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Event
2014-10-08
This session is intended to include papers that will discuss and promote the recent advances in the modeling, analysis, and validation of commercial vehicle chassis, suspension, and tire modeling and simulation. Topics include, but are not limited to: commercial vehicle dynamics; chassis control devices such as ABS, traction control, yaw/roll stability control, and potentially the interplay with suspension control; chassis modeling and simulation to study and resolve issues pertaining to ride comfort, crash/deformation, and safety structure; suspension modeling and simulation studies covering passive and active control methodologies; and tires which would cover new and/or improved modeling techniques. Authors are also encouraged to submit papers that specifically discuss new and recent advances in the validation of their modeling and simulation activities.
Event
2014-10-08
This session is intended to include papers that will discuss and promote the recent advances in the modeling, analysis, and validation of commercial vehicle chassis, suspension, and tire modeling and simulation. Topics include, but are not limited to: commercial vehicle dynamics; chassis control devices such as ABS, traction control, yaw/roll stability control, and potentially the interplay with suspension control; chassis modeling and simulation to study and resolve issues pertaining to ride comfort, crash/deformation, and safety structure; suspension modeling and simulation studies covering passive and active control methodologies; and tires which would cover new and/or improved modeling techniques. Authors are also encouraged to submit papers that specifically discuss new and recent advances in the validation of their modeling and simulation activities.
Event
2014-10-07
This two hour session will serve as an opening discussion on the growing regulatory environment associated with improving commercial vehicle aerodynamics and methods. Europe, Japan and North America (Canada, U.S. and California) regulatory groups as well as SAE are involved in the development of regulations for aerodynamic test and analysis methods. Industry experts from the EPA, NHTSA, NAS, EMA, NRC and more will discuss their views regarding the challenges and limitations of current and proposed regulatory methods. Don't miss your opportunity to have a face to face question and answer session with this dynamic lineup of speakers.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer
In today's world, there are a prominent number of weight & cost reduction projects within the vehicle engineering development activities. Regarding this phenomenon, a complete optimization study is applied to a 4-leaf pendulum leaf spring used in heavy duty trucks by reducing the number of leaves down to 3 together with weight and cost reductions. Leaf spring itself plays a crucial role in a heavy duty truck structure. Because of this purpose, the new designs should withstand all forces like the current design assuring same strength and fatigue characteristics. In other words, it should be lower in price and weight but at the same time strong enough to maintain its durability throughout its life time. This fact brings great responsibility to the development process of the new optimized leaf springs. Hence, a complete optimization process is applied from scratch till the very end which is illustrated in this paper. At the first step of the project, the stiffness of the leaf spring is calculated with an in-house software based on mathematical calculations using the thickness profile of the leaves.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sijing Guo, Zhenfu Chen, Xuexun Guo, Quan Zhou, Jie Zhang
Hydraulic electromagnetic shock absorber (HESA) consists of hydraulic cylinder and check valves etc., by which the high-pressure oil produced by shock absorber reciprocation could be exported to drive the hydraulic motor, so as to drive the generator, and eventually recover the mechanical vibration energy otherwise dissipated by the traditional shock absorber as heat energy. Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension(HIS) can improve the vehicle roll and pitch stablity performance by interconnecting the chambers of the shock absorbers on the vehicle. To integrate both the advantages of HESA and HIS, a new type of suspension system is proposed in this paper, namely Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension system based on Hydraulic Electromagnetic Shock Absorber (HESA-HIS). HESA-HIS has three operating modes: energy-recovery priority mode, driving stability performance priority mode and energy-recovery and driving stability performance balance mode. The working principle of HESA-HIS in the three operating modes is introduced, and the mathematic theory model is deduced with relative automobile theory knowledge.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Oscar Flores-Centeno, Manuel Fabela-Gallegos, David Vazquez-Vega, Carlos Blake-Cervantes, Ricardo Hernandez-Jimenez
The vehicle’s dynamic behavior is influenced mainly by the interaction of four factors: driver, vehicle, road an environment. Under given circumstances, perturbation of these factors can cause degradation of vehicles´ performance; as a result, an accident will take place affecting the vehicle itself, road infrastructure and injury or even death of passenger(s). In order to increase road safety is essential to fully understand the interaction of those factors on vehicle’s dynamic behavior, especially heavy vehicles due to its greater mass, dimensions and potential damage that can cause. This paper presents the effect of road condition on the dynamic behavior of a 3-axle straight-truck based on numerical simulations. Validated commercial software was used. Three different road conditions were studied, namely potholes, longitudinal level differences between adjacent lanes due to repairing process, and different surface friction coefficients also due to road repairing process. For numerical simulations, three standardized maneuvers were taken into account, namely, single and double lane change and panic braking.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
This paper reviews the correlation concepts and tools available, with the emphasis on their historical origins, mathematical properties and applications. Two of the most commonly used statistical correlation indicators, i.e., modal assurance criterion (MAC ) for structural deformation pattern identification/correlation and the coefficient of determination (R^2 ) for data correlation are investigated. The mathematical structure of R^2 is critically examined, and the physical meanings and their implications are discussed. Based on the insights gained from these analyses, a data scatter measure and a dependency measure are proposed. The applications of the measures for both linear and nonlinear data are also discussed. Finally, several worked examples in vehicle dynamics analysis and statistical data analyses are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these concepts.
