Vehicle and Tire Modeling for DynamicAnalysis and Real-Time Simulation 2000-01-1620
This paper reviews the development and application of a computer simulation for simulating ground vehicle dynamics including steady state tire behavior. The models have been developed over the last decade, and include treatment of sprung and unsprung masses, suspension characteristics and composite road plane tire forces. The models have been applied to single unit passenger cars, trucks and buses, and articulated tractor/trailer vehicles. The vehicle model uses composite parameters that are relatively easy to measure. The tire model responds to normal load, camber angle and composite tire patch slip, and its longitudinal and lateral forces interact with an equivalent friction ellipse formulation. The tire model can represent behavior on both paved and off-road surfaces. Tire model parameters can be automatically identified given tire force and moment test data. The vehicle and tire models have been validated against real world test data, and can be used to analyze handling and stability including limit performance maneuvering. The models are efficient enough to run in real-time on Intel Pentium class PCs, and have been used in driving simulations and hardware-in-the-loop applications. This paper summarizes the basic modeling approach and vehicle/ tire parameter identification. Examples of validation against real-world test data are presented. Example applications are given in driving simulation and roadway design.