Initiatives have been and will be taken to define very strict emission limitations for Heavy-Duty (HD) urban transport vehicles in Europe. This will probably led to a class of very clean, so-called, Enhanced Environmentally friendly Vehicles (EEV). This paper presents an overview of the current and the (expected) future emission legislation for this type of vehicle together with the different technology that can be used for the development of internal combustion engines for these vehicles.
A number of engine concepts, based on the experience of developing these concepts, are described and compared both from a technological and economic standpoint. It can be concluded that EEV emission limits can be achieved with advanced diesel engine concepts as well as with gas engines. From the economical viewpoint it can be concluded that gas engines can compete with diesel engines. Under the assumption of large scale production, the direct injection gas engines has the potential to have the lowest cost increase, mainly due to the lower variable costs.