The United States supports an active research and development (R&D) program to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and accelerate their commercialization. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), supports the development of advanced energy storage and power electronics technologies, fuel cells, advanced direct-injection engines, vehicle systems, lightweight materials, and fuels. Much of this R&D directly supports the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a landmark partnership between the U.S. Federal Government and automakers with the goal of developing a six-passenger family sedan with up to 80 miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy by 2004. In these efforts, the DOE is working closely with its national laboratories, the auto industry and its suppliers, other government agencies, universities, and innovative small businesses. The Department continues to collaborate closely with the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop high-energy batteries for electric vehicles (with a focus on lithium-based systems) and high-power batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (with a focus on lithium-based systems and Nickel metal hydride). This paper provides an overview of DOE's energy storage technology R&D programs for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper focuses on the technology objectives and technical barriers being addressed, the progress achieved, current status of program activities, and plans for the future. In addition, the paper will highlight DOE's cooperative efforts with the domestic automobile, electric utility, and battery industries through the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop advanced, high-energy battery technologies for the emerging electric vehicle (EV) market.