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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3203
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1848
Jean-Loup Christen, Mohamed Ichchou, Olivier Bareille, Bernard Troclet
Abstract The problem of noise transmission through a structure into a cavity appears in many practical applications, especially in the automotive, aeronautic and space industries. In the mean time, there is a trend towards an increasing use of composite materials to reduce the weight of the structures. Since these materials usually offer poor sound insulation properties, it is necessary to add noise control treatments. They usually involve poroelastic materials, such as foams or mineral wools, whose behaviour depends on many parameters. Some of these parameters may vary in rather broad ranges, either because of measurement uncertainties or because their values have not been fixed yet in the design process. In order to efficiently design sound protections, performing a sensitivity analysis can be interesting to identify which parameters have the most influence on the relevant vibroacoustic indicators and concentrate the design effort on them.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1835
Albert Albers, Fabian Schille, Matthias Behrendt
Abstract In terms of customer requirements, driving comfort is an important evaluation criterion. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), maneuver-based measurements are necessary to analyze this comfort characteristic [1]. Such measurements can be performed on acoustic roller test benches, yielding time efficient and reproducible results. Due to full hybrid vehicles’ various operation modes, new noise and vibration phenomena can occur. The Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) performance of such vehicles can be influenced by transient powertrain vibrations e.g. by the starting and stopping of the internal combustion engine in different driving conditions. The paper at hand shows a methodical procedure to measure and analyze the NVH of HEVs in different driving conditions.
2016-04-27
Standard
J3060_201604
This SAE Standard serves as a guide for vibration testing procedures of Automotive and Heavy Duty storage batteries.
2016-04-27
Standard
J2562_201604
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform laboratory procedures for biaxial fatigue testing of wheels intended for normal highway use and temporary use on passenger car vehicles and light trucks and minimum cycle requirement for ferrous wheels for ballasted passenger car applications. The appendices provide scalable load files that are applicable to ballasted passenger cars and ballasted light trucks. A load file for unballasted passenger cars will be added to this document.
2016-04-13
WIP Standard
J1961
This test method specifies the operating procedures for using a solar fresnel reflector apparatus for the accelerated exposure of various automotive materials. Sample preparation, test durations, and performance evaluation procedures are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers.
2016-04-12
Standard
J2084_201604
The scope of this SAE Information Report is confined to wind-tunnel testing, although it is recognized that many aspects of the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicles can be investigated in other test facilities (such as water-tanks) or, especially, on the road. For example, coastdown testing is often used to determine aerodynamic drag (either in isolation or as part of the total resistance), and artificial gust generators are used to investigate the sensitivity of vehicles to cross-wind gusts. Also excluded from the present Report are climatic wind-tunnel tests of road vehicles, which are defined in more detail in Section 3. The Report covers the aerodynamic requirements of a wind-tunnel for automotive testing, together with the facility equipment needed and the requirements affecting the test vehicle or model.
2016-04-06
Standard
J1228_201604
This SAE Standard specifies the test requirements in addition to those given in ISO 3046-1 for determining the power, at a single point or as a power curve, of marine propulsion engines or systems for recreational craft and other small craft using similar propulsion equipment of less than 24 m length of the hull. It also provides the means for documenting and checking the declared (rated) power published by the manufacturer.
2016-04-06
Standard
J2020_201604
1.1 This test method specifies the operating conditions for a fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) and condensation apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive exterior components. 1.2 Specimen preparation, test duration, and performance evaluation procedures are addressed by each automotive manufacturer’s material specifications. 1.3 This SAE Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use.
2016-04-05
Standard
J1563_201604
These guidelines are intended for those engineers and scientists who evaluate the corrosion performance of painted automotive parts in laboratory cyclic tests. The guidelines are intended to help ensure that the results of the tests can be used to reach conclusions concerning the variables under study without being confounded by the test procedure itself. The guidelines also serve as a means to assist users of this type of test in obtaining good inter-laboratory agreement of results.
2016-04-05
Standard
J1950_201604
The facilities used by domestic automotive manufacturers to provide accelerated corrosion aging of complete vehicles are described in general. The types of vehicles tested, general test methodology, and techniques used to determine test-to-field correlation are discussed. The different procedures used throughout the industry produce different results on various vehicle coatings, components, and systems. The key to successful interpretation of test results is a thorough understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved and the effects of test limitations on these mechanisms. The purpose of this information report is to provide a general overview of some proving ground procedures and facilities used in the United States to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of vehicles.
