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2015-10-06
Event
The need to reduce aerodynamic drag arising from cooling and thermal flows may increase as total vehicle drag is reduced. The complexity of this problem area will require advancements in both experimental and computational tools. Specific topics to be discussed are experimental and computational results as well the correlation of data sets from various sources for both the localized flow conditions as well a complete vehicle in operation.
2015-10-06
Event
Commercial vehicle aerodynamics and fuel economy are greatly affected by transient and interfering flows. As the aerodynamic sophistication of commercial vehicles increase the importance of these phenomena in vehicle design will increase. Specific topics to be discussed are guidelines and methods for the modeling and simulation of these effects in vehicle design, experimental evaluation and the operational performance of commercial vehicles.
2015-10-06
Event
This session focuses on the validation of commercial vehicles for durability and life and the measurements associated with them. Included are component testing of chassis and suspensions, shaker testing, proving ground, and road testing, comparison of test with CAE simulations, and characterization of customer durability requirements.
2015-10-06
Event
CV202 discusses the modeling, analysis, and validation of commercial vehicle chassis, suspension, and tire modeling and simulation. Topics include commercial vehicle dynamics; chassis control devices such as ABS, traction control, yaw/roll stability control, and their interaction with suspension controls; modeling and simulation of ride comfort, as well as passive and active suspension control methodologies. Authors are encouraged to discuss the validation of their modeling and simulation.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2292
Xiaorui Lu, Junda Ma
Over recent years, NVH refinement of engine is becoming increasingly important in buying decision and can significantly give competitive edge to the vehicle in market place. This paper deals with the development phase of a prototype engine in which a specific testing activity was carried out to improve the overall NVH behavior of the powertrain. In order to explain the optimization process in detail, a case study was described in this paper. First, NVH targets of the engine were set via benchmark tests on existing competitive products. Then series of baseline tests, such as 1M sound pressure level test and noise source identification, were performed on the engine. Test results indicated that an obvious breathing vibration mode exist near the intake manifold, which radiates high level noise. In order to achieve the NVH targets, a correlation validation was performed to find out the main reason that caused the vibration of intake manifold.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2116
Peter Struk, Tadas Bartkus, Jen-Ching Tsao, Tom Currie, Dan Fuleki
Abstract This paper presents measurements of ice accretion shape and surface temperature from ice-crystal icing experiments conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. The data comes from experiments performed at NRC's Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac) in 2012. The measurements are intended to help develop models of the ice-crystal icing phenomenon associated with engine ice-crystal icing. Ice accretion tests were conducted using two different airfoil models (a NACA 0012 and wedge) at different velocities, temperatures, and pressures although only a limited set of permutations were tested. The wedge airfoil had several tests during which its surface was actively cooled. The ice accretion measurements included leading-edge thickness for both airfoils. The wedge and one case from the NACA 0012 model also included 2D cross-section profile shapes.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2118
Sergey Alekseyenko, Michael Sinapius, Martin Schulz, Oleksandr Prykhodko
Abstract The results of experimental investigation of the icing processes of NACA 0015 airfoil are presented. The experiments have been carried out with the help of a high-speed camera at the icing/deicing facility at the Institute of Adaptronic and Functional Integration of the Technical University of Braunschweig. The investigation objective is the study of interaction between supercooled large droplets and the icing airfoil surface as well as physical phenomena occurring during the icing process. Evolution of the initial phase of ice growth process over time is observed, the general structure of ice accretion and its alteration along the airfoil is examined. Experiments have been carried out within a wide temperature range. Photos of the specific moments of the icing process have been analyzed. Splashing events and water movement on the icing surface have been observed.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2247
Masao Nagamatsu
The sound localization methods are used for noise source detection of prototype of mechanical products including automobile engines. There are several types of sound localization methods. In middle frequency sound localization around 1kHz, which is most sensitive band for human auditory, these methods have enough resolution in reconstructed images, and are effective to localize the sound source. In high frequency sound localization, the holographic type methods take long time in measurement. To overcome this problem, I have developed the converted method of Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) method, which is one of conventional holographic sound localization method. However, in low frequency sound localization, all methods do not have enough resolution in reconstructed images. I am now developing new sound localization method, Double Nearfield Acoustic Holography (DNAH) method. This method is converted method of conventional Nearfield Acoustic Holography method.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2189
