Film-Forming Properties of Zinc-Based and Ashless Antiwear Additives 2000-01-2030
A progressive reduction in the permitted level of phosphorus in lubricating oils, coupled with concern to maintain engine and transmission durability, means that it is becoming increasingly important to understand the detailed mechanism of antiwear additive behavior.
This paper describes a new experimental technique, which is able to measure both the thickness and distribution of antiwear additive films in rolling/sliding contacts. This enables the kinetics of antiwear film build-up to be investigated and the influence of the reaction film on friction and wear to be monitored. In the current paper, this technique is used to compare the film-forming behavior of ash-containing and ashless antiwear additives.