Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering Academy
I.D. # ACAD06 Duration 5 Days

SAE Engineering Academies provide comprehensive and immersive training experiences, helping new and re-assigned engineers become proficient and productive in a short period of time. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering Academy covers hybrid and electric vehicle engineering concepts, theory, and applications relevant to HEV, PHEV, EREV, and BEV for the passenger car industry. While the theory and concepts readily apply to the commercial vehicle industry as well, the examples and applications used will apply primarily to the passenger car industry.

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of the academy, participants will be able to:

  • Define and analyze fundamental electrochemistry of battery operation and performance requirements for HEV, PHEV, EREV and full electric vehicle applications

  • Estimate the size of a cell to meet a specific requirement

  • Create a cradle-to-grave, or cradle-to-use list of materials used in any type of automotive battery

  • Compute the temperature response of battery cell and pack assemblies for a simple model

  • Describe the functions performed by a Battery Management System (BMS)

  • Explain different approaches to estimating state of charge, state of health, power and energy

  • Apply the operation of brushless dc and induction motors to HEV and EV vehicles

  • Define the torque speed curves for motors and the application to electric and hybrid electric vehicles

  • Describe the features of buck, boost, and Transformer converters

  • Compare and contrast the various industry and regulatory standards for hybrid vehicle components, batteries, and charging systems

  • Describe the main hybrid and electric vehicle development considerations and performance requirements for various vehicle system

  • Identify how to define key vehicle system requirements and select and size system components that best meet those requirements

Who Should Attend
Individuals who already have a basic understanding of hybrid and/or electric vehicles who are seeking to increase their knowledge and understanding of hybrid vehicle system applications, including mechanical and electrical application engineers, design engineers, project managers, and other individuals who are working with or transitioning to hybrid-electric powertrain development, will find this academy particularly helpful.
An engineering degree is highly recommended, but not required. This Academy does not cover basic electrical concepts and assumes that the attendee already understands such concepts (voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc.) In order to understand concepts discussed, all participants are required to have driven an HEV prior to attending the academy.

Please be advised that this course may involve one or more of the following: driving and/or riding in a vehicle; participating in a vehicle demonstration; and/or taking part in an offsite tour using outside transportation. You will be required to sign a waiver on-site and produce a valid driver's license from your state/country of residence

Attendees are asked to bring a calculator for in-class exercises.

Seminar Content

Systems Integration and Analytical Tools

  • Vehicle Development Process Overview

    • Requirements Development

  • Hybrid Components and Architectures

    • Major components in hybrid powertrain

    • Controls integration

    • Component sizing and integration tradeoffs

    • Hybrid architecture overview

  • System Design and Development Considerations

    • Vehicle integration (ex. performance, drivability, NVH)

    • Powertrain integration (ex. energy, power, efficiency, torque, thermal management)

    • HV/LV electrical systems (ex. safety, DC/AC voltage, charging system, efficiency, cables, connectors, fuses,

    • Chassis (ex. braking, vehicle dynamics, powertrain to chassis dynamics, ride and handling, steering, fuel system)

    • Displays/information (ex. messages, information aids, usage efficiency aids)

    • HVAC (ex. HV compressor, HV heater, cabin comfort, efficiency considerations)

  • Verification and Validation Considerations

    • Verification and validation test requirements and planning

    • Component test considerations

    • System test considerations

    • Fleet testing

  • Summary/Conclusions


Safety, Testing, Regulations, and Standards

  • Standards Roadmap for Electric Vehicles

    • - SAE; - UL; - IEC

    • - Performance and Safety

  • Applicable Battery Standards

    • Battery Transportation

    • Battery Safety

    • Battery Pack: SAE J2464/J2929

    • Compare and Contrast the various industry standards

  • Vehicle and Charging Standards

    • FMVSS

    • Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Descriptions

    • Governing Bodies for Regulations

    • Certification Requirements and Options

  • Performance Standards

    • Charging interfaces

    • SAE J1772 charge protocol


    • Battery Characterization and life cycle testing

  • Video Demonstrations

    • Mechanical Shock

    • Short Circuit

    • Overcharge

    • Fire Exposure

Battery Management Systems

  • Block Diagram - Main Functions of a BMS

  • Sensing Requirements

    • Cell/module level: cell voltage, cell/module temperature, (humidity, smoke, air/fluid flow)

    • Pack level: current, pre-charge temperature, bus voltage, pack voltage, isolation

  • Control Requirements

    • Contactor control, pre-charge circuitry

    • Thermal system control

  • Cell Balancing: Active versus passive, strategies

  • Estimation Requirements

    • Strategies: different approaches and benefits of model-based approach

    • How to create a model via cell tests

    • State of Charge estimation

    • State of Health estimation

    • Power estimation

    • Energy estimation (range estimation)

  • Electronics Topologies

    • Monolithic versus master/slave versus daisy-chain

    • Implications of battery pack topologies: parallel strings versus series modules

    • Available chipsets for designing electronics

  • Other Requirements: CAN communication, data logging, PH/EV charger control, failure modes/detection, thermal systems control

  • Future Directions for Battery Management, Degradation Control


Electrochemistry and Battery Materials Design

  • Electrochemical Principles of Energy Storage Systems

  • General Overview; Physics and Chemistry of Advanced Lithium Battery Materials

  • Advanced Positive and Negative Electrodes

  • Advanced Electrolytes and Recent Developments

  • Battery Failure Modes, Capacity Fading, and Safety Aspects

  • Future Trends and New Concepts in Battery Materials and Design

Power Electronics

  • Introduction - Why Power Electronics?