Michael Krak, Jason Dreyer, Rajendra Singh
Many powertrain structural sub-systems are often tested under steady state conditions on a dynamometer or in a full vehicle. This process (while necessary) is costly and time intensive, especially when evaluating the effect of component properties on transient phenomena, such as driveline clunk. This paper proposes a laboratory experiment that provides the following: 1) a bench experiment that demonstrates transient behavior of a non-linear clutch damper under non-rotating conditions, 2) a process to efficiently evaluate multiple non-linear clutch dampers, and 3) generates benchmark time domain data for validation of non-linear driveline simulation codes. The design of this experiment is based on a previous experimental work on clunk. A commercially available non-linear clutch damper is selected and the experiment is sized accordingly. The stiffness and hysteresis properties of the clutch damper are assumed from the measured quasi-static torque curve provided by the manufacturer.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2285
Arne Nykänen, David Lennström, Roger Johnsson
Subjects who are well aware of what to judge commonly yield more consistent results in laboratory listening tests. This awareness may be raised by explicit instructions and training. However, too explicit instructions or use of only trained subjects may direct experiment results in an undesired way. An alternative is to give fairly open instructions to untrained subjects, but give the subjects a chance to get familiar with the product and context by, for example, riding a representative car under representative driving conditions before entering the laboratory. In this study, sound quality assessments of interior sounds of cars made by two groups were compared. In one group subjects were exposed to the same driving conditions that were later assessed in a laboratory listening test by taking them on a ride in one of the cars to be assessed, just before entering the laboratory. In the other group subjects made the laboratory assessments without prior car riding.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2213
John Van Baren
The accumulated damage that a product experiences in the field due to the variety of vibration stresses placed upon it will eventually cause failures in the product. The failure modes resulting from these dynamic stresses can be replicated in the laboratory and correlated to end use environment to validate target reliability requirements. This presentation will discuss which random profile is needed to simulate end use environment, how to combine multiple vibration environments into one, and how to use FDS to accelerate the test.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2278
Rohit Ravindran, Debajit Das, Keval Kamani, P Sivaraman, Gyan Arora
Torsional vibration is a characteristic phenomenon of automotive powertrains. It can have an adverse impact on powertrain related noise as well as the durability of transmission and drivetrain components. Hence minimizing torsional vibration levels associated with powertrains has become important. In this context, accurate measurement and representation of angular acceleration is of paramount importance. A methodology was developed for in-house vehicle level torsional vibration measurement, analysis and representation of results. The evaluation of torsional vibration has two major aspects. First, the acquisition of raw rotational data and secondly, the processing of acquired data to arrive at usable information from which inferences and interpretations can be made about the behavior of the rotating element. This paper describes the development process followed for establishing a torsional vibration evaluation methodology.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2125
Dan Fuleki, Jennifer L.Y. Chalmers, Brian Galeote
This paper describes the equipment, analysis methods and results obtained for particle size measurements based on a particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) system in which a short duration laser pulse is used to backlight airborne particles. This produces high quality and high resolution images of fast moving airborne particles in a non-intrusive manner. This imaging technique is also used to examine particle morphology and 2D particle trajectory and velocity. The image analysis methods are outlined and validation test results discussed which show the measurement of reference glass beads between 20 and 400 microns were generally to within their stated size. As well, validation testing using known icing wind tunnel droplet distributions were compared with Spraytek 2000 Malvern droplet size measurements and showed agreement of the MVD's to be within ±5% for distributions having nominally 20, 40 and 80 micron MVD's.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2281
Shrirang Deshpande, Randall Allemang
Spectral maps and order tracks are tools which are susceptible to improper sensor location on rotating machinery and to measurement noise. On a complex/large rotating system, the major behavior in a particular direction cannot be observed by using standard digital signal processing averaging techniques on different sensor outputs. Also, measurement noise cannot be reduced by applying averaging - due to the slew rate of the system. A newly developed technique tested on experimental data, is presented which uses singular value decomposition (SVD) as its basis to improve the observability of rotating systems. By using data acquired from multiple accelerometers on a machine, singular values – obtained from a SVD of the cross-power matrix at each 2-D point in the frequency-RPM domain – can be plotted in a color-map format similar to a RPM spectral map.
