Experiments using a single-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine were conducted to evaluate pure substances and refinery feedstocks in order to clarify the effects of fuel properties on the combustion and emission of the direct-injection gasoline engine. Under the stratified charge combustion conditions, olefins had shorter mass-burning periods with a higher indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), lower hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and higher NOx emissions than other substances. The boiling point affected the mass-burning periods and the HC emissions of paraffins. Aromatic compounds caused poor combustion and smoke production. Under the homogeneous stoichiometric combustion conditions, the combustion of substances was affected by both their boiling points and their chemical properties. Also, a shorter mass-burning period induced a higher IMEP and a lower coefficient of variance of the IMEP. The characteristics of the refinery feedstocks were strongly dependent on those of their components.