  • Overview of Power Density

    • Effects of air vs. liquid cooling

    • Effects of efficiency

  • Converter Topologies

    • Buck, boost, transformer

  • Inverter Topology

    • 6-pack inverter

    • Space Vector Control

  • Sources of Loss in Power Electronics

    • Conduction, switching, leakage, and control losses

  • Power Semiconductors

    • Insulated Gate Bi-polar Transistor (IGBT)

    • Metal-Oxide-Silicon Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)

    • Emerging technologies: Moore"s law, silicon carbide


Electric Motors

  • Maxwell"s equations

  • Magnetic Circuits

    • The basic concepts of magnetic circuits
    • Application of Governing laws
    • Magnetic Force/Torque Production
    • Non-Linear magnetic material behavior
    • Losses and Efficiency

  • Fundamental Theory, Performance, Construction & Control

    • Transformers
    • Synchronous Machines

      • Wound-field
      • Permanent Magnet

    • Reluctance Machines

      • Switched Reluctance
      • Synchronous Reluctance

    • Flux Modulating Machines
    • DC Machines

  • Non-Electromagnetic Design & System Considerations

High Voltage Battery Charging Methods & Some Aspects of Battery Pack Design

  • Basic Battery Reactions

  • Overcharge Reactions

  • Consequences of Overcharge

  • Design Considerations

  • Thermal Considerations

  • Charging Infrastructure/methods

  • Basic Definitions

  • Conductive Charging

    • Method

    • Standards

  • Inductive Charging

  • DC Charging

    • Definition

    • Issues: Infrastructure, Thermal, and Life

  • Grid Infrastructure

    • Basic infrastructure

    • Grid interactions: bi-directional communication and power flow

  • Aspects of Battery Pack Design


Lithium-Ion Battery Design

  • Overview of Battery Design

  • Major Cell Components

  • Overview of Battery Modeling and Simulation

  • Lithium-Ion Cell Design Example

Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling

Thermal Management for Batteries and Power Electronics

  • Introduction

    • Thermal control in vehicular battery systems: battery performance degradation at low and high temperatures

    • Passive, active, liquid, air thermal control system configurations for HEV and EV applications

  • Brief Review of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer

    • First Law of Thermodynamics for open and closed systems; internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heat

    • Second Law of Thermodynamics for closed systems; Tds equations, Gibbs function

    • Fluid mechanics: laminar vs. turbulent flow, internal flow relationships, Navier Stokes equations

    • Heat transfer: simple conduction, convection, and radiation relationships; Nusselt number relationships for convective heat transfer; energy equation

  • Battery Heat Transfer

    • Introduction to battery modeling: tracking current demand, voltage, and State of Charge as functions of time for given drive cycles

    • Development of thermodynamic relationships for cell heat generation

    • Lumped cell and pack models for transient temperature response to drive cycles

    • Model parametric study results

  • Thermal Management Systems

    • Overall energy balance to determine required flowrates

    • Determination of convection and friction coefficients for air and liquid systems in various geometric configurations: flow around cylinders, flow between plates, flow through channels

    • Development of a complete thermal system model and parametric study results

    • Temperature control and heat transfer using phase change materials

  • Thermal Management of Power Electronics

Friday session ends at 3:30.

Instructor(s): Saeed Siavoshani; Richard Byczek; Kevin Konecky; Gene Liao; Manoj Shah; Robert Spotnitz; Thomas Stoltz
Saeed Saeed Siavoshani

Dr. Saeed J. Siavoshani is currently a Technical Program Manager for LMS, A Siemens Company and an adjunct professor at the University of Detroit Mercy where he teaches a comprehensive electric vehicle course. In addition Dr. Siavoshani serves as the Chief Industry Advisor for SAE Professional Development Seminars and Academies. Over the past two decades, he has worked for the Dow Chemical company, General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company as an NVH technical specialist. During his career, Dr. Siavoshani has also worked on composite projects related to offshore oil and gas, infrastructures, and pressure vessels and automotive systems including powertrain, body structure, exhaust/induction systems as well as the interior and exterior of the vehicle. He has also been instrumental in the development of new technology, notably the integrated Front of Dashboard concept and Acoustomize, a unique method of analyzing and offering solutions to automotive noise problems. He has also worked in the area of thermoforming utilizing electro-magnetic field technology. Dr. Siavoshani has helped to build the infrastructure for the electric vehicle battery pack including thermal management as well as reducing the weight of the overall battery. He has been granted several patents and was presented the SAE Forest R. McFarland Award in 2012 for distinction in professional development and education. Dr. Siavoshani has a M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Wayne State University and a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Oakland University.


