Fuel injection and cylinder pressures of diesel engines have increased substantially over the past decade, as have noise levels of many engines. Test results show that these two trends are linked: gear train impact, driven by fuel system and crankshaft torsional excitation, has become a dominant noise forcing function in heavy duty diesel engines. Fuel system torsional dampers, crank gear isolators, and rear gear trains can reduce gear impact noise. Empirical equations have been developed to predict the overall noise of heavy-duty diesel engines, based only on the size and location of the gear train. These simple equations can predict engine noise levels with surprising accuracy.