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2015-04-21
Event
Focusing on studies of driver behavior modeling, driving simulator techniques, vehicle ride comfort evaluation and enhancement, test/simulation correlation analysis, vehicle elastomeric component modeling (i.e. bushings, rubber mounts, springs, dampers, seat cushions), passive, semi-active and active suspension systems, suspension seat analysis and modeling techniques, the effect and control of beaming, shaking, impact harshness, brake judder and any other phenomena affecting ride comfort of driver, passengers, goods, etc.
2015-04-21
Event
Focusing on studies of driver behavior modeling, driving simulator techniques, vehicle ride comfort evaluation and enhancement, test/simulation correlation analysis, vehicle elastomeric component modeling (i.e. bushings, rubber mounts, springs, dampers, seat cushions), passive, semi-active and active suspension systems, suspension seat analysis and modeling techniques, the effect and control of beaming, shaking, impact harshness, brake judder and any other phenomena affecting ride comfort of driver, passengers, goods, etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract title: INTRODUCTION TO SUCCESSFUL PREDICTING OF PRODUCT PERFORMANCE (RELIABILITY, DURABILITY, SAFETY, QUALITY, RECALLS, AND OTHERS) This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance components. The best component for analyzing performance during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates reliability, durability, safety, profit, and total economic situation. Second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from the government (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance , including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls. It will demonstrate how dangerous is the current situation with recalls, reliability, durability, safety, especially in automotive, including in the USA for last thirty years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Bushing model development is always necessary for dynamic simulation regarding vehicle durability, as its accuracy will directly affect the quality of the result. By considering nonlinearity, asymmetry, and hysteresis, this paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, providing users fast and stable fitting and application process in the time domain. A total number of 9 parameters make ABM relatively straight-forward and less redundant compared with some existing bushing models. The additional capability with proper transfer function makes ABM possible to reflect the frequency dependency of some special-made bushings, such as hydraulic engine mounts. Comparisons between tested and simulated result show that ABM is capable of reproducing accurate force out of a given bushing, under some common situation faced in durability simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0873
Bin Mao, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Yongzhi Li, Haifeng Liu, Bowen Yan
In this study, three external EGR systems, named HPL-EGR (high-pressure loop EGR), LPL-EGR (low-pressure loop EGR) and DL-EGR (dual-loop EGR) respectively, were established in a heavy-duty diesel engine, and experimental investigation on the effects of EGR modes and combustion phasing (CA50 - crank angle at 50 percent total fuel energy released) on combustion characteristics, engine performance and emissions were conducted in view of best fuel consumption. At a fixed CA50, the oxygen equivalence ratio (Φoxy) and pumping loss are two fundamental factors that determine the proportion of low pressure loop EGR flow rate to total EGR flow rate. As operating load or speed changes, the turbine inlet enthalpy available, pumping loss and turbocharger total equivalent isentropic efficiency of each operating condition should be also taken into account, so the optimized proportion of low pressure loop flow rate in DL-EGR ought to varies regularly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1190
Matthew Shirk, Jeffrey Wishart
As part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC Level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery testing includes constant-current discharge capacity, Electric Vehicle Power Characterization, and Low Peak Power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0355
Matthew A. Jeffers, Larry Chaney, John P. Rugh
When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy, and more importantly, it drastically reduces the driving range of electric-drive vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling, since no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the HVAC system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are evaluating strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward GCEDVs. The goal is to increase EV range by 10% during operation of the climate control system. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling are jointly used to explore possibilities for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of load-reduction technologies. A thermal comfort model is also being used to evaluate zonal climate control concepts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1283
Qiwei Wang, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Yue Liu
Authors: Qiwei Wang, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Xunan Gao, Si liu (School of Automobile Studies, Tongji University) Abstract: To study the turbocharger matching based on vehicle performance requirement, vehicle powertrain simulation model and turbocharged gasoline engine simulation model were built through the use of one-dimension simulation software and had been verified by experiment. According to the vehicle performance, the fuel consumption at 90km/h, of NEDC cycle and the accelerating duration from 0 to 100km/h were analyzed when fitted with different turbochargers. Then, to study the matching under multiple working conditions (NEDC cycle, full-load condition and high altitude condition), the matching of four turbochargers with a gasoline engine were compared respectively. The analysis on turbocharger matching was carried out according to the distribution of working points of NEDC cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1286
