
James Nelsen, Chang Su Seo
Abstract This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0524
Stacy M. Imler, Michelle F. Heller, Christine C. Raasch, Heather N. Watson, Ke Zhao
Abstract The risk of sustaining injury in rear impact collisions is correlated to collision severity as well as other factors such as restraint usage. The most recent National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data available (1997 to 2011) were analyzed to identify accidents involving passenger vehicles that have experienced an impact with a principal direction of force (PDOF) between 5:00 and 7:00, indicating a rear impact collision. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used as an injury rating system for the involved vehicle occupants who were at least sixteen years old and were seated in the outboard seating positions of the front row. These data were further analyzed to determine injury risk based on resultant delta-V and restraint system use. Each body region (head, spine, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity, and lower extremity) was considered separately. Risk of injury for each of these regions was examined based on delta-V, which is an indicator of crash severity in the absence of intrusion into the occupant compartment.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0492
Lisa P. Gwin, Herbert Guzman, Enrique Bonugli, William Scott, Mark Freund
Abstract There is a paucity of recent data quantifying the injury risk of forces and accelerations that act on the whole body in a back-to-front direction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of back-to-front accelerations that volunteers felt were tolerable and non-injurious. Instrumented volunteers were dropped supine onto a mattress, and their accelerations during the impact with the mattress were measured. Accelerometers were located on the head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar regions. Drop heights started at 0.6 m (2 ft) and progressed upward as high as 1.8 m (6 ft) based on the test subjects' consent. The test panel was comprised of male and female subjects whose ages ranged from 25 to 63 years of age and whose masses ranged from 62 to 130 kg (136 to 286 lb). Peak head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar accelerations of 25.9 g, 29.4 g and 39.6 g were measured. There was considerable restitution in the impacts with the mattress and the test subjects experienced changes in velocity (ΔVs) of 5.2-11.4 m/s (11.6-25.5 mph).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0470
Greg A. Sullenberger
Abstract A well-established methodology has often been used to calculate a speed-at-impact from the overall distance that a pedestrian is thrown as a result of a vehicle-pedestrian impact. (Searle, SAE #831622 and SAE #930659). The formulae were derived for use on typical road surfaces, such as asphalt, concrete, and grass. Significant testing has been done to validate the formulae on these normal surfaces. The current research was completed to assess if the same formulae are also applicable to lower-friction surfaces, e.g. snow, ice. Test dummies were impacted by automobiles or launched from a ramp in order to simulate the airborne trajectory of a vehicle-pedestrian collision. Speeds were measured with a radar unit and/or the analysis of high speed video. The overall distance traveled by the dummy from impact/launch to final rest was measured. A calculated friction value for the overall throw distance was based upon the known speed and distance and a known or approximated angle of takeoff.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0478
Wade D. Bartlett, Duane Meyers
Abstract The evasive capabilities of motorcycles and riders are often an important consideration when analyzing a motorcycle crash. Specifically, the longitudinal distance or time required for a motorcycle to move laterally some distance can be of critical interest. Previous publications on this topic have not all measured the same thing and have often included limited test data so their results can be difficult to compare or apply. In addition to reviewing some of the literature on the topic, this paper will present the results of a series of tests conducted with four riders on four motorcycles swerving 2 m (6.5 ft) to their left after passing through a gate at speeds of 40 to 88 km/h (25 to 55 mi/h). The most recent testing involved relatively skilled riders who had faster transitions and greater willingness to lean than the “average” rider generally described in the literature. Separating the perception-reaction time from the evaluation of the turn-away maneuver itself simplifies the analysis, though wide individual performance variation still exists.
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection focuses on the latest research related to methods and techniques for reconstructing vehicular crashes involving wheeled and tracked vehicles, pedestrians, and roadside features. Emphasis is placed on experimental data and theoretical methods that will enable reconstructionists to identify, interpret and analyze physical evidence from vehicular crashes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0420
Mathias Poklitar, Lothar Seybold
As part of the launch of the refrigerant R-1234yf there were a number of studies done regarding the ignition behavior of this new refrigerant in passenger cars. These tests were conducted by a number of automobile manufacturers, component suppliers, and the refrigerant supplier under laboratory conditions at the component and vehicle level. In November 2009 the international automotive industry concluded that the R-1234yf can be used safely in automotive air conditioning systems. Further tests were conducted by different automobile manufacturers, suppliers, and the refrigerant supplier under various laboratory and vehicle operation conditions means hot surfaces in the engine compartment. A number of vehicle manufactures have conducted full vehicle crash tests. In this paper, real world accidents are analyzed using the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database as well as the thermal parameters for ignition of R-1234yf, i.e. concentration and surface temperature to create a worst-case scenario.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0469
R. Matthew Brach, Raymond M. Brach, Katherine Pongetti
Little experimental data have been reported in the crash reconstruction literature regarding high-speed sideswipe collisions. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) conducted a series of high-speed, small overlap, vehicle-to-barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests for which the majority resulted in sideswipe collisions. A sideswipe collision is defined in this paper as a crash with non-zero, final relative tangential velocity over the vehicle-to-barrier or vehicle-to-vehicle contact surface; that is, sliding continues throughout the contact duration. Using analysis of video from 50 IIHS small overlap crash tests, each test was modeled using planar impact mechanics to determine which were classified as sideswipes and which were not. The test data were further evaluated to understand the nature of high-speed, small overlap, sideswipe collisions and establish appropriate parameter ranges that can aid in the process of accident reconstruction. An example reconstruction of a small overlap, sideswipe collision using optimization methods based on the planar impact mechanics model is included in the paper.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0517
Dietmar Otte, Birgitt Wiese
This study deals with the risk of injury to the bicyclist's head and the benefits of wearing a bicycle helmet in terms of reduction of injury severity or even injury avoidance. The accident data of 4,245 injured bicyclists as a randomized sample, collected by a scientific research team within the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study) were analyzed. Given that head injuries result in approximately 40% of bicycle-related crashes, helmet usage provides a sensible first-level approach for improving incidence and severity of head injuries. The effectiveness of the bicycle helmet was examined using descriptive and multivariate analysis for 433 bicyclists with a helmet and 3,812 bicyclists without a helmet. Skull fractures, severe brain injuries and skull base fractures were up to 80% less frequent for bicyclists wearing a helmet. Among individuals 40 years of age and older, a significant increase of severe head injuries occurred if no helmet was used compared to younger persons with helmet.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1989
P. Prasad, D. Dalmotas, A. German
Abstract This paper presents the analysis of a series of frontal crash tests conducted by the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety that are commonly referred to as Small Overlap Impacts (SOI). The occurrence and severity of such frontal impacts in the real world were estimated using two different methods. Both methods used the National Automotive Sampling Scheme (NASS), which is a stratified sample of crashes in the US. The first method utilized an algorithm commonly known as Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The second method was based on comparison of deformation patterns of vehicles involved in frontal crashes in the NASS data files with those produced in tests conducted by the IIHS. FIT analysis of the data indicate that approximately 7.5% of all 11-1 o'clock frontal crashes in NASS are represented by the IIHS SOI test condition and they account for 6.1% of all serious-to-fatal injuries to front seat occupants restrained by seat belts and airbags. Based on the analysis of test and crash front end damage data, it is estimated that the IIHS SOI test mode represents 3% to 8% of all fatal crashes and 4.6 to 9% of all MAIS3+F injury producing frontal crashes.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3660

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: