Application of Life Cycle Assessment Methodology for Comparative LADA Automobiles 2000-01-1492
Car features several peculiarities distinguishing it from other commodities on consumer's market. At first, a car is anintegral component of local environment of human being and has a great ecological influence on him and the environment during its production, service life and recycling. Besides, it historically turned out that car manufacturing has an important political status, being the face of the country, reflecting its scientific, technical and technological achievements .
AVTOVAZ Inc. is the biggest in Russia passenger car manufacturer. It produces about 75 % of all national passenger cars. For 3 decades of its history the factory has made more than 19 million passenger cars, 1/3 of them has been exported, mainly to European countries.
Nowadays LADA cars fleet have more than 11 million items. There are 8 million of them only in Russia.
The results of study show approximately 75% of energy consumption take place during car service life, 10–20% falls within its production processes and 5–10% for car recycling and scrapping. It is highly problematic to evaluate all chain of energy consumption at all stages of car production as well as the summary emissions and ecological impact. The same difficulties relate to calculation of ecological balance at final stages of car life – recycling and scrapping .
Comparative data of environment impact of LADA cars, produced by AVTOVAZ Inc., are discussed in this paper, and ecological perspectives for new LADA cars, planned to mass production at the nearest 3–4 years are evaluated.
Besides technological processes, bound up with producing different LADA car models have approximately similar performance. That is why there is no essential difference between various models at the manufacturing stage. Great attention was paid to comparative analysis of LADA cars at the use phase. Diverse characteristics of LADA car impact on the environment were analyzed and formed into complex ecological rating. German methodology VCD was applied for calculations.