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2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15-16, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 23-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Car companies and suppliers continue to develop new technologies that make vehicles safer and regulatory agencies continue to update safety regulations based on new research studies, making vehicle safety design more and more complex. This seminar covers the mechanics of frontal crashes and how vehicle structures, vehicle restraint systems, and vehicle interiors affect occupant safety. It also describes details of how CAE tools work in the simulation of frontal crashes. The goal of the course is to familiarize participants with engineering principles behind vehicle and restraint designs for occupant safety.
2015-04-21
Event
Papers and presentations in this session are related to vehicular rollover. They cover various aspects of occupant’ safety, including vehicle design, restraint systems design, crash test analysis, CAE simulations and statistical trends analysis.
2015-04-21
Event
The pedestrian and cyclist safety session focuses on research and development efforts aimed at protecting pedestrians and cyclists in the event of vehicle impact. Papers on injury biomechanics, vehicle design, dummy and impactor development, computational modeling, regulations and consumer assessment testing, active safety and collision avoidance are accepted for this session.
2015-04-21
Event
Paper offers related to advancing the science of occupant safety in vehicle rear impact collisions are welcome
2015-04-21
Event
This session includes the latest research on Event Data Recorders (EDRs) equipped in passenger cars, light trucks, and commercial vehicles (heavy trucks and motorcoaches). Emphasis is placed on the application, interpretation and use of EDRs in the investigation of motor vehicle crashes.
2015-04-21
Event
The Occupant Restraints Session invites papers that document new research on the restraint topics of airbags, seat belts, inflatable bolsters/seat belts, knee bolsters, Child Restraint Systems (CRS) and other related areas. These papers could include several of the following: technology description, occupant performance considerations, field data studies, development/validation methodology / results, CAE/Finite Element methods/results, packaging, and implementation / performance challenges.
2015-04-21
Event
This session focuses on the latest research related to methods and techniques for reconstructing vehicular crashes involving wheeled and tracked vehicles, pedestrians, and roadside features. Emphasis is placed on experimental data and theoretical methods that will enable reconstructionists to identify, interpret and analyze physical evidence from vehicular crashes.
2015-04-21
Event
The Biomechanics session presents new research on automotive occupant kinematics, human injury biomechanics, and human tolerance in an automotive environment. This includes new methodologies in the study of human injury, studies of human interaction with occupant protection systems, technological advances in physical and virtual anthropomorphic test devices, and other experimental, analytical and modeling studies on the biomechanics of human injury.
2015-04-21
Event
Papers are invited on all aspects of automotive crashworthiness and occupant protection in side impacts, including topics such as discussions of test data, CAE methods, statistical analyses, automobile designs, restraint systems and airbags, crash test methodology and development of surrogates (test dummies). Additional topics may include side impact safety considerations for hybrid and electric propulsion vehicles.
2015-04-21
Event
Paper offers advancing the science of occupant safety in vehicle collisions are welcome.
