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2015-04-21
Event
Focusing on studies of driver behavior modeling, driving simulator techniques, vehicle ride comfort evaluation and enhancement, test/simulation correlation analysis, vehicle elastomeric component modeling (i.e. bushings, rubber mounts, springs, dampers, seat cushions), passive, semi-active and active suspension systems, suspension seat analysis and modeling techniques, the effect and control of beaming, shaking, impact harshness, brake judder and any other phenomena affecting ride comfort of driver, passengers, goods, etc.
2015-04-21
Event
Focusing on studies of driver behavior modeling, driving simulator techniques, vehicle ride comfort evaluation and enhancement, test/simulation correlation analysis, vehicle elastomeric component modeling (i.e. bushings, rubber mounts, springs, dampers, seat cushions), passive, semi-active and active suspension systems, suspension seat analysis and modeling techniques, the effect and control of beaming, shaking, impact harshness, brake judder and any other phenomena affecting ride comfort of driver, passengers, goods, etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0616
Aref M.A. Soliman
In this paper, passive and various types of intelligent vehicle suspension systems are compared in terms of their relative ride performance capabilities and power requirements. These systems are, two and three setting switchable dampers and active suspension systems. The control gains of the intelligent systems are obtained using optimal control theory and gain scheduling strategy (GS) is used for the system behaviour. In the first strategy used, gains are selected based on suspension working space. While, the other strategy, gains are selected based on body acceleration. These strategies are used to maintain suspension working space and dynamic tyre deflection levels within design limits and to minimise body acceleration level. The mean power consumed in rolling resistance and the mean power dissipation within the suspensions are evaluated. The results showed that the gain scheduling strategy improves ride performance for all the types of suspension compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0620
Manoj Mahala, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Idealized mathematical models, also known as lumped parameter models (LPMs), are widely used in analyzing vehicles for ride comfort and driving attributes. However, the limitations of some of these LPMs are sometimes not apparent and a rigorous comparative study of common LPMs is necessary in ascertaining their suitability for various dynamic situations. In the present study, the mathematical descriptions of three common LPMs, viz. quarter, half and full car models, are systematically presented and solved for the appropriate response parameters such as body acceleration, body displacement, and, pitch and roll angles using representative passive suspension system properties. By carrying out a comparison of the three stated LPMs for hump-type road profiles, important quantitative insights, not previously reported in the literature, are generated into their behaviors so that their applications can be judicious and efficient.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0617
Jie Zhang, Bangji Zhang, Lifu Wang, Shengzhao Chen, Nong Zhang
Well-deigned suspension system plays an important role in improving ride comfort. Underground mining vehicles which work in harsh conditions commonly employ leaf spring suspension to provide large stiffness and damping while be compact in size. Another characteristic of the mining vehicle is that its sprung mass varies significantly when loaded/unloaded. The leaf spring suspension has to be designed very stiff to meet the full-loaded requirement, therefore when the vehicle is unloaded, the stiff leaf spring damage the ride quality and expose the passengers to noise, vibration and harshness. Since the hydraulic suspension systems can provide better ride comfort, the paper proposes a design of adding an interconnected hydraulic system to resist bounce motions to share the vertical load with the leaf spring, which therefore can be designed softer. Furthermore, The hydraulic system also increases the suspension stiffness in the pitch mode to prevent vehicle from large pitch motions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Nowadays with the advances in the vehicle control systems, the customers want new and exciting features in their vehicles, which make the vehicle driving characteristics adjustable as they prefers. One of the vehicle controlled systems which can be used to change the vehicle driving characteristics from time to time is the semi-active suspension system. Therefore, the paper presents a rule-optimized fuzzy controller for semi-active suspension system which is continuously adjusts itself according to the road conditions and the drivers’ requirements. The proposed rule-optimized fuzzy controller has three different control modes (Sport, Normal and Comfort), which can be switched using the button and thus adjusted to customer requirements. The Normal Mode is adjusted to provide an overall balance between the vehicle ride comfort and road holding. On the other hand, the Comfort Mode is adapted to leads to a comfort-oriented, softer basic configuration of the damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0618
