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Event
2014-10-19
Event
2014-10-19
Event
2014-10-19
This presentation provides an overview of the current technological and market situation in the area of integrated safety systems. It will also include the Robert Bosch perspective as part of the overview. The presentation will address current and future challenges for passive and active safety systems and the strong link between integrated safety and automated driving. The concept will be further explained by means of concrete examples of integrated safety functions and their respective architectures, functionalities and safety benefits.
Training / Education
2014-06-05
Car companies and suppliers continue to develop new technologies that make vehicles safer and regulatory agencies continue to update safety regulations based on new research studies, making vehicle safety design more and more complex. This seminar covers the mechanics of frontal crashes and how vehicle structures, vehicle restraint systems, and vehicle interiors affect occupant safety. It also describes details of how CAE tools work in the simulation of frontal crashes. The goal of the course is to familiarize participants with engineering principles behind vehicle and restraint designs for occupant safety. Accident crash statistics, biomechanics, government regulations and public domain frontal safety tests will be reviewed briefly. Students will also be exposed to Madymo, one of the major occupant CAE tools. The basic inner workings of the tool, such as rigid body dynamics, joints, contact, airbag and seatbelt modeling, and modeling techniques will be shared with the class. The class also offers participants opportunities to do hands-on computer analysis as well as simplified hands-on crash tests, where students can learn first-hand how vehicle pulses and restraint design affect occupant response.
Event
2014-04-23
Standard
2014-04-14
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This Standard provides names of many of the major components and parts peculiar to agricultural and industrial rotary, flail and sickle bar type mowers. Illustrations used are not intended to include all existing industrial or agricultural machines, or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been picked to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jeong Keun Lee, Byung-Jae Ahn, Ye Ri Hong
Abstract In current inflatable curtain airbag development process, the curtain airbag performance is developed sequentially for the airbag coverage, FMVSS 226, FMVSS 214 and NCAP. Because the FMVSS 226 for the ejection mitigation and the NCAP side impact test require the opposite characteristics in terms of the dynamic stiffness of the inflatable curtain airbag, the sequential development process cannot avoid the iteration for dynamic stiffness optimization. Airbag internal pressure characteristics are can be used to evaluate the airbag performance in early stage of the development process, but they cannot predict dynamic energy absorption capability. In order to meet the opposite requirements for both FMVSS 226 and NCAP side impact test, a test and CAE simulation method for the inflatable curtain airbag was developed. The purpose of this study is to standardize the test setup for comparing the energy absorption capability of inflatable curtain airbag and to make criteria for meeting both FMVSS 226 and NCAP early in the program.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thang Nguyen, Stuart Wooters
As software (SW) becomes more and more an important aspect of embedded system development, project schedules are requiring the earlier development of software simultaneously with hardware (HW). In addition, verification has increasingly challenged the design of complex mixed-signal SoC products. This is exacerbated for automotive safety critical SoC products with a high number of analogue interfaces (sensors and actuators) to the physical components such as an airbag SoC chipset. Generally, it is widely accepted that verification accounts for around 70% of the total SoC development. Since integration of HW and SW is the most crucial step in embedded system development, the sooner it is done, the sooner verification can begin. As such, any approaches which could allow verification and integration of HW/SW to be deployed earlier in the development process and help to decrease verification effort, (e.g.: accelerate verification runs) are of extreme interest. In the described context, this paper addresses not only the design and verification challenges of such embedded systems but also proposes a new development, verification and validation workflow using an FPGA-based SoC Emulation System with synthesizable analogue functional stubs and a risk minimizing analogue test chip, which emulates and partially implements respective mixed-signal behavior of the ASIC SoC hardware.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bradley Orme, Robert V. Walsh, Scott Westoby
Abstract Changes in the automotive supply chain over the past several years were brought about by global economic pressures, and forced some materials into tight supply as the industry started its recovery. One such material is polyamide 6,6 fiber (PA 6,6) used for airbags, which was in tight supply in 2008-09. This, with the availability of new low temperature inflators caused some airbag module manufacturers to revisit the use of polyester (PET), which had been used sporadically and in small quantities since the 1970s, although the overwhelming majority of airbags used PA 6,6. Over the last several years PET has been adopted for use in a small number of airbag programs to reduce supply concerns, but this use has come with performance tradeoffs of higher weight, lower tear and seam properties, and other changes. Still, the lower polymer cost of PET has driven a wider evaluation. Polyamide 6,6 and polyester are not equivalent fibers, and differences in thermal capacity, toughness, modulus, and other properties result in different fabric performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