2015-04-21
Event
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1491
Automotive OEMs, insurance agencies and regulatory bodies are continuously looking at various accident statistics and proper ways of evaluating unaccounted (as per current regulations and safety ratings) accident scenarios to improve the safety standards of cars. Small overlap and oblique impacts during which a corner of a car hits a tree or the corner of another vehicle are two such situations. To address these scenarios, IIHS has incorporated small overlap impact in the NCAP rating. Similarly, NHTSA is developing an oblique test to address this. Most of the vehicles which are on road scored low when tested for these impact scenarios. This is mainly because most of the energy-absorbing structures (in a vehicle) such as rails and crush boxes during a high speed crash do not get engaged with the impactor as the overlap is very small.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1489
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraint, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point vehicle belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven different body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1492
Kazunobu Ogaki, Takayuki Kawabuchi, Satoshi Takizawa
We test the mid-size sedan according to NHTSA Oblique test to assess the occupant protection and to provide possible design changes to improve the oblique collision performance. This test result predicted high potential injury for BrIC, chest deflection, and lower extremities. Injury reductions could likely be achieved through optimization of the restraint devices. We focus to reduce the lower extremity injury. Traditionally, lower extremity injuries are often mitigated by reducing the intrusion of the cabin’s dashboard lower region; however, this type of design change can lead to a significant increase in vehicle weight. Increasing the energy absorbed within the engine compartment is more efficient than reinforcing the passenger compartment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1488
Adam G.M. Cook, Moustafa El-Gindy, David Critchley
This work investigates the multi-objective optimization methods for Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) using varying meta-modeling and direct optimization techniques, while implementing several materials and minimizing cost of the design. The developed dsFUPD F9 design for a Volvo VNL was subjected to a modified ECE R93 quasi-static loading to objectify deformations. A developed application was needed to objectify the cost as a third target objective to minimize with mass and deformation of the design. NSGA-II, SPEA-II genetic algorithms and adaptive simulated annealing optimization methods were under investigation in combination with three meta-modeling techniques; Feedforward Neural Network, Radial Basis Function Network, and Kriging. Leapfrog LFOPC algorithm hybridized forms of genetic algorithms and adaptive simulated annealing was also investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1486
Craig A. Markusic, Ram Songade
Full vehicle crash simulations typically require several days of effort from a highly skilled FE (finite element) analyst to set-up, execute, and analyze. The goal of this project was to create a simplified FE model of a side crash utilizing the same sophisticated software (LS-DYNA) that the FE analysts use along with a custom graphical user interface (GUI) that will allow an inexperienced user to set-up, execute, and analyze a number of side impact scenarios in a matter of hours, not days, and with very little training. The GUI allows the user to easily modify the performance characteristics of the side impact system that are critical to side crash performance including but not limited to intrusion rate, door liner stiffness, side airbag stiffness, side airbag time to fire, etc. The user can then compile and submit the model with a few simple clicks of a button.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1439
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yukou Takahashi
To evaluate vehicle safety performance for Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) in crashes, comprehensive injury criteria is required. Few research results for injury criteria focused on Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI) in crashes or pedestrian impacts exist. We developed injury criteria based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head for occupant and pedestrian crashes. We used the mid-sized male human head/brain FE model to investigate correlation between injury criteria based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head and intracranial responses related to DAI. The input pulses applied to the skull of the head/brain model were determined from the head acceleration data, and articulated rigid body simulation results of frontal occupant and pedestrian crashes. Results showed low applicability of the injury criteria to pedestrian impacts, presumably due to the maximum rotational velocity occurring before head contact to the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1430
Brian Gilbert, Joseph McCarthy, Ron Jadischke
Objectives: The analysis and modeling of vehicle crush in accident reconstruction has traditionally been based upon the use of linear crush-based, stiffness coefficients. Recent research has allowed for the calculation and implementation of non-linear crush coefficients. Through the use of Engineering Dynamics Corporation (EDC) accident reconstruction software Human-Vehicle-Environment (HVE), which contains the collision algorithm called DyMESH (DYnamic MEchanical SHell), these coefficients have increased the accuracy of predicted crash pulse data. Research on non-linear crush coefficients thus far has been limited to frontal impacts into rigid barriers. Side Impact tests are typically more complex than a frontal collision testing. One form of side impact tests involve a Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) impacting a stationary subject vehicle at a crab angle of 26-27 degrees.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1421
Dennis Turriff, David J. King, James Bertoch
