The production unit number of small diesel engine cars tends to decline except recreational vehicles in Japanese market in recent years, while the production unit number in Europe market keeps on increasing owing to the merits of the durability and the fuel consumption. The small diesel engines will have to be improved in the near future by solving major problems such as noise and vibration pollution, environmental pollution, improvement in performance of diesel engines, in order to expand the production of the engines.This paper refers to a basic study on the experimental and analytical methods for the reduction of resonant vibration in each vibration mode on some cylinder blocks of small high-speed diesel engines in rated engine speed range. Hammering test method, which is easy and useful for measuring frequency response functions, is carried out in the experiments. In this test, the cylinder blocks are directly excited with the impulse hammer, and more the main journals are excited via the newly-made force transmission parts in the next experiment. Two kinds of the engines which have been recently recognized as low noise and vibration engines are chosen in this study. The cylinder blocks of the engines are called of long skirt type and ladder frame type, respectively. The vibration characteristics of these cylinder blocks are obtained in the frequency range from 500 Hz to 2 kHz using the experimental modal analysis. This frequency range is chosen in consideration of the reliability of the vibration experiments. And the force transmission routes from the piston heads to the crank journals of each cylinder block are considered as mentioned in the latter experimental method. The experimental results are used to calculate the natural frequencies by the modal analysis and the calculated results are compared with the ones obtained from FEM analysis. Furthermore, the cylinder blocks are remodeled in order to reduce the vibrations of all modes using FEM analysis.Consequently, it has been shown that the vibration stress of the cylinder block can be reduced by higher rigidities and more lightening weights of the crankcase and the crank journals in the measured frequency range.The conclusions are described as follows; 1 The hammering test method using the force transmission parts is useful to measure the natural frequencies of a cylinder block. This method can be easy to get the equal results with the measured ones on running conditions without engine operation. 2 The hammering test method using the force transmission parts can easily analyze the natural frequencies at all the vibration modes on equal conditions with running ones. Then the method is a useful tool for improving the vibration characteristics. 3 It has been proved from the analytical viewpoints that the cylinder block of the ladder frame type can be adopted as low-noise, small diesel engines with little increase of the engine weight while maintaining higher rigidity.