Improved Finite Element SID for In-Vehicle Simulation 1999-01-0716
Finite element (FE) modeling is becoming an integral approach to the study of crashworthiness of vehicle structures and occupant interaction with the structure. Crashworthiness assessment of a vehicle using numerical techniques necessitates the development of not only an accurate and representative vehicle model, but also a robust occupant model.
This paper describes the development of mathematical models to perform the complete side impact simulation. The fully developed model can be used to evaluate occupant compartment intrusion and to assess occupant protection countermeasures in various side impact scenarios.
A baseline finite element model of the side impact dummy (SID) used in the United States safety regulation, FMVSS 214, Side Impact Protection , was refined and calibrated using dynamic material and sub-system test data. Lower extremity geometry was reverse engineered and suitable material models and joints were incorporated in the revised model. Implementing dynamic material models, improved contact interfaces, and rate dependent damper systems were the key enhancements carried out in the upper thorax region. Sub-system dynamic tests and full system dynamic calibration test data were used to verify the SID model responses.
The verification involved an iterative process of material, subsystem and full dummy model simulations. The FE model results compared well with test data.
A full vehicle public domain FE model of a Ford Taurus passenger car, model year 1991, was developed using reverse engineering. This model was enhanced by adding sufficient details of the vehicle’s interior components to simulate their interaction with the FE-SID dummy during impact. The model was verified using FMVSS 214 test data.
Finally, the enhanced FE-SID model was placed in the Ford Taurus vehicle model and dynamic simulations using LS-DYNA3D (Version 936.03)  were conducted for two different side impacts. Occupant injury parameters were compared and verified with test data.