Modeling Fuel Preparation and Stratified Combustion in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine 1999-01-0175
Fuel preparation and stratified combustion were studied for a conceptual gasoline Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (GDI or DISI) engine by computer simulations. The primary interest was on the effects of different injector orientations and the effects of tumble ratio for late injection cases at a partial load operating condition. A modified KIVA-3V code that includes improved spray breakup and wall impingement and combustion models was used. A new ignition kernel model, called DPIK, was developed to describe the early flame growth process. The model uses Lagrangian marker particles to describe the flame positions. The computational results reveal that spray wall impingement is important and the fuel distribution is controlled by the spray momentum and the combustion chamber shape. The injector orientation significantly influences the fuel stratification pattern, which results in different combustion characteristics. The gas tumble also affects the fuel distribution and the ignition process. Under certain conditions, the mixing is characterized by the existence of many lean regions in the cylinder and the burning speed is very low; hence the combustion can be poor in these cases.