A. Meghani, J. Allen, J.W.G. Turner, A. Popplewell, D.J. Marshall, J.S. Hoyle, S. McBroom, R. Urista, M. Bazyn
The paper discusses the effects of various charging system technologies on the performance and fuel consumption of a modern supercharged engine, the Jaguar Land Rover AJ126 3.0 litre V6. The goal of the project was to improve performance and reduce the fuel consumption of the standard engine by researching new technologies. As standard the AJ126 engine uses an Eaton R1320 supercharger with a fixed ratio drive from the crankshaft and no clutch.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1522
Takahiro Yokoyama, Koji Hiratsuka, Shinya Notomi
Users drive at relatively high speeds during the winter season, and maneuvering on snow-covered roads is a key performance for drivers. Demands are increasing for tires with lower rolling resistance. Tire patterns were developed similar to summer tires with reduced grooving and tire patterns with shallower grooves. This required techniques that predict maneuverability on snow-covered roads. This study treated maneuverability on snow-covered roads as maneuverability in the grip region, and verified the correlation between subjective evaluation using vehicles and tire stand-alone characteristics. Indexes were clarified for the tire contact patch and the physical properties of the tread rubber, which are prerequisites for securing grip in the normal-use. Typical index values for indexes were investigated using the surface pressure distribution obtained by a tire contact and surface pressure measuring system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0909
Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Li Yuqiang, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Alcohols, especially n-butanol, have received a lot of attention as potential fuels and have shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. ABE, the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is being studied as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1083
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Patrick P. Chen, Jasna Tomic, Richard Parish
Emissions and fuel economy were determined over a light and a heavy driving cycle designed to represent the vehicles in-use driving patterns. The vehicles were 2010 Freightliner cabs equipped with Cummins engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter emission control systems. The carbon dioxide emissions for the hybrids were 30 to 36% lower than from the conventional. The hybrid nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 30% higher to 20% lower than the conventional. The CO emissions were below the standards for both vehicles, but the percentage differences ranged from 18% to 2000% higher for the hybrids relative to the conventional. The high CO emissions for the hybrid are primarily related to the cooling of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst during the 20 minute key-off soak between repeats of the driving cycles. With a 1 minute key-off soak the CO emissions from the hybrid were negative.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0978
Lori Lemazurier, Neeraj Shidore, Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau, Phillip Bonkoski, Jeremy Delhom
Near term advances in SI engine technology (VVL, GDI, cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of significant fuel savings in the vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher gear numbers (8 speed, 9 speed), higher spans and a focus on down-speeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual clutch transmissions exhibit higher efficiency than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development with low investment and immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (idle engine stop) technology in vehicles today. This paper evaluates the impact of each of these technologies (engines, transmissions, start stop) on the fuel economy and performance of a compact car in the year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0611
Aref M. A. Soliman, Mina M.S. Kaldas
Abstract This paper presents experimental and theoretical investigations for ride comfort performance of compressed natural gas fuelled car. A compressed natural gas and gasoline fuel are used to run the engine car and its effect on the vehicle ride comfort is evaluated. The ride comfort performance in terms of experimental Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the vertical acceleration at near driver's feet on the floor, on the front and back seat for the same passenger car fuelled by gasoline and natural gas is evaluated. Furthermore, seven degrees of freedom vehicle mathematical model is developed, and validated through laboratory tests. The validation process is performed by comparing the predicted RMS values of the vertical accelerations with the measured RMS values. Furthermore, the optimum values of vehicle suspension parameters are obtained through the validated vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0612
Weiguo Zhang, Zeyu Ma, Ankang Jin, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0619
Chih Feng Lee, Dzmitry Savitski, Chris Manzie, Valentin Ivanov
Geometric imperfections on brake rotor surface are well-known for causing periodic variations in brake torque during braking. This leads to brake judder, where vibrations are felt in brake pedal, vehicle floor and/or steering wheel. Existing solutions to address judder often involve multiple phases of component design, extensive testing and improvement of manufacturing procedures, leading to the increase in development cost. To address this issue, active brake torque variation (BTV) compensation has been proposed to an electromechanical brake (EMB) by taking advantage of its powerful actuator, reasonable rigid transmission unit and high bandwidth tracking performance. Recent advancements in hydraulic system design and control have improved the performance of hydraulic brakes on a par with the EMB, therefore shedding lights on the possibility of incorporating the BTV compensation feature of the EMB to hydraulic brakes.
2015-04-14 ...