Rich Byczek

Mr. Byczek is the Technical Lead for Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage at Intertek where he is responsible for the technical development of Intertek's EV and Battery testing labs across North America, Europe and Asia. For the past 5 years, Mr. Byczek was the Operations Manager of the Livonia site, directly responsible for all battery performance, safety and transportation testing, as well as reliability and certification testing of Electric Vehicle charging stations and support electronics. Mr. Byczek has significant experience in product validation, EMC testing, and automotive product development. He sits on several performance and safety standards committees related to batteries and electric vehicle systems. Mr. Byczek has a B.S.in Electrical Engineering from Lawrence Technological University.

Gene Liao
Gene Liao

Dr. Gene Liao is currently Professor and Director of Electric Transportation Technology Program at Wayne State University, where he also manages the Electric Propulsion Integration Laboratory. Dr. Liao is experienced in the areas of hybrid drivetrains and automotive manufacturing. Prior to Wayne State, he worked as a practicing engineer for over fifteen years with General Motors and Ford Motor Company. Dr. Liao has research and teaching interests in the areas of electric-drive vehicle simulation and development, vehicle dynamics, and automotive components design and manufacturing. He has published more than 100 journal and conference papers, and two book chapters in these areas. He is the PI and co-PI for several federal and state funded projects in electric- drive vehicle and advanced energy storage systems, and has developed and offered several professional development programs in vehicle electrification and advanced energy storage for industry. Dr. Liao has been invited to serve as a proposal reviewer for the US National Science Foundation, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. He also serves on the advisory council for the Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA). He holds a Doctor of Engineering in Manufacturing Engineering from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Mechanical Engineer from Columbia University, M.S. from the University of Texas at Arlington, and B.S. from National Central University (Taiwan), both in Mechanical Engineering.

Manoj R. Shaw

Dr. Manoj R. Shah, works as a consultant and is a professor in Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering Department of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
He is a Life Fellow of IEEE, received his B.Tech. (Honors) from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. He received MS and Ph.D. from Virginia Tech. He retired in May 2016 as a Principle Engineer from GE's Global Research Center after almost 34 years with GE! He spent his career working on electrical devices with the main focus on electric machines. He has ~70 US and many foreign patents with several pending. He has also authored/co-authored over 45 technical papers; some of them have been prize papers. He has given many invited talks internationally. He has been active in the Electric Machines area for IEEE in various capacities and is a past chair of our Schenectady section. He received the 2015 IEEE Gerald Kliman award, the 2012 GE-GRC Coolidge Fellowship award, the 2012 IEEE Nikola Tesla award and the 1991 GE-Power's Most Outstanding Technical Contribution Award.Robert Spotnitz

Robert Spotnitz

Dr. Spotnitz leads Battery Design LLC, a company that provides consulting and software for battery developers and users. He founded Battery Design in 1999 and developed Battery Design Studio®, a virtual environment for battery design and simulation (see www.batdesign.com). Over the last decade he participated in the start-up of two battery developers: American Lithium Energy Corp. and Enovix. Prior to that, he was Director of Advanced Product Development at PolyStor Corp. where he led efforts to develop large lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Before that he was a Staff Engineer for Hoechst's Celgard Division where he built from the ground-up the Battery Applications Development Center and helped commercialize the tri-layer battery separator and also worked at the R&D center of W.R. Grace & Co where he co-invented multi-layer battery separators, as well as a number of electrochemical processes. Dr. Spotnitz provides tutorials on batteries for the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, the Battery Power conferences, the EIS Short Course, as well for the Electrochemical Society. He has18 patents and 34 publications (including 3 book chapters). He is a member of the International Society of Electrochemistry and the Electrochemical Society. He has a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Arizona State University, a M.S. in Computer Science from Johns Hopkins, and a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the Univ. WI-Madison.


Tom Stoltz

Mr. Stoltz is currently a Senior Engineering Specialist at Eaton Corporation's Innovation Center and is also an Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Detroit Mercy. His core expertise is in embedded computing hardware for control of energy systems; however, he enjoys practicing and teaching a broad range of engineering topics. Mr. Stoltz has over a decade of industry experience at several companies, small and large. His range of industrial experience includes: manufacturing, product design, corporate research, and engineering management in automotive powertrain controls, distributed generation, high efficiency hydraulics, and automated transmissions for heavy trucks. Mr. Stoltz received a B.S in Electrical Engineering from Michigan State University, a M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Detroit Mercy and is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Michigan.

Fees: $3445 SAE Members*: 3445
* The appropriate SAE Member discount will be applied through the Registration process.  Discounts vary  according to level of membership: Elite Member 20%; Premium Member 15%; Classic Member 10%
CEU 3.8