Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (2) PDPA Investigation 2000-01-0536
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to compliment imaging experiments of changes in the spray structure due to fuel volatility and operating conditions. Use of phase-Doppler particle analysis (PDPA) allows quantitative point measurements of droplet diameter and velocity. In agreement with imaging experiments, the results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. The mean droplet diameter was found to decrease substantially with increasing fuel temperature and decreasing ambient density. Under conditions of low potential for vaporization, the observed trends in mean droplet sizes agree with published correlations for pressure-swirl atomizers. Beyond a certain point, evaporation is rapid enough to increase the initial cone angle of the spray and cause a reduction in the mean droplet diameter. The reduction in diameter and the increase in initial cone angle are found to follow simple functions of the reduced vapor pressure of the fuel.