The direct injection gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside a heated pressurized chamber using various visualization techniques, including high-speed laser-sheet macroscopic and microscopic movies up to 25,000 frames per second, shadowgraph, and doublespark particle image velocimetry. Two hollow cone high-pressure swirl injectors having different cone angles were used to inject gasoline onto a heated plate at two different impingement angles. Based on the visualization results, the overall transient spray impingement structure, fuel film formation, and preliminary droplet size and velocity were analyzed.
The results show that upward spray vortex inside the spray is more obvious at elevated temperature condition, particularly for the wide-cone-angle injector, due to the vaporization of small droplets and decreased air density. Film build-up on the surface is clearly observed at both ambient and elevated temperature, especially for narrow cone spray. Vapor phase appears at both ambient and elevated temperature conditions, particularly in the toroidal vortex and impingement plume. More rapid impingement and faster horizontal spread after impingement are observed for elevated temperature conditions. Droplet rebounding and film break-up are clearly observed. Post-impingement droplets are significantly smaller than pre-impingement droplets with a more velocity component horizontally regardless of the wall temperature and impingement angle condition.