Standard
2014-07-24
Scope—Traditional methods of photometry rely on the use of a goniometer to rotate the test item around two axes at right angles. This method is satisfactory for most situations but has certain disadvantages: a. Point-by-point measurements with a goniometer may be slow. With more advanced requirements, particularly for headlamps, where the entire beam pattern is of concern, isocandela measurements are becoming increasingly needed. Such testing can be very time consuming. b. For production quality assurance, the speed of a goniometer may not allow testing to keep pace with the production line if a large quantity of lamps must be sampled. c. High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps are becoming commonly used. Such lamps are orientation sensitive, changing in both lumen output and intensity distribution when tilted. This can introduce significant inaccuracies in test results when testing is performed using a goniometer. There is a need for alternative test techniques which can achieve very high speed data acquisition, the capture of full isocandela distribution, and the elimination of lamp tilting.
Video
2014-07-18
This video summarizes Chapters 3 and 4 of the book, "Theory and Applications of Aerodynamics for Ground Vehicles", by Dr. T. Yomi Obidi, published by SAE International. Concepts demonstrated include: wind tunnel flow characteristics, road test set-up, and track testing.
Standard
2014-07-08
The test method describes the procedure for determination of the total acid number of new and degraded polyol ester and diester based gas turbine lubricants by potentiometric titration technique. The method was validated to cover an acidity range 0.05 to 6.0 mg KOH g-1. The method may also be suitable for the determination of acidities outside of this range and for other classes of lubricant.
WIP Standard
2014-06-26
This recommended practice describes the application of digital cameras to measurement of photometric quantities in the photometric laboratory.
WIP Standard
2014-05-23
This test method specifies the operating conditions for a fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) and condensation apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive exterior components. Specimen preparation, test duration, and performance evaluation procedures are addressed by each automotive manufacturerÕs material specifications. This SAE Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this document to consult and establish appropriate and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Significance and Use This test method is designed to simulate extreme environmental conditions encountered on the outside of an automobile due to sunlight, heat, and to provide an acceleration of exposure for the purpose of predicting the performance of exterior automotive materials. Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions reported in this method are nominal.
Standard
2014-05-20
This procedure is used to determine seam strength and seam fatigue of automotive textiles, vinyl coated fabrics and related soft trim materials.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Eraldo de Jesus Soares, Alan M. Oliva, Camilo A. Adas, Fernando C. Dusi, Paulo Sergio P. Santos, Marco A. Fogaça Accurso, Marcus Kliewer
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to show a multiaxial bench test for static and dynamic testing of leaf springs for suspension of commercial vehicles. The bench test simulates the critical operating conditions (track, ramp, speed bump on track, curves and braking), with stroke control for strength and deformation analysis. One of the main advantages in bench test is to reduce the time of the test, its repeatability, its cost saving and monitoring its performance through inspections and graphic records. The aim of the test is to evaluate the behavior in durability of the components, to analyze the possible failure mode and to be able to approve or reject the component based on the test's results. Criteria were set to accelerate the test by comparing signals measured on the field and bench test with deflection by stress curves. These criteria were maintained under extreme conditions for longer than the observed in previous and real applications. With this, the low incidence of strength and stroke is measured by optimizing the time of the test.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures, and information to conduct vibration (impact) tests on lighting devices and their components as well as other safety equipment used on vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Christian Fischer, Rainer Wagener, Tobias Melz, Heinz Kaufmann
Abstract The fatigue life approach is the main topic of structural durability. Improved methods for the numerical fatigue analysis should be based on experimental results. In some fields of material testing progress in research are very hard to achieve. Especially the regime of amplitudes below the knee point of the SN-curve with a huge number of load cycles to failure is one of these challenges with respect to fatigue tests. With standard testing devices, 108 to 1010 cycles cannot be achieved in a reasonable time span because of their low and limited testing frequencies or their inflexible control systems concerning variable amplitude loading. For this reason, a new piezo based testing facility has been developed by Fraunhofer LBF which is capable to master this challenge. Built up with a high performance piezo actuator and a specially designed high frequency load frame this testing facility enables test frequencies up to 1.000Hz and locking forces of 10kN. The control technique realises variable load amplitudes as well as variable frequencies to test materials under realistic load sequences.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Y. S. Thipse
Abstract Designers and analysts need to compare and conduct synthesis for selection of materials based on their properties involving simulation, optimization and correlation with test data. An example is that of acoustic material properties such as random and normal incidence sound absorption coefficient and sound transmission loss. The international test standards necessitate having standard operating procedures for characterization of these materials. This procedure is quite involved and addresses steps including test data acquisition, post processing, calculations, classification, report generation and most importantly, storage of such innumerable material properties in a structured manner to facilitate ease of retrieval and updating of properties. It is also highly desirable to have a synergy of the databank directly with simulation tools. Further, all of these steps need to be accurate, non-speculative and quick. In order to address all these diverse requirements, three cases of powerful knowledge based utilities are hereby presented.