Zhihong Dong, Ying Sun, Yuliang Yang, Guitao Zhu, Kai Wang
Based on the modal frequency response theory and experiment ,the installation layout evaluation and structural optimization method for SIS(side impact sensors) installation position is studied. Establish the finite element model including B-pillar, roof and floor with local constraint .Than study the key parameter's influence on the frequency response analysis results ,and the simulation results are correlated by experiment. In view of the installation layout requirements of side impact sensors ,the structure optimization method for installation position of side impact sensor is put forward . The optimal scheme is confirmed by the finite element analysis, and a final experimental verification was implemented by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0623
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge jin, Yongfeng jiang, Yin-ping Chang
The theory of rigid-elastic coupling (REC) model is introduced. The REC model of a twist beam is verified by comparing with results of FEM model. In order to increase computation speed of simulation, an artificial neural network is constructed to substitute complex model. Finally the Pareto theory and NSGAⅡ genetic algorithm are applied to carry out multi-objective optimization design of bushing stiffness and setting angle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0611
Aref M. A. Soliman, Mina M.S. Kaldas
Aref M.A. Soliman1, and Mina M.S. Kaldas2 1South Valley University, Egypt 2IAE, TU Braunschweig, Germany Abstract Many researchers have towered their effort to investigate of using a compressed natural gas instead of gasoline as a fuels in the passenger car. The natural gas does not produce the same amount of emission from the car engine as the gasoline fuel. However their investigations need for extra work to evaluate the effect of compressed natural gas on the vehicle ride comfort. This work presents an investigation of ride comfort for compressed natural gas fuelled car. A seven-degrees of freedom vehicle model is used, and the vehicle body itself is treated as a rigid body. A mathematical model for a passenger car is developed, and the optimum values of vehicle suspension parameters are obtained. A compressed natural gas and gasoline fuels are used to run the engine car and its effect on the vehicle ride comfort are evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0619
Chih Feng Lee, Dzmitry Savitski, Chris Manzie, Valentin Ivanov
Geometric imperfections on brake rotor surface are well-known for causing periodic variations in brake torque during braking. This leads to brake judder, where vibrations are felt in brake pedal, vehicle floor and/or steering wheel. Existing solutions to address judder often involve multiple phases of component design, extensive testing and improvement of manufacturing procedures, leading to the increase in development cost. To address this issue, active brake torque variation (BTV) compensation has been proposed to an electromechanical brake (EMB) by taking advantage of its powerful actuator, reasonable rigid transmission unit and high bandwidth tracking performance. Recent advancements in hydraulic system design and control have improved the performance of hydraulic brakes on a par with the EMB, therefore shedding lights on the possibility of incorporating the BTV compensation feature of the EMB to hydraulic brakes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0612
Weiguo zhang, Zeyu Ma, Ankang Jin, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang
Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a 14-degree of freedom (DOF) multi-body biodynamic human model, including the backrest support and feet contact with the ground. Two types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the friction between feet and ground, while the second does. Based on the vehicle multibody model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the friction between feet and ground exert non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the two models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0613
Donghong Ning, James Coyte, Hai Huang, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Heavy duty vehicles suffer from detrimental vibrations which have significant influence to the operator’s comfort, health and safety. Especially, long term exposures to vibration with a frequency range between 0.5 and 10Hz will severely damage the driver’s backbone. Tires, chassis suspension and seat suspension are three traditional methods to isolate vehicles vibration, but it is generally difficult to modify the parameters of tires and chassis suspension, even many approaches are proposed for the performance of chassis suspension. On the other hand, the seat suspension system is easy to modify and optimize. Therefore, seat suspension has been employed as a simple and effective method to isolate vehicle vibration transmitted to the driver’s body. Studying the vibration characteristics of seat suspension is one important step for seat suspension design.
2015-04-14 ...