2016-04-05
Standard
J1293_201604
This document is a road test procedure for comparing the corrosion resistance of both coated and uncoated sheet steels in an undervehicle deicing salt environment.
2016-04-05
Standard
J2334_201604
The SAE J2334 lab test procedure should be used when determining corrosion performance for a particular coating system, substrate, process, or design. Since it is a field-correlated test, it can be used as a validation tool as well as a development tool. If corrosion mechanisms other than cosmetic or general corrosion are to be examined using this test, field correlation must be established.
2016-04-05
Standard
J1528_201604
Test Material: Only fully processed new springs which are representative of springs intended for the vehicle shall be used for the tests. No complete spring or separate leaf shall be used for more than one test.
2016-04-05
Standard
J537_201604
This SAE Standard serves as a guide for testing procedures of automotive 12 V storage batteries. The ratings submitted are to be based on procedures described in this document. The ratings submitted must be of a level that when any subsequent significant sample is tested in accordance with this document, that at least 90% of the batteries shall meet the ratings. The choice of 90% compliance recognizes that batteries consist of many plates and require chemical-electrical formation procedures and small variations in test conditions and procedures can affect the performance of individual batteries. Future Considerations - In order to expedite the release of this revision of the Standard, several topic areas were deferred for consideration in future revisions. These items include, but may not be limited to, the following: post dimension modifications and a new, more application relevant charge acceptance test.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Abstract Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1624
Brian R. McAuliffe, Annick D'Auteuil
Abstract Turbulence is known to influence the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of ground vehicles. What is not thoroughly understood are the characteristics of turbulence that influence this performance and how they can be applied in a consistent manner for aerodynamic design and evaluation purposes. Through collaboration between Transport Canada and the National Research Council Canada (NRC), a project was undertaken to develop a system for generating road-representative turbulence in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel, named the Road Turbulence System (RTS). This endeavour was undertaken in support of a larger project to evaluate new and emerging drag reduction technologies for heavy-duty vehicles. A multi-stage design process was used to develop the RTS for use with a 30% scale model of a heavy-duty vehicle in the NRC 9m Wind Tunnel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, dynamic test methods remove some of the characteristics of actual crashes in order to control testing variables. These simplifications to the test make it difficult to compare laboratory tests to crashes. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTS vehicle tests were performed and compared to a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1517
Cole R. Young, David J. King, James V. Bertoch
Abstract The purpose of this study was to characterize the kinematics of four Chevrolet Tracker rollover tests and to determine their average and intermediate deceleration rates while traveling on concrete and dirt. Single vehicle rollover tests were performed using four 2001 Chevrolet Trackers fitted with six degree of freedom kinematic sensors. Tests were conducted using a rollover test device (RTD) in accordance with SAE J2114. The test dolly was modified (resting height of the vehicle wheels was raised) between tests 1, 2, and 3. The RTD was accelerated to 15.6 m/s (35 mph) and then decelerated rapidly by an energy absorbing crash cushion (EA) to cause the vehicle to launch and roll. The vehicles initially rolled on a smooth concrete surface and continued into loose dirt. This paper adds to the body of work identifying phases of constant deceleration during staged RTD tests and compares these phases to the overall deceleration rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1559
Francesco Vinattieri, Tim Wright, Renzo Capitani, Claudio Annicchiarico, Giacomo Danisi
Abstract The adoption of Electrical Power Steering (EPS) systems has greatly opened up the possibilities to control the steering wheel torque, which is a critical parameter in the subjective and objective evaluation of a new vehicle. Therefore, the tuning of the EPS controller is not only becoming increasing complicated, containing dozens of parameters and maps, but it is crucial in defining the basic DNA of the steering feeling characteristics. The largely subjective nature of the steering feeling assessment means that EPS tuning consists primarily of subjective tests on running prototypes. On account of that, this paper presents an alternative test bench for steering feeling simulation and evaluation. It combines a static driving simulator with a physical EPS assisted steering rack. The end goal is to more accurately reproduce the tactile feedback to the driver by including a physical hardware in lieu of complicated and difficult to obtain software models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
Abstract This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased consumer preference for lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended patented procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service. A laboratory protocol to replicate the wheel flange cracks is described. The protocol is used to demonstrate that wheels without deformations do not result in flange cracks. Conversely wheels with deformations in excess of 1.5mm do result in cracks at less than 750,000 cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1545