Standard
2014-04-25
This SAE Standard defines a method for evaluating the immunity of automotive electrical/electronic devices to radiated electromagnetic fields coupled to the vehicle wiring harness. The method, called Bulk Current Injection (BCI), uses a current probe to inject RF onto the wiring harness in the frequency range of 1 to 400 MHz. BCI is one of a number of test methods that can be used to simulate the electromagnetic field.
Standard
2014-04-16
This SAE Recommended Practice covers the recommended testing techniques for the determination of electric field immunity of an automotive electronic device when the device and its wiring harness is exposed to a power line electric field. This technique uses a parallel plate field generator and a high voltage, low current voltage source to produce the field.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ram Kiran Tholeti, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainish Kumar B, R Govindarajan
Abstract Scooter segment growth is tremendously increasing in India. The increased competition challenges automotive manufacturers to deliver the high quality and high reliable product to the market. Higher reliability involves increased durability testing which involves time and cost. Stress testing a part of durability is initially conducted on prototype vehicles for structural design validation and then later on production units to ensure its structural integrity. The obtained data from the tests can be used for future structural design improvements. Scooters with small tires, suspension limitations transfers more loads to structure, challenges engineers to design robust structure without compromising on weight much. It is necessary to look at Real World Usage Pattern (RWUP) and to create a stress life cycle block for simulation of accelerated testing, thereby optimizing the testing time and the development costs. The aim of this paper is to provide a procedure for deriving an accelerated stress test cycle for evaluation of chassis based on Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Valerie Earlene Bumbaca
Abstract Virtually every major automaker has announced intentions of producing an electric vehicle (EV). Hyundai Motor Group has also announced plans to sell an electric vehicle in the next several years. There is strong and increasing support for electric vehicles in the USA due to an interest in protecting the environment, limiting dependence on oil, and reducing the associated cost of petroleum-based transportation. From a durability perspective, battery performance and longevity are significant concerns. In order to better prepare for upcoming electric vehicles, Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, Inc (HATCI) Vehicle Evaluation group is developing an EV durability test and battery lifecycle laboratory test based on real world EV customer usage. Since there is limited availability of real world customer information for electric vehicles, a program has been started to collect EV customer usage data. This will be correlated with test inputs for both road and lab testing. An outside vendor has been contracted to collect data on customer usage from existing Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt customers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Derek R. Braden, David M. Harvey
Abstract There is a continual growth of test and validation in high reliability product applications such as automotive, military and avionics. Principally this is driven by the increased use and complexity of electronic systems deployed in vehicles, in addition to end user reliability expectations. Higher reliability expectations consequently driving increased test durations. Furthermore product development cycles continue to reduce, resulting in less available time to perform accelerated life tests. The challenge for automotive electronic suppliers is performing life tests in a shorter period of time whilst reducing the overall associated costs of validation testing. In this paper, the application of prognostic and health monitoring techniques are examined and a novel approach to the validation and testing of automotive electronics proposed which it is suggested may be more cost effective and efficient than traditional testing. The holistic method explored in this paper fuses real time test data obtained during the monitoring of products throughout an environmental exposure with key factors from manufacturing and product design.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sunil Kumar Chippa, Bhavani Srinivasaiah, Samraj Jabez Dhinagar
Abstract Automated testing of manufactured products reduces the lead time to considerable extent in the process of production to delivery. Products like automobiles demand automated testing, for which robots and vision systems are widely employed. The basic functionality of a vision system in automation is to detect an object and then recognize it. In current automotive industry such systems are being used for robotic guidance, component tracking, dimensional gauging etc. There is a need to test the proper functionality of a speedometer fitted on a motorbike in the production line itself. Focused work on detection and recognition of Analog type and Digital type speedometer console reading of a motorbike is described in this paper. A vision based system is proposed which recognizes the speedometer reading instantaneously at the desired time. Image binarization, connected component analysis combined with character recognition algorithms are used to achieve the desired recognition, which resulted in reduced lead time hence contributing to lean manufacturing
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Songgang Li, Guobiao Yand, Weiming Zeng
Abstract The port structure consisting of spur pile, vertical pile and beam is subjected to impact loads, so its internal stress state of each point will rapidly change over time. Dynamic photoelastic method is used to study the dynamic stress and stress wave propagation. With epoxy resin and other materials, a photoelastic model of beam to column connection structure is processed and product. The dynamic response of the model under the impact load by the free fall is researched by the dynamic photoelastic method, and recorded by the new digital dynamic photoelastic system with a laser source and high-speed photography system. The internal dynamic stress propagation and distribution, the maximum shear stress and the dynamic stress concentration problems can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic response. Researching on the key part under impact load using dynamic photoelastic method can furnish the experimental evidence of transient stress phenomenon for theoretical research and engineering applications.
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