  • April 14-15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Developing vehicles that achieve optimum fuel economy and acceleration performance is critical to the success of any automotive company, yet many practicing engineers have not received formal training on the broad range of factors which influence vehicle performance. This seminar provides this fundamental understanding through the development of mathematical models that describe the relevant physics and through the hands-on application of automotive test equipment. Attendees will also be introduced to software used to predict vehicle performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0615
Li Jie, Wang Wenzhu
In order to study the problem of vehicle ride, a vibration model of 6 DOF half vehicle based on the synthesis between rigid body and flexibility is established using elastic beam theory of equal section with both ends free. According to pseudo-excitation method, the pseudo road excitations in vehicle front wheel and rear wheel are constructed. The frequency response characteristic of a vehicle system is deduced based on front wheel and a formula for calculating vehicle vibration responses and their power spectrum density is presented with pseudo-excitation method. The power spectral density and the root mean square value of body acceleration act as evaluation index. By comparing the simulation results of rigid model, it shows that body flexibility has a great impact on vehicle ride and it cannot be ignored. The study also shows that pseudo-excitation method is more simple than Fourier method.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0113
Prasad B. Warule, Vaibhav V. Jadhav, Ashish Ranjan
Abstract Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated for maximum fuel economy keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimized gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in the best efficiency zones without downsizing. Motor is selected based on power to weight ratio, gradient requirements, improved acceleration performance and top speed requirement of vehicle in EV mode.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0144
Pankaj Brijbihari Sharma, Prafulla Dahiwade
Abstract This paper discusses the off-road performance prediction of military application mini UGVs using terramechanics work deals with the development of performance simulation model for mini UGV in the Matlab/Simulink Software. Transient forward vehicle propulsion model and soil terrain interaction model have been built in the Simulink® software. It is a semi-empirical mobility model which predicts mini UGV performance on given terrain. The interaction between vehicle and the terrain causes resistances to vehicle propulsion. The model calculates these resistances, compares them to both the power limitations of the vehicle and the tractive limitations of the soil/terrain, to determine if the vehicle is immobilized. If not, then the vehicle speed is calculated based on available drawbar pull. The terrain is defined in terms of the soil parameters measured by the Bevameter. Semi-empirical equations suggested by Bekker have been used to model the soil terrain interaction.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0145
Sankaranarayanan Arthanathan
Abstract The objective of this project is “Bringing Field to Lab”. Normally in field, tractors are utilized for various applications like harvesting and threshing operation in a dusty environment which consists of paddy, sand, straw etc. These dusts would affect the tractor performance and often cause problem like engine choking at severe condition. Field data on threshing acquired from north Indian places like Jaitsar, Jalandhar where threshing done in summer at a temperature around 50°C. Also during threshing full tractor power is used through (PTO) power take off and this load fluctuates according to manual loading of paddy in thresher.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0198
Rushikesh Dakhore, Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar, Dattatray B. Hulwan
Abstract To meet stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, design of piston cavity geometry perform a defining role in air motion, fuel air mixing, combustion and emission formation. A study is performed with the objective to have a better tradeoff between NOx, PM and fuel consumption for a Medium duty, constant speed diesel engine operated with Mechanical fuel injection system. Through simulations in 3D CFD tool the effect of piston cavity geometry on performance and emission of diesel engine is investigated and then validated with actual experimentation. In this exercise efforts are made to reduce emissions in a direct injection diesel engine by changing the piston cavity geometry. The piston cavity geometry and dimensions like torus radius, pip region, cavity lip area, and impingement area have an effect on emission formation. The target was to deliberately split the fuel spray and have a better utilization of available air.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
Abstract The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favorable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a “Hydrogen Economy” are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
Abstract The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission. In this case study, simulation model of a CNG, LCV is used to analyze the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2014-11-04
Magazine
2015 engines ride a technology tidal wave Powertrain engineers are diving deeper to find new ways to make light-duty power units more efficient without compromising performance. Connectivity for comfort Seat suppliers such as Continental, Johnson Controls, and Faurecia pursue 'networked' seats to enhance safety, personalization, and comfort. Assembling aluminum vehicles in volume Ford's 2015 F-150 pickup pioneers high-volume mass-production of lightweight aluminum car and truck structures.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2865
Anandan Sivakumar, V. Saishanker, Raghvendra Gopal
Abstract Success of the vehicle in cold countries depends on performance of the vehicle under cold climatic conditions. In automobiles, structural elastomer components have strong influence on vehicle performance including NVH, ride comfort & durability. Elastomers are sensitive in nature to these climatic conditions due to its temperature dependent visco-elastic behavior. Thus, it is very important to understand structural elastomer component's performance at sub zero temperatures. In a vehicle, Engine mount is used to hold engine firmly and isolate vibrations away from chassis. Vibration isolation of a mount at low temperature is generally affected by the rubber composition. Major ingredients of the rubber composition influencing the low temperature characteristics are Elastomer type, filler type, plasticizer and curing system. Rubber composition plays key role in achieving engine mount properties like static stiffness, dynamic stiffness, permanent set and durability.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2904
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT's vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.
