In 1995, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed the Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG). The objective of the group was to assess the role diesel fuel could play in meeting exhaust emission standards proposed for model year 2004+ heavy-duty diesel engines. The group developed a three-phase program to achieve this objective. This paper describes the development of test fuels used in Phase 2 of the EPA HDEWG Program to investigate the effect of fuel properties on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. It discusses the design of the fuel matrix, reviews the process of test fuel preparation and presents the results of a multi-laboratory fuel analysis program. Fuel properties selected for investigation included density, cetane number, mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content.