Browse Publications Technical Papers 2000-01-0621
2000-03-06

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Lower Extremity for Analyses of Automotive Crash Injuries 2000-01-0621

A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed to predict lower extremity injuries in full frontal and offset frontal impact. The model included 30bones from femur to toes. Each bone was modeled using crushable solid elements for the orbicular bone and damageable shell elements for the cortical bone. The models of the long bones for the lower extremities were validated against data obtained from quasi-static 3-pointbending tests by Yamada (1970). The ankle, knee and hip joints were modeled as bone-to-bone contacts and included major ligaments and tendons. The ankle model was validated against data obtained from quasi-staticdorsiflexion, inversion and eversion tests by Petit et al. (1996) and against data obtained from dynamic impactcadaveric tests by Kitagawa et al. (1998). The possibility of using this model to predict injuries was discussed. The Tibia Index, which has been used to predict lower extremity injuries in automotive crashes, was calculated and the effectiveness of the Tibia Index was discussed.

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