June-Young Song, Kangwook Lee, Byung-Jae Ahn
Abstract Requirements of side curtain airbag have continued to increase. The revised SINCAP, FMVSS-226 ejection mitigation and small overlap of IIHS had added these requirements. To meet all the requirements, high inflator energy and complex cushion shape became necessary. Such situations increased possibility of cushion failure while deploying. Unfortunately, all the design verification tests are usually completed in a relatively latter stage of development and repetitive testing is needed to consider large dispersion of failure probability distribution. Therefore, verification and design improvement by numerical simulation in an early stage are desirable. A simulation method which can verify CAB deployment was developed in this study. The developed method has three distinct features. Firstly, nonlinear fabric materials and membrane finite elements are used to consider fracture of cushion fabric. Secondly, a pre-simulation procedure had been established. An initial state for an accurate analysis can be obtained through the procedure.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Anders Axelson, Bengt Lokensgard, Mats Petersson, Bo Svanberg, Jordanka Kovaceva
Run off road events are frequent and can result in severe consequences. The reasons for leaving the road are numerous and the sequence the car is exerted to differs in most events. The objective of this study is to identify different situations and mechanisms both in respect to accident avoidance and occupant protection and to present test methods addressing the different identified mechanisms of run off road occupant safety. Mechanisms and influencing factors are identified using statistical and in-depth crash data as well as driving data. There are a number of reasons for leaving the road; driver fatigue, driver distraction and inadequate speed in relation to the traffic situation to mention a few. An outline of principle test methods for evaluating technology assisting the driver to stay on the road is presented in relation to the identified situations and mechanisms. Crash test methods for some typical run off road scenarios are suggested. Important occupant protection aspects concern mainly occupant retention as well as vertical loading through the seat.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Baeyoung Kim, Kangwook Lee, Jeong Keun Lee, June-Young Song
Abstract The role of CAB is protecting the passenger's head during rollover and side crash accidents. However, the performance of HIC and ejection mitigation has trade-off relation, so analytical method to satisfy the HIC and ejection mitigation performance are required. In this study, 3 types of CAB were used for ejection mitigation analysis, drop tower analysis and SINCAP MDB analysis. Impactor which has 18kg mass is impacting the CAB as 20KPH velocity at six impact positions for ejection mitigation analysis. In drop tower analysis, impactor which has 9kg mass is impacting the CAB as 17.7KPH velocity. Acceleration value was derived by drop tower analysis and the tendency of HIC was estimated. Motion data of a vehicle structure was inserted to substructure model and the SID-IIS 5%ile female dummy was used for SINCAP MDB analysis. As a result, HIC and acceleration values were derived by MDB analysis. As a result of ejection mitigation analysis, the impactor was ejected in type 1 of the CAB but the impactor was not ejected in type 2 and type 3.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Grant Hankins, Kenneth Krajnik, Bradley Galedrige, Shahab Sakha, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal
Abstract A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have begun to receive increased attention in recent years, using the types of engineering analysis common to other industries such as aerospace engineering. As these new engineering approaches have begun to play a larger role in the motorsports industry, there has been an increase in the use of engineering tools in motorsports design and an increase in the inclusion of motorsports in the engineering education process. The design, modeling, and analysis aspects of a recent project examining the design of roll cages for American short-track open-wheel racing cars will be discussed in this paper. Roll cage structures were initially integrated into cars of this type in the 1960s. Countless lives have been saved and serious injuries prevented since the introduction of cages into these types of cars. However, the general configuration of these cages has not seen significant change or improvement in the four decades since their introduction.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Todd MacDonald, Moustafa EL-Gindy, Srikanth Ghantae, Sarathy Ramachandra, David Critchley
Abstract A performance investigation of Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) with varying collision interface is presented by monitoring occupant compartment intrusion of Toyota Yaris and Ford Taurus FEA models in LS-DYNA. A newly proposed simplified dual-spring system is developed and validated for this investigation, offering improvements over previously employed fixed-rigid simplified test rigs. The results of three tested collision interface profiles were used to guide the development of two new underride protection devices. In addition, these devices were set to comply with Volvo VNL packaging limitations. Topology optimization is used to aid engineering intuition in establishing appropriate load support paths, while multi-objective optimization subject to simultaneous quasi-static loading ensures minimal mass and deformation of the FUPDs. While a new FUPD is developed and tested which highlights benefits of deflecting the passenger vehicle in small overlap cases, a dual stage FUPD is proposed revealing potential benefits in utilizing the radiator to absorb some collision energy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Patrick Galipeau-Belair, Srikanth Ghantae, David Critchley, Sarathy Ramachandra, Moustafa EL-Gindy
