Analysis of Factors Influencing Particulate Matter Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine 1999-01-3492
The relative amounts of heat released by premixed and by diffusion controlled combustion is varied in a compression-ignition engine run on the test bench through variation of four operating parameters. Exhaust gas is led to a differential mobility particle sizer and to filters that are loaded for gravimetric analysis. Particle size distributions are acquired in the 16÷630 nm range of electrical mobility diameters. Opacity readings of the exhaust gas are taken, cylinder pressure is indicated, a value for the combustion noise is computed; gaseous emissions are recorded and heat release rates based on cylinder pressure analysis are evaluated.
Two full factorial experiments at 2 bar bmep 2000 rpm are run as 24 combinations of four factors: Injection pressure 400 and 1200 bar, with and without pilot injection, 1/3 and 1/4 mass-fraction exhaust gas recirculation, late, middle and early start of injection.
Number, mass and averaged size of the detected particles decrease, when the relative importance of premixed combustion is increased. Limited oxygen availability acts in the opposite direction. The reduction in mean electrical mobility diameters is associated with the reduction in particle numbers. Only with very early heat release, a significant reduction in averaged size is seen, without decrease in the number of detected particles.