  • April 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Developing vehicles that achieve optimum fuel economy and acceleration performance is critical to the success of any automotive company, yet many practicing engineers have not received formal training on the broad range of factors which influence vehicle performance. This seminar provides this fundamental understanding through the development of mathematical models that describe the relevant physics and through the hands-on application of automotive test equipment. Attendees will also be introduced to software used to predict vehicle performance.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0009
Bingjie Zhang, Siti Khalijah Mazlan, Shuheng Jiang, Alberto Boretti
Abstract With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0028
Jihyun An, Seungwon Yoo, KwangChan Ko, Jongchan Park
Abstract This paper presents an industrial application of the Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) methodology to the optimal design of commercial vehicle steering and suspension system. This is a pilot study about the suspension and steering design of a semi medium bus, whose objective is to develop and introduce an ATC methodology to an automobile development process. In the conventional process, it is difficult not only to find design variables which meet the target of Ride and Handling (R&H) performance using a detailed full car model, but also to figure out the interrelation between the vehicle and its subsystems. In this study, ATC methodology is used in order to obtain the optimal values such as geometric characteristics satisfying both the vehicle's R&H target and the subsystem (suspension and steering system) 's target.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
Abstract The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favorable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a “Hydrogen Economy” are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
Abstract The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission. In this case study, simulation model of a CNG, LCV is used to analyze the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0113
Prasad B. Warule, Vaibhav V. Jadhav, Ashish Ranjan
Abstract Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated for maximum fuel economy keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimized gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in the best efficiency zones without downsizing. Motor is selected based on power to weight ratio, gradient requirements, improved acceleration performance and top speed requirement of vehicle in EV mode.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0144
Pankaj Brijbihari Sharma, Prafulla Dahiwade
Abstract This paper discusses the off-road performance prediction of military application mini UGVs using terramechanics work deals with the development of performance simulation model for mini UGV in the Matlab/Simulink Software. Transient forward vehicle propulsion model and soil terrain interaction model have been built in the Simulink® software. It is a semi-empirical mobility model which predicts mini UGV performance on given terrain. The interaction between vehicle and the terrain causes resistances to vehicle propulsion. The model calculates these resistances, compares them to both the power limitations of the vehicle and the tractive limitations of the soil/terrain, to determine if the vehicle is immobilized. If not, then the vehicle speed is calculated based on available drawbar pull. The terrain is defined in terms of the soil parameters measured by the Bevameter. Semi-empirical equations suggested by Bekker have been used to model the soil terrain interaction.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0145
Sankaranarayanan Arthanathan
Abstract The objective of this project is “Bringing Field to Lab”. Normally in field, tractors are utilized for various applications like harvesting and threshing operation in a dusty environment which consists of paddy, sand, straw etc. These dusts would affect the tractor performance and often cause problem like engine choking at severe condition. Field data on threshing acquired from north Indian places like Jaitsar, Jalandhar where threshing done in summer at a temperature around 50°C. Also during threshing full tractor power is used through (PTO) power take off and this load fluctuates according to manual loading of paddy in thresher.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0198
Rushikesh Dakhore, Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar, Dattatray B. Hulwan
Abstract To meet stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, design of piston cavity geometry perform a defining role in air motion, fuel air mixing, combustion and emission formation. A study is performed with the objective to have a better tradeoff between NOx, PM and fuel consumption for a Medium duty, constant speed diesel engine operated with Mechanical fuel injection system. Through simulations in 3D CFD tool the effect of piston cavity geometry on performance and emission of diesel engine is investigated and then validated with actual experimentation. In this exercise efforts are made to reduce emissions in a direct injection diesel engine by changing the piston cavity geometry. The piston cavity geometry and dimensions like torus radius, pip region, cavity lip area, and impingement area have an effect on emission formation. The target was to deliberately split the fuel spray and have a better utilization of available air.
2014-11-04
Magazine
2015 engines ride a technology tidal wave Powertrain engineers are diving deeper to find new ways to make light-duty power units more efficient without compromising performance. Connectivity for comfort Seat suppliers such as Continental, Johnson Controls, and Faurecia pursue 'networked' seats to enhance safety, personalization, and comfort. Assembling aluminum vehicles in volume Ford's 2015 F-150 pickup pioneers high-volume mass-production of lightweight aluminum car and truck structures.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2865
Anandan Sivakumar, V. Saishanker, Raghvendra Gopal
Abstract Success of the vehicle in cold countries depends on performance of the vehicle under cold climatic conditions. In automobiles, structural elastomer components have strong influence on vehicle performance including NVH, ride comfort & durability. Elastomers are sensitive in nature to these climatic conditions due to its temperature dependent visco-elastic behavior. Thus, it is very important to understand structural elastomer component's performance at sub zero temperatures. In a vehicle, Engine mount is used to hold engine firmly and isolate vibrations away from chassis. Vibration isolation of a mount at low temperature is generally affected by the rubber composition. Major ingredients of the rubber composition influencing the low temperature characteristics are Elastomer type, filler type, plasticizer and curing system. Rubber composition plays key role in achieving engine mount properties like static stiffness, dynamic stiffness, permanent set and durability.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2904
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT's vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.
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