Huan Liu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract A new electric power steering system (EPS) dynamic friction model based on normalized Bouc-Wen model is given, as well as its structure form and model features. In addition, experimental method is used to identify corresponding parameters. In order to improve road feel feedback, this paper analyzes the shortcoming of traditional constant friction compensation control method and proposes a variable friction compensation control method which the friction compensation current changes according to the assist characteristic gain. Through simulation and real vehicle test verification, variable friction compensation control method eliminates the effect of basic assist characteristic, and improves the driver’s road feel under high speed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1549
Nicola Bartolini, Lorenzo Scappaticci, Francesco Castellani, Alberto Garinei
Knocking noise is a transient structural noise triggered by piston rod vibrations in the shock absorber that excite the vibration of chassis components. Piston rod vibrations can be caused by valve motion (opening and closing) and dry friction during stroke inversions. This study investigates shock absorber knocking noise in twin tube gas-filled automotive shock absorbers and its aim is to define an acceptance criterion for a sample check of the component. If, in fact, the damper comes from a large mass production, it may happen that small mounting differences lead to different behaviors that result in higher or lower levels of knocking noise. To achieve this goal, experimental tests were carried out using a hydraulic test bench; accelerometers were placed in proximity to the rebound valve and on the piston rod. The vibration phenomenon was then isolated through a post-processing analysis and a damped and unforced lumped mass model was used to characterize the vibration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0979
Jonathan David Stewart, Rose Mary Stalker, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods
Abstract Catalyst aging is presently one of the most important aspects in aftertreatment development, with legislation stating that these systems must be able to meet the relevant emissions legislation up to a specified mileage on the vehicle, typically 150,000 miles. The current industry approach for controlling aging cycles is based solely on the detailed specification of lambda (air-fuel mixture concentration ratio), flow rate and temperature without any limitations on gas mixture. This is purely based upon the experience of engine-based aging and does not take into account any variation due to different engine operation. Although accurate for comparative testing on the same engine/engine type, inconsistencies can be observed across different aging methods, engine types and engine operators largely driven by the capability of the technology used.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abstract Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, to address upcoming real-world driving emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to target this issue is by applying virtual sensors which utilize available sensor information in an engine control unit (ECU) and provide estimates of the not measured emissions. For real-world application it is important that the virtual sensor has low complexity and works under varying conditions. Naturally, the choice of suitable inputs from all available candidates will have a strong impact on these factors. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of design of experiments (DOE) and iterative identification of polynomial models is augmented with a novel input candidate selection strategy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Abstract Aerogels are nanoporous structures with physical characteristics that make them promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems: highly porous with low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) - features that provide favorable characteristics for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (∼0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand high temperatures. Aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method employed in this work for aerogel preparation, describes in detail the benchtop scale testbed and methods used to assess the catalytic activity of RSCE fabricated aerogels, and presents data on the catalytic ability of some promising aerogel chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1019
Arunandan Sharma, Fabien Redon
Abstract After having tested basic transient maneuvers such as load-step changes on the 4.9L three-cylinder opposed-piston diesel engine [1], a similar test-engine was subjected to a more aggressive test-routine - a hot-start heavy-duty FTP (Federal Test Procedure) transient cycle for the on-road engines. The three main objectives of this exercise were: 1 To assess the ability of the engine to meet the transient cycle requirements while maintaining close to the cycle-average BSFC for the FTP cycle derived from steady-state torque-to-fuel map.2 To attain engine-out brake-specific emission levels that are compatible with US2010 EPA requirements with a conventional after-treatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system.3 To compare hot-start FTP transient cycle fuel economy with a publicly available benchmark.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1026
Silvia Marelli, Simone Gandolfi, Massimo Capobianco
Abstract Today turbocharging represents a key technology to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and diesel engines, moreover improving performance. 1D models, generally employed to compute the engine-turbocharger matching conditions, can be optimized basing on certain information about turbine and compressor behavior. Because of difficulty in the correct evaluation of turbine isentropic efficiency with direct techniques, turbocharger turbine efficiency is generally referred to thermomechanical efficiency. To this aim, the possibility to accurately estimate power losses in turbocharger bearings can allow the assessment of the turbine isentropic efficiency starting from the thermomechanical one. In the paper, an experimental and theoretical study on turbocharger mechanical losses is presented. The proposed model, developed in the MATLAB environment, refers to radial and axial bearings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1028
Qinqing Chen, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Qiwei Wang, Qi Chen, Si Liu
Abstract Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
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