The Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) program is a joint U.S. government/industry program that studies the impact of diesel sulfur levels on four types of emission control systems. One type of system, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), removes particulate matter (PM) from the exhaust stream by collection on a filter. The critical operating issue for DPF technology is the cleaning or regeneration of the control device (by oxidation of the collected PM) to prevent plugging. However, oxidation of sulfur in the exhaust forms sulfates, which are measured as PM. Two types of tests are conducted to evaluate the impacts of fuel sulfur on DPF performance: (1) emissions tests for PM components and gases, and (2) experiments to measure the effect of fuel sulfur on the regeneration temperature required by the filter devices. The paper discusses the statistical issues that were addressed in designing the test program and describes the statistical methods used to analyze the emissions and regeneration temperature test data. Selected results are also presented.