Fuel Injection System (FIS) research on injection pressure, timing control, and rate shaping, and studies on the modeling of injector nozzle flows and their effect on fuel spray characteristics are usually conducted separately. Only recently has the fuel injection and spraying process been studied as a complete system, i.e., including both the high-pressure fuel delivery and its effect on the nozzle flow characteristics, including nozzle cavitation. A methodology for coupling the fuel injection system and its effect on spray characteristics is presented here. The method is applied to an example case of a conventional pump-line-nozzle system. Mathematical models for characterizing the flows from the pump to the nozzle are formulated and solved using the Method of Characteristics and finite difference techniques. The nozzle internal flow is modeled using zero-dimensional flow models, in which the nozzle cavitation and its effect on the nozzle exit flow are accounted for. The models are validated with available experimental data. The interaction between the upstream flow and the nozzle flow, as well as the effects of nozzle flow on the spray characteristics at the nozzle exit are predicted and analyzed.