2015-05-07
Standard
J2842_201505
The intent of this standard is to establish a framework to assure that all evaporators for R-744, R-1234yf, and R-445A mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems meet appropriate testing and labeling requirements. SAE J639 requires vehicle manufacturers to perform assessments to minimize reasonable risks in production MAC systems. The evaporator (as designed and manufactured) shall be part of that risk assessment and it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer to assure all relevant aspects of the evaporator are included. It is the responsibility of all vehicle or evaporator manufacturers to comply with the standards of this document at a minimum. (Substitution of specific test procedures by vehicle manufactures that correlate well to field return data is acceptable.) As appropriate, this standard can be used as a guide to support risk assessments.
2015-05-07
Standard
J2876_201505
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Low Speed Knee Slider test to the Hybrid III 50th Male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand from industry to have a certification test which produces similar results to an actual low energy automotive impact test. An inherent problem exists with the current certification procedure because the normal (2.75 m/s) knee slider test has test corridors that do not represent typical displacements seen in these low energy impact tests. The normal test corridors specify a force requirement at 10 mm and at 18 mm, while the low speed test needs to have a peak displacement around 10 mm.
2015-04-30
Standard
J2883_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a laboratory test procedure for measuring the random incidence sound absorption performance of a material or a part in a small size reverberation room by measuring decay rates. The absorption performance may include sound absorption coefficient of the test sample and or the amount of energy absorbed by the test sample. Materials for absorption treatments may include homogeneous materials, nonhomogeneous materials, or a combination of homogeneous, nonhomogeneous, and/or inelastic impervious materials. These materials are commonly installed in the mobility products and in the transportation systems such as ground vehicles, marine products, aircraft, and commercial industry (in industrial and consumer products) to reduce reverberant sound build-up and thus reduce the noise level in the environment by minimizing reflections off of hard surfaces.
2015-04-28
Standard
ARP1536B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes a method of testing, and criteria for comparative evaluation of the abrasion resistance of chafe guard, and also establishes standard test equipment to be used in conducting these tests.
2015-04-28
Standard
J2575_201504
These test procedures were developed based upon the knowledge that steel panel dent resistance characteristics are strain rate dependent. The "quasi-static" section of the procedure simulates real world dent phenomena that occur at low indenter velocities such as palm-printing, elbow marks, plant handling, etc. The indenter velocity specified in this section of the procedure is set to minimize material strain rate effects. The dynamic section of the procedure simulates loading conditions that occur at higher indenter velocities, such as hail impact, shopping carts, and door-to-door parking lot impact. Three dent test schedules are addressed in this procedure. Schedule A is for use with a specified laboratory prepared (generic) panel, Schedule B is for use with a formed automotive outer body panel or assembly, and Schedule C addresses end product or full vehicle testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0681
Yuki Ono, Kenji Matsumoto
Abstract The reciprocating frictional test is a common approach for screening the materials of the piston and sleeve of an automobile engine. The frictional speed of this test is, however, limited mainly by the vibration of test apparatus due to the absence of damping factors in engines. Considering that the frictional velocity between the piston and sleeve reaches around 20 m/s, common test conditions at less than 2 m/s are not sufficient to understand the real phenomena at a frictional interface. We therefore developed a high-speed reciprocating test apparatus that can operate at a much higher speed range and examined two materials used for piston rings and sleeves. For the piston ring material, nitrided SUS440C was used. Plates were made of centrifugal cast iron FC250 or cast aluminum AC2B, which were coated with Nikasil. The experimental results showed that the lubrication regimes of the two plate materials were different even at the same reciprocating speeds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0545
Jeong Kyun Hong
Abstract As the automotive industry seeks to remove weight from vehicle chasses to meet increased fuel economy standards, it is increasingly turning to composites and aluminum. In spite of increasing demands for quality aluminum alloy spot welds that enable more fuel efficient automobiles, fatigue evaluation procedures for such welds are not well-established. This article discusses the results of an evaluation Battelle performed of the fatigue characteristics of aluminum alloy spot welds based on experimental data and observations from the literature. In comparison with spot welds in steel alloys, aluminum alloy spot welds exhibit several significant differences including a different hardness distribution at and around the weld, different fatigue failure modes, and more. The effectiveness and applicability of the Battelle structural stress-based simplified procedure for modeling and simulating automotive spot welds has previously been demonstrated by Battelle investigations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