Abstract This work describes the design and testing of side underride protection devices (SUPD) for tractor-trailers and straight trucks. Its goal is to reduce the incompatibility between small passenger cars and these large vehicles during side collisions. The purpose of these crash attenuating guards is to minimize occupant injury and passenger compartment intrusion. The methods presented utilize a regulation previously created and published for testing the effectiveness of these devices based on the principles of a force application device already implemented in the Canadian rear underride guard regulation. Topology and multi-objective optimization design processes are outlined using a proposed design road map to create the most feasible SUPD. The test vehicle in question is a 2010 Toyota Yaris which represents the 1100C class of vehicle from the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). Since the tractor-trailers and straight trucks utilize different structural components, separate concepts must be generated to accommodate each individual application.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Heeran Lee, Dong Gyun Kim, Cheol Pyo Hong
Abstract Vibration is both a source of discomfort and a possible risk to human health. There have been numerous studies and knowledge exists regarding the vibrational behavior of vehicle seats on adult human occupants. Children are more and more becoming regular passengers in the vehicle. However, very little knowledge available regarding the vibrational behavior of child safety seats for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the vibrations in three different baby car seats and to compare these to the vibrations at the interface between the driver and the automobile seat. The test was performed on the National road at the average speed of 70 km/h and acceleration levels were recorded for about 350 Sec (5.83 min). One male driver considered as an adult occupant and a dummy having a mass of 9 kg was representing one year old baby. Four accelerometers were used to measure the vibration. All measured accelerations were relative to the vertical direction. Vibration Analysis Toolset (VATS) was used for time domain analysis.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard R. Ruth, Jeremy Daily
Abstract 2013 and 2014 Ford Flex vehicles and airbag control modules with event data recorders (EDRs) were tested to determine the accuracy of speed and other data in the steady state condition, to evaluate time reporting delays under dynamic braking conditions, and to evaluate the accuracy of the stability control system data that the module records. This recorder is from the Autoliv RC6 family and this is the first known external research conducted on post 49CFR Part 563 Ford EDRs. The vehicle was instrumented with a VBox and a CAN data logger to compare external GPS based speeds to CAN data using the same synchronized time base. The vehicle was driven in steady state, hard braking, figure 8 and yaw conditions. The Airbag Control Module (ACM) was mounted onto a moving linear sled. The CAN bus data from driving was replayed as the sled created recordable events and the EDR data was compared to the reference instrumentation. The accuracy and timing of the data on a second stability control CAN bus was verified, and the transfer function between the CAN bus data and the EDR data was mapped, such that EDR data from any set of CAN data can be predicted.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jean Razafiarivelo, Youssef Bouri
In the sensitive automotive applications like the safety restraint systems (SRS), twisted lines can be used to link the components of the system because of their property of reduction of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling. Compared to the parallel lines, the twisted lines present the drawback to consume more copper in their manufacturing due to the greater length of their conductors. A parametric study based on the numerical modeling and the measurement of twisted lines is conducted in order to analyze the effect of the twisting pitch and of the untwisted part of these lines on the level of EMI coupling. This study will enable to optimize these two parameters in order to reduce the level of EMI coupling as well as the length of the conductors of the lines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has utilized a two part sled fixture to evaluate a near side test protocol for child restraint systems (CRS). The test was designed to impact the CRS with a fixed door at nearly 20 mph. This paper examines the affects of various fixture parameters on the acceleration and velocity profiles of the two part system during the impact event. It was determined that the kinematic time histories are sensitive to crush energy dissipation (as evaluated with variance in aluminum honeycomb volume) and fixture weight. It was also determined that payload weight, impact speed, and impact plane alignment have a small effect on the acceleration and velocity profiles. Even though the kinematics of the secondary carriage was small with the change in the impact plane alignment, it was determined that the CRS utilized in the standard test would have a 23% reduction in impact energy when compared to the CRS with the impact planes aligned.
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