The effects of gasoline fuel properties on exhaust emissions were investigated. Port injection LEVs, a ULEV, a prototype SULEV which were equipped with three–way (3–way) catalysts and also two vehicles with direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines equipped with NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts were tested. Fuel sulfur showed a large effect on exhaust emissions in all the systems. In the case of the DISI engine with the NSR catalyst, NOx conversion efficiency and also regeneration from sulfur poisoning were dramatically improved by reducing sulfur from 30ppm to 8ppm. Distillation properties also affected the HC emissions significantly. The HC emissions increased in both the LEV and the ULEV with a driveability index (DI) higher than about 1150 (deg.F). The ULEV was more sensitive than the LEV. These results show that fuel properties will be important for future technologies required to meet stringent emission regulations. Sulfur free gasoline will also be essential for DISI engines with improved fuel economy.