Abstract As electric technique develops fast, steering system changes from conventional mechanic steering system to Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS). Flowing HPS, Electrically Controlled Steering (ECS) system, including Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, Active Front Steering (AFS) system and Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. ECS makes it easy for a driver to control a steering wheel using a less torque at a low speed, which is usually called steering portability Besides, ECS could also help a driver steer a vehicle stably at a high speed, which is usually called steering stability ECS provides an optional method to solve the contradiction between steering portability and steering stability. [1] [2] The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on. Researches of ECS need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on Hardware-in-the- Loop (HIL) and real vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1514
Deepak Tiwari, Japveer Arora, Rakesh Khanger
Abstract A typical wheel development process involves designing a wheel based on a defined set of criteria and parameters followed by verification on CAE. The virtual testing is followed by bench level and vehicle level testing post which the design is finalized for the wheel. This paper aims to establish the learning which was accomplished for one such development process. The entire wheel development process had to be analyzed from scratch to arrive at a countermeasure for the problem. This paper will not only establish the detailed analysis employed to determine the countermeasure but also highlight its significance for the future development proposals. The paper first establishes the failure which is followed by the detailed analysis to determine the type of failure, impact levels and the basic underlying conditions. This leads to a systematic approach of verification which encompasses the manufacturing process as well as the test methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1513
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Kevin Kefauver
Abstract Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract Automotive knee bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A three-piece cellular structural knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 0.7 Kg), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be restrained (from 50 Kg/152 cm 5th percentile female to 100 Kg/188cm 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0171
Paul Liu, Abhijit Bansal, James C. McKeever
Abstract Automated software testing for both hardware and software components is one of the ways industry is gaining efficiency in testing. A standard based approach can help in reducing the dependency on one particular tool chain, reduce re-training of engineers, reducing development time and increase collaboration between supplier and OEM's. Tula's Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) technology achieves fuel efficiency by activating only the required cylinders required to achieve desired torque. Validation of the DSF algorithms requires reading of the crank, cam, spark, fuel injector, and intake and exhaust actuator positions on an individual cylinder firing opportunity. Decisions made on a cylinder by cylinder basis can be validated. The testing architecture at its core is based on the ASAM Hardware in the loop (HIL) API standard. Following the HIL-API standard gives the flexibility of choosing the best in class measurement hardware and test case management tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0586
Shugang Jiang, Dharshan Medonza, James Kitchen
Abstract Ever increasing requirements for vehicle performance, fuel economy and emissions have been driving the development and adoption of various types of hybrid powertrains. There are many different configurations of hybrid powertrains, which may include such components as engine, generator and inverter, battery pack, ultracapacitor, traction motor and inverter, transmission, and various control units. A hardware-in-the loop (HiL) testing solution that is flexible enough to accommodate different types of hybrid powertrain configurations and run a range of test scenarios is needed to support on-going development activities in this field. This paper describes the design and implementation of such a HiL testing system. The system is centered on a high performance, real-time controller that runs powertrain, driveline, vehicle, and driver models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0885
Mark B. Murphy, John J. Moskwa
Abstract This paper details the development of a new dynamic Intake Air Simulator (IAS) for use on single-cylinder test engines, where the gas dynamics are controlled to accurately simulate those on a multi-cylinder engine during transient or steady-state operation. The third generation of Intake Air Simulators (IAS3) continues a development of new technology in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) that replicates the multi-cylinder engine instantaneous intake gas dynamics on the single-cylinder engine, as well as the control of other boundary conditions. This is accomplished by exactly replicating the intake runner geometry between the plenum and the engine intake valve, and dynamically controlling the instantaneous plenum pressure feeding that runner, to replicate the instantaneous multi-cylinder engine intake flow.
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