A Real-Time-Capable Simulation Model for Off-Highway Applications Considering Soft Soil 02-14-03-0029
This also appears in
SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles-V130-2EJ
This article describes the real-time simulation of a tire model for the off-highway sector. The off-highway area is characterized by soft surfaces. The additional deformation of the ground can result in more complex interactions between the tires and ground than in the on-highway area. The basics for these relationships are explained using normal and shear stress models. Aspects such as elastic tires, sinking due to slip, and multipass are also described. It is explained how soft soil modeling is used by a height field model to calculate the deformations of the soil and the resulting tire forces. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation time and the numerical stability. The implementation in an existing real-time-capable vehicle model is described, which is important to provide a comprehensive simulation solution. During the validation it could be shown that the implemented height field can correctly map the soft soil properties. In combination with the developed tire model, realistic longitudinal, lateral, and vertical dynamics of the entire vehicle could be demonstrated.