Browse Learn C1921

Integrated Navigation for Versatility and Robustness: Addressing our Navigation and Tracking Challenges C1921

The course material covered, begins with fundamentals of navigation for versatility and robustness, showing intuitive connections of mathematics to physical examples, followed by a natural transition to advanced topics. Addressing navigation and tracking challenges, practical realities are given top priority, by delivering maximum effectiveness from simplest permissible representations. This course will enable designers to extract maximum benefit from available sensors, however extravagant or austere they may be, at every instant of time throughout a mission.  Administrators will be empowered to recognize what is achievable from any given array of equipment — without the common excessive dependence on GPS.  The course will show methods capable of producing dramatic performance improvements, without which the challenges facing the industry today won’t be met.

Learning Objectives
By attending this seminar, you will be able to identify and explain:
  • Widely accepted expressions for all pertinent translational and rotational motions clearly exhibited without distraction from nonessential complexity
  • Inertial navigation
  • Kalman filtering
  • GPS
  • How the real world doesn't quite follow theory and how to compensate for it
  • How to prepare and integrate raw GPS pseudorange measurements with raw data from gyros, accelerometers, and magnetometers (or other azimuth indicators) adhering to a separate independent time base; extension to GNSS
  • Dramatically simplified yet effective, flight-data validated, Kalman filter model with inertial error propagation counteracted by GPS/GNSS updating
  • How to achieve performance commensurate with GPS/GNSS measurement accuracy from low-cost IMU in presence of large long-term drifts
  • How to follow direct step-by-step procedures, giving you an entirely new depth of understanding
  • Closed form solution for inertial error propagation, tilt and velocity errors; intuitive quantitative results
  • Adaptation of navigation development for application to tracking; exploiting that commonality to characterize INS error propagation between updates
  • Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) with advancements addressing independent usage for each separate measurement, to protect against erratic data points
  • Adaptation of all methods to a variety of PNT data sources other than GNSS

Who Should Attend
This course will be of interest primarily to engineers and/or managers responsible for recommending, designing, or validating (by simulation, bench test, field test, or system test) sensors or software using the chosen array of sensors for navigation or tracking.


Bachelor’s Degree in engineering, physics or mathematics.  Familiarity with matrix math is helpful, but not necessary.

  • Basic Motion
    • Motion in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions, Relative motion, Modes, Coordinate frames
  • Matrix Methods - ONLY What's Necessary for Nav
    • Types of matrices enabling clarification/insight into patterns of motion
    • Applicable operations and how they demystify dynamic behavior
  • Motion Involving Rotation
    • Angles, Gimbal lock, Direction cosines, Quaternions, Motion over ellipsoid
  • Inertial Navigation Fundamentals & 3-axis platforms, Gyros, Accelerometers, Geographic-vs-wander azimuth
  • Inertial Navigation Processing
    • Rotation and translation increments, Quantization effects, Task lists
  • Inertial Navigation Errors
  • Schuler cycle, Closed form solutions, Intuitive insights
  • Updating to Follow Dynamics
    • Thorough 1-axis channel (North, vertical) scrutiny, Sync, Estimation intro
  • Linear Estimation (Kalman Filtering) Development
    • From simple to full general case, Development followed by various examples
  • Estimation Algorithmic Designs
    • Practical issues, Transition matrix, Modeling, Extended & suboptimal forms
  • Departures from Theoretical Idealizations
    • Block & sequential forms, Nonlinearity, Inexact values, Crucial decisions
  • Satellite Navigation Fundamentals
    • 1, 2, 3, and 4 dimensions, Perturbed elliptical orbits, Timing effects
    • Navigating with GPS
    • Range and pseudorange, ECEF, GPS orbits, ICD, 4-SV snapshot, GDOP
  • Integrity
    • Definitions, methods, parity, outcomes, Extensions beyond GNSS, Examples
  • GPS/INS Integration
    • Full & reduced dynamics, Differencing, Loose/tight/ultra, Process noise
  • Further Integration Steps
    • Data editing by integrity monitoring, Exploiting nav/track commonality
  • Radar - Functions, Types, and Modes
    • High/low/medium PRF, Coherence, Doppler and range gate, Altitude line, mainbeam, and side lobe clutter, Search and track, SAR, Interleaved operations
  • Alternative Sources of Measurement Data
    • Celestial, beacon, radio, hyperbolic, altimeter, optical
  • Results with Inputs from In-Flight Recorded Data
    • Plots of flight path, speed, altitude, attitude, error, Discussion
James Farrell

James L. Farrell, Ph.D. is a former ION Air Nav Representative, senior member of IEEE, a former local board member of AIAA, and a registered professional engineer in Maryland. Technical experience includes teaching appointments at Marquette and UCLA, two years each at Minneapolis Honeywell and Bendix-Pacific plus 31 years at Westinghouse in design, simulation, and validation/test for modern estimation algorithms in navigation and tracking applications. He is author of Integrated Aircraft Navigation (1976) plus GNSS Aided Navigation and Tracking (2007), as well as chapters in books edited by C.T. Leondes and Cary Spitzer. He was a columnist for Washington Technology, and has written over a hundred manuscripts (GPSWorld InsideGNSS columns and journal or conference papers for IoN AIAA IEEE. Active in RTCA (Washington D.C.) for years, he served as co-chairman of Working Group #5 (Fault Detection and Isolation) of SC-159 for GPS Integrity. He has continued his teaching (on University campus as well as both industry and conference seminars), while consulting for DOD, private industry, and University research.  His 25-page GPS/inertial section appears in an update of Parkinson/Spilker, GPS Theory and Applications (1996); the updated edition is scheduled to appear in 2019.


Hotel & Travel Information

Fees: $1835.00
SAE Members: $1468.00 - $1652.00

2.0 CEUs
You must complete all course contact hours and successfully pass the learning assessment to obtain CEUs.

If paying by a credit card, click the Register button above. If paying by any other method or for general inquiries, please contact SAE Customer Service 1-877-606-7323 (724-776-4970 outside the U.S. and Canada) or at

Duration: 3 Days
July 23-25, 2019 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Glendale, California
October 22-24, 2019 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Bloomfield, Connecticut