Currently used instruments for the analysis of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and total organic carbon (TOC) in water and wastewater samples require the use of hazardous chemicals which is not acceptable in their application for long-term space missions. A new design concept of the “reagentless” carbon analyzer (RCA) for determination of both TIC and TOC for water quality monitoring in space is proposed and tested. The concept is based on generating all the chemicals needed for the TIC and TOC analysis within the instrument, and avoiding the need for storing a supply of chemicals. The chemicals are either generated or recirculated in the instrument, or an alternative approach for their use is developed, such as using photocatalytic oxidation instead of oxidizing chemicals for TOC analysis. The fully developed miniaturized instrument will incorporate microfluidic based design principles.