Vehicle rollovers generate complicated damage patterns as a result of multiple vehicle-to-ground contacts. The goal of this work was to isolate and characterize specific directional features in coarse- and fine-scale scratch damage generated during a rollover crash. Four rollover tests were completed using stock 2001 Chevrolet Trackers. Vehicles were decelerated and launched from a rollover test device to initiate driver’s side leading rolls onto concrete and dirt surfaces. Gross vehicle damage and both macroscopic and microscopic features of the scratch damage were documented using standard and macro lenses, a stereomicroscope, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The most evident indicators of scratch direction, and thus roll direction, were accumulations of abraded material found at the termination points of scratch-damaged areas.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
The characteristic of neck plays an important role on the kinematics and injury of pedestrian’s neck and head during the impact with vehicle, and the accuracy of the mathematical model affects the analysis results directly. A new mathematical pedestrian model has been developed in University of Virginia (UVA), which combines the advantages of both TNO facet occupant model and the lower extremity with more accuracy of biomechanical characteristics. So in this new pedestrian model, the occupant’s facet neck model developed by TNO is used to evaluate the pedestrian’s kinematics and dynamic response. Since the neck is special developed for occupants, the mechanical characteristics for lateral impact may not as good as that of frontal impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing was conducted with an instrumented single full-size SUV under real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various reconstruction methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed inherent to rollovers are: loss-of-control, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques were implemented to capture and document the events surrounding a vehicle rollover. These devices and techniques are presented and compared with previous test methodology. In this case study, an instrumented 1996 GMC Jimmy SUV was towed to speed and then released. A steering controller steered the vehicle through maneuvers intended to result in rollover. The SUV experienced two non-rollover events before the vehicle finally rolled 1-1½ times.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1461
Dietmar Otte
During most pedestrian-vehicle crashes the car front impacts the pedestrian and the whole body wraps around the front shape of the car. Meanwhile the windscreen is tested in NCAP conditions. The severity of injuries is influenced by car impact speed; type of vehicle; stiffness and shape of the vehicle; nature of the front (such as the bumper height, bonnet height and length, windscreen frame); age and height of the pedestrian; and standing position of the pedestrian relative to the vehicle front. The socalled Wrap Around Distance WAD is one of important measurement for the assessment of protection. For the study accidents with pedestrians and bicyclists are used for the analysis, how good is the WAD for injury prediction. GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident-Study) collects accidents as representative sample of the German accident situation based on in-depth-investigation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1463
In Hwang, Jisung Ryu, Jinho Kim, Jeahong Choi, Junho Lee
Injuries of occupants in a vehicle have been decreased considerably. However, efforts for protection of pedestrians are still insufficient and so as to satisfy enhanced regulation, pedestrian protection has been an important issue to get a high NCAP rating. These days, many advanced industries are striving for a better protection of pedestrians by using an active hood system. The active hood system is designed for reducing head injury of pedestrian. The most important part of an active hood system is sensor & ECU. In this paper we discuss the fiber optical sensor with membrane switches to detect pedestrians
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1466
Dietmar Otte, Thorsten Facius, Birgit Wiese
The overall number of severely injured participants and fatalities in road traffic accidents has decreased enormously in the last decades. These casualties in the group of riders of motorcycles in traffic accidents have only decreased in a smaller percentage. The aim of this study is to analyze the accident situation of motorcycles with severely injured and killed riders of motorcycles with cubic capacity > 125 cm³ in Germany, to identify the characteristics in injury mechanisms and accident constellations and to find countermeasures to be suggested. The accident data of 1,498 drivers of motorcycles involved in traffic accidents were analyzed, collected by a scientific research team of GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) in the area of Hannover and Dresden within the years 2000 up to 2013. For finding such characteristic, two samples are selected and compared, first the group of MAIS 3+ injured cyclists (n= 245) and second the group of MAIS 1 and 2 injured cyclists (n= 1253).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrians’ lower extremity injury depends on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of impact. The head injury of a pedestrian is also influenced by the ratio of pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small, medium and large pedestrian w.r.t the pedestrian to BLE height-ratio in order to quantify the degree of influence of different parameters (leg orientation, direction of impact, and running/walking state before crash) on pedestrian injuries. Large adult male FE model (95th %ile male AM95:190 cm and 103 kg) is developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals, family, friends, and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, weight, and cost among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1476
Selvakumar P, Arun Mahajan, R Murasolimaran, Elango chinnasamy
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to reduce costs and shorten product development cycle, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. Often correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. This research has the proposal of showing the correlation between simulation and prototype test results of tractor ROPS. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS.
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