2014-10-09
Event
For most Heavy Duty (HD) diesel engines over 50% of total fuel energy is lost to the ambient as heat (exhaust and coolant). Eaton Roots (Supercharger) technology has been used as expander (Roots Expander to demonstrate an efficient Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system for a HD diesel engine. The present work includes a baseline engine characterization to identify and quantify the potential waste energy sources and correlate the thermodynamic models. Thermodynamic models were used to assess the merits of various WHR layouts and WHR components on system performance. An average of 6% fuel economy improvement has been predicted for Eaton Supercharger based expander in an ORC WHR system with ethanol as a working fluid for HD diesel engines
2014-10-09
Event
As part of its efforts to reduce the consumption of petroleum fuels at a national level, the US Department of Energy awarded several contracts to improve Class 8 truck freight hauling efficiency (ton-miles/gal) by greater than 50%. The class tuck segment was targeted because of the large amount of fuel consumed by these vehicles. To reach this aggressive target, all elements of the vehicle and power train were studied to determine the most customer centric elements to incorporate into the truck. A key enabler to meet the freight efficiency improvement was developing and integrating technology to improve diesel engine fuel energy conversion efficiency by 20% to achieve a brake thermal efficiency of 50%.
2014-10-09
Event
Commercial vehicles and off-road equipment provide functions that are key for sustainable economic growth. They are crucial for long haul movement of goods, they provide for services and infrastructure support, they are used for local delivery and people movement as well as to move soil, harvest bio-mass to provide food, and provide the power needed for construction, mining and other resource management efforts. Owing to the significant amount of fuel consumed by the market segment, the US has implemented CO2 and Fuel Economy regulations for Commercial On-Highway engines and vehicles, driven by both environmental concerns and the desire for energy independence. Many other regions are also considering or developing analogous regulations. While improvements to their fuel efficiency are implemented, these engines must also comply with all criteria pollutant emission and be in balance with the business needs of the purchaser and operator.
2014-10-09
Event
Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Vehicle Systems Integration powertrain test cell is designed to develop and test medium and heavy-duty vehicle hybrid powertrains by subjecting them to steady state and transient operating speeds and loads representative of real world driving conditions. This facility is currently supporting the development of heavy-duty emissions and fuel consumption test procedures. Three different types of power-packs (automated manual, automatic, and hybrid transmissions coupled to the same heavy-duty engine) are being subjected to an extensive matrix of tests and drive cycles using a powertrain-in-the-loop set-up. This presentation will compare engine-only results, power-pack results, as well as chassis dynamometer results to establish the advantages and disadvantages of each testing method.
2014-10-09
Event
Building upon the success of the first-ever U.S. regulatory program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, issued in 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) are working together to develop the technical foundation for proposing the next phase of heavy-duty GHG and fuel efficiency standards. One of the options the Agencies are considering involves recognizing the efficiency of powertrain technologies within the context of a full vehicle standard. For this option it becomes critical to develop methods that assess the expected real world performance of those technologies, which include the engine, transmission, and axle technologies. In order to accomplish this goal, the agencies have developed and evaluated a number of experimental approaches to recognize